Agriculture in India<br />Ranks second worldwide in farm output<br />largest producer - milk, cashew nuts, coconuts, tea, ginger, turmeric and black pepper.<br />The world's largest cattle population (281 million).<br />2nd largest producer-wheat, rice, sugar, groundnut and inland fish.<br />third largest producer of tobacco.<br />India accounts for 10% of the world fruit production<br />first rank in the production of banana and sapota.<br />Growing faster than its ability to produce rice and wheat.<br />
Indian Agriculture has made rapid progress since independence<br />From food shortages and import <br /> to self-sufficiency and exports.<br />From subsistence farming <br /> to intensive and technology led cultivation.<br />Today , India is the front ranking <br /> producer of many crops in the world.<br />Lead in through the <br /> green, white, blue and yellow revolutions<br />
Indian Agriculture Scenario<br />STRENGTHS<br />Rich Bio-diversity<br />Arable land<br />Climate<br />Strong and well dispersed research and extension system<br />OPPORTUNITIES<br />Bridgeable yield crops<br />Exports<br />Agro-based Industry<br />Horticulture.<br />WEAKNESS<br />Fragmentation of land<br />Low Technology Inputs<br />Unsustainable Water Management<br />Poor Infrastructure<br />Low value addition<br />THREATS<br />Unsustainable Resource Use<br />Unsustainable Regional Development<br />Imports<br />
TARGETS<br />Food Grain Production will be doubled in ten years.<br />Special emphasis on horticulture production<br />Allied sectors like live stock, dairy poultry, fisheries<br />Production of oilseeds and pulses will be raised substantially.<br />
One of the 12 Bio-diversity centres in the world with over 46,000 species of plants and 86,000 species of animals recorded</li></li></ul><li>COST<br />
What is COST??????<br /><ul><li>In business-cost is the value of money
In economics- cost is an substitute that is given up as a result of a decision
In business-the cost may be one of acquisition
The price includes a mark-up for profit over the cost of production.</li></li></ul><li>COST<br /><ul><li>Anything incurred during the production of the good or service to get the output into the hands of the customer
The customer could be the public (the final consumer) or another business
Controlling costs is essential to business success</li></ul>“Not always easy to pin down where costs are arising!”<br /> <br />
COST<br />Valuation in terms of money <br /><ul><li>Effort
Risks incurred </li></ul>All expenses are costs, but not all costs are expenses.<br />
Difference b/w price and cost<br />The two words have a different meaning. <br /><ul><li>“Cost'' - refers to the amount of money that you spent to make that particular thing.
"Price“-refers to the amount of money that the customer pays.</li></li></ul><li>Types of cost<br />Full Costing <br /><ul><li>A method of allocating indirect costs to a range of products produced by the firm.
All costs incurred are allocated to particular cost centres – direct costs, indirect costs etc.
Contribution is the amount which can contribute to the overheads (fixed costs)</li></li></ul><li>Standard Costing <br /><ul><li>The expected level of costs associated with the production of a good/service
Under Marrakech Agreement, replacing the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), in 1948.</li></li></ul><li>OBJECTIVES AND ACHIVEMENTS<br />The main motto<br /><ul><li>Promote and ensure the international trade
Their mantra was LIBERELISATION, PRIVATISATION AND GLOBALISATION.
Provide forum for negotiating and monitoring the international trade</li></li></ul><li>Advantage & Disadvantage<br />Disputes are handled constructively<br />Rules make life easier for all<br />Free trade cuts the cost of living<br />It provides more choice of products and qualities<br />Trade raises income<br />Trade stimulates economic growth<br />Basic principles make life more efficient<br />Governments are shielded from lobbying<br />The system encourages good governance<br />The WTO Is Fundamentally Undemocratic<br />The WTO Will Not Make Us Safer<br />The WTO Tramples Labour and Human Rights<br />The WTO Would Privatize Essential Services<br />The WTO Is Destroying the Environment<br />The WTO is Killing People<br />The WTO is Increasing Inequality<br />The WTO is Increasing Hunger<br />The WTO Hurts Poor, Small Countries in Favour of Rich Powerful Nations<br />
Members and observers<br /><ul><li>153 members
Some international intergovernmental organizations are also granted observer status to WTO bodies
14 states and 2 territories so far have no official interaction with the WTO</li></li></ul><li>GATT<br />The General Agreement on Trade and Tariff (GATT) came into existence in 1947<br />•It sought substantial reduction in tariff and other barriers to trade and to eliminate discriminatory treatment in international commerce.<br />•India signatory to GATT 1947 along with twenty two other countries<br />•Eight rounds of negotiations had taken place during five decades of its existence<br />