Agriculture in india

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Agriculture in india

  1. 1. Agriculture in India<br />
  2. 2. Agriculture in India<br />Ranks second worldwide in farm output<br />largest producer - milk, cashew nuts, coconuts, tea, ginger, turmeric and black pepper.<br />The world's largest cattle population (281 million).<br />2nd largest producer-wheat, rice, sugar, groundnut and inland fish.<br />third largest producer of tobacco.<br />India accounts for 10% of the world fruit production<br />first rank in the production of banana and sapota.<br />Growing faster than its ability to produce rice and wheat.<br />
  3. 3. Indian Agriculture has made rapid progress since independence<br />From food shortages and import <br /> to self-sufficiency and exports.<br />From subsistence farming <br /> to intensive and technology led cultivation.<br />Today , India is the front ranking <br /> producer of many crops in the world.<br />Lead in through the <br /> green, white, blue and yellow revolutions<br />
  4. 4. Indian Agriculture Scenario<br />STRENGTHS<br />Rich Bio-diversity<br />Arable land<br />Climate<br />Strong and well dispersed research and extension system<br />OPPORTUNITIES<br />Bridgeable yield crops<br />Exports<br />Agro-based Industry<br />Horticulture.<br />WEAKNESS<br />Fragmentation of land<br />Low Technology Inputs<br />Unsustainable Water Management<br />Poor Infrastructure<br />Low value addition<br />THREATS<br />Unsustainable Resource Use<br />Unsustainable Regional Development<br />Imports<br />
  5. 5. TARGETS<br />Food Grain Production will be doubled in ten years.<br />Special emphasis on horticulture production<br />Allied sectors like live stock, dairy poultry, fisheries<br />Production of oilseeds and pulses will be raised substantially.<br />
  6. 6. India’s Agricultural Export Potentials<br /><ul><li>Marine Products
  7. 7. Rice
  8. 8. Wheat
  9. 9. Condiments and Spices
  10. 10. Cashew
  11. 11. Tea
  12. 12. Coffee
  13. 13. Castor
  14. 14. Jute
  15. 15. Fruits and Vegetables- Onions, Mango, Grapes, Banana, Tomato , Potato , Lichchi ,etc. </li></li></ul><li>Current Concerns<br /><ul><li>Pressure of the Population on Land
  16. 16. Skewed distribution of operational holdings
  17. 17. Land Degradation
  18. 18. Water Balance
  19. 19. Low level of mechanization
  20. 20. Low Fertilizer Consumption</li></li></ul><li>India’s International Trade - 2009-10<br />Agriculture<br />Non-Agriculture<br />2500<br />1 2 0<br />2000<br />2 8 9<br />1500<br />2 1 4 8<br />1000<br />1 7 3 6<br />500<br />0<br />Exports<br />Imports<br />Rs. Billions<br />
  21. 21. Facts<br /><ul><li>Total Geographical Area - 328 million hectares
  22. 22. Net Area sown - 142 million hectares
  23. 23. Gross Cropped Area – 190.8 million hectares
  24. 24. Major Crop Production</li></li></ul><li>Indian Agriculture<br /> <br /><ul><li>Contributes to  24% of GDP
  25. 25. Provides food to 1Billion  people
  26. 26. Sustains 65% of the population : helps eliminate poverty
  27. 27. Produces 51 major Crops
  28. 28. Provides Raw Material to Industries
  29. 29. Contributes to 1/6th of the export earnings
  30. 30. One of the 12 Bio-diversity centres in the world with over 46,000 species of plants and 86,000 species of animals recorded</li></li></ul><li>COST<br />
  31. 31. What is COST??????<br /><ul><li>In business-cost is the value of money
  32. 32. In economics- cost is an substitute that is given up as a result of a decision
  33. 33. In business-the cost may be one of acquisition
  34. 34. The price includes a mark-up for profit over the cost of production.</li></li></ul><li>COST<br /><ul><li>Anything incurred  during the production of the good or  service to get the output into the  hands of the customer
  35. 35. The customer could be the public (the final consumer) or another business
  36. 36. Controlling costs is essential to business success</li></ul>“Not always easy to pin down  where costs are arising!”<br /> <br />
  37. 37. COST<br />Valuation in terms of money <br /><ul><li>Effort
  38. 38. Material
  39. 39. Resources
  40. 40. Time and utilities consumed,
  41. 41. Risks incurred </li></ul>All expenses are costs, but not all costs are expenses.<br />
  42. 42. Difference b/w price and cost<br />The two words have a different meaning. <br /><ul><li>“Cost'' - refers to the amount of money that you spent to make that particular thing.
  43. 43. "Price“-refers to the amount of money that the customer pays.</li></li></ul><li>Types of cost<br />Full  Costing <br /><ul><li>A method of  allocating indirect costs to a range of  products produced by the firm.
  44. 44. All costs incurred  are allocated to particular cost centres – direct costs, indirect costs etc.
  45. 45. Marginal  Costing
  46. 46. The cost of  producing one extra unit of output (the  variable costs)
  47. 47. Selling price – MC = Contribution
  48. 48. Contribution is the amount which can contribute to the overheads (fixed costs)</li></li></ul><li>Standard  Costing <br /><ul><li>The expected level  of costs associated with the production  of a good/service
  49. 49. Actual costs – Standard costs = Variance
  50. 50. Monitoring variances can help  the business to identify  where inefficiencies or efficiencies might lie</li></li></ul><li>
  51. 51. Introduction<br /><ul><li>Organization that intends to supervise and liberalize international trade
  52. 52. Officially commenced on January 1, 1995
  53. 53. Under Marrakech Agreement, replacing the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), in 1948.</li></li></ul><li>OBJECTIVES AND ACHIVEMENTS<br />The main motto<br /><ul><li>Promote and ensure the international trade
  54. 54. Their mantra was LIBERELISATION, PRIVATISATION AND GLOBALISATION.
  55. 55. Trade without discrimination
  56. 56. Set and enforce rules for international trade
  57. 57. Provide forum for negotiating and monitoring the international trade</li></li></ul><li>Advantage & Disadvantage<br />Disputes are handled constructively<br />Rules make life easier for all<br />Free trade cuts the cost of living<br />It provides more choice of products and qualities<br />Trade raises income<br />Trade stimulates economic growth<br />Basic principles make life more efficient<br />Governments are shielded from lobbying<br />The system encourages good governance<br />The WTO Is Fundamentally Undemocratic<br />The WTO Will Not Make Us Safer<br />The WTO Tramples Labour and Human Rights<br />The WTO Would Privatize Essential Services<br />The WTO Is Destroying the Environment<br />The WTO is Killing People<br />The WTO is Increasing Inequality<br />The WTO is Increasing Hunger<br />The WTO Hurts Poor, Small Countries in Favour of Rich Powerful Nations<br />
  58. 58. Members and observers<br /><ul><li>153 members
  59. 59. A number of non-members are observers at WTO
  60. 60. Iran, Iraq and Russia not members.
  61. 61. Russia is the biggest economy outside WTO
  62. 62. Some international intergovernmental organizations are also granted observer status to WTO bodies
  63. 63. 14 states and 2 territories so far have no official interaction with the WTO</li></li></ul><li>GATT<br />The General Agreement on Trade and Tariff (GATT) came into existence in 1947<br />•It sought substantial reduction in tariff and other barriers to trade and to eliminate discriminatory treatment in international commerce.<br />•India signatory to GATT 1947 along with twenty two  other countries<br />•Eight rounds of negotiations had taken place during five decades of its existence<br />
  64. 64. BASIC PRINCIPLES<br />NON-DISCRIMINATION<br /><ul><li>MFN (exceptions RTAs,   SPS)
  65. 65. National Treatment (exceptions Government Procurement, GATS)</li></ul>   <br />MARKET ACCESS<br /><ul><li>Reduction and binding of tariffs
  66. 66. General elimination of quantitative restrictions on imports and exports</li></ul>    (exceptions Article XX, XXI of GATT<br />
  67. 67. Aims<br /><ul><li>Fair and market oriented trading system
  68. 68. Commitments on support and protection
  69. 69. Operationally effective GATT Rules & Disciplines
  70. 70. Equitable Trade Reform process
  71. 71. Greater opportunities and Terms of Access to developing   countries
  72. 72. Concern for LDCs and NFIDCs
  73. 73. Concern on Non-trade issues such as Food Security,   environment, health, etc.</li></li></ul><li>Domestic  Support<br />•Green Box     -  Research, Extension, Decoupled Payments etc;<br />•  Blue  Box   -  Production Limiting  Subsidies ;<br />•  Amber Box -  subject to reduction commitments  viz<br />  -  Product specific <br />  -  Non product specific (input subsidies-fertilizers, Power, irrigation) ;<br />
  74. 74. Suggestions<br />The organisation should be improved in three closely related areas<br /> <br /><ul><li>The conduct/management of Ministerial Conferences
  75. 75. The facilitation of the participation of Members, notably smaller developing countries.
  76. 76. The establishment of a consultative group to prepare work on behalf of Members</li></ul> <br />
  77. 77. THANK YOU<br />

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