IJECT Vol. 4, Issue 2, April - June 2013
w w w.ijec t.org International Journal of Electronics & Communication Technology ...
IJECT Vol. 4, Issue 2, April - June 2013 ISSN : 2230-7109 (Online) | ISSN : 2230-9543 (Print)
w w w.ijec t.org400 Internat...
IJECT Vol. 4, Issue 2, April - June 2013
w w w.ijec t.org International Journal of Electronics & Communication Technology ...
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A compact planar inverted-F antenna with slotted ground plane


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Design of a small and thin PIFA antenna for handheld devices covering several cellular communication bands such as UMTS, Bluetooth, WiMAX, 4G LTE, WLAN.
Ground plane of the antenna is used as a radiator along with the main patch.

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A compact planar inverted-F antenna with slotted ground plane

  1. 1. IJECT Vol. 4, Issue 2, April - June 2013 w w w.ijec t.org International Journal of Electronics & Communication Technology   399 ISSN : 2230-7109 (Online) | ISSN : 2230-9543 (Print) A Compact Planar Inverted-F Antenna With Slotted Ground Plane 1 Naveen Kumar, 2 Garima Saini 1,2 Dept. of ECE, NIT Teachers’ Training & Research (NITTTR), Chandigarh, India Abstract The ground plane of an antenna in a mobile phone has significant role in improving the performance of the entire antenna structure. In this paper, a slotted ground plane configuration to design a very small and thin Planar Inverted-FAntenna (PIFA) is proposed. By using the ground plane as a radiator along with PIFA’s main patch situated above the ground plane, the height of PIFAcan be reduced to a great extent, thus resulting in reduction of overall mobile phone thickness. In this paper proposed antenna has volume as 25 x 15 x 3.8 mm3 and it is simulated & analyzed using HFSS software. It is designed to cover UMTS, Bluetooth, 4G LTE, m-WiMAX, 5 GHz WLAN bands. The simulated results show that the performance parameters of the antenna are satisfying the requirements of advanced wireless communication devices. Keywords Slotted, Planar Inverted-FAntenna (PIFA), HFSS, Radiator, LTE, m-WiMAX, Ground Plane I. Introduction Planar Inverted-F Antennas (PIFAs) are widely used for mobile phone applications and other communication systems due to easy integration, light weight, low profile, low SAR values, & good gain [1-4]. In last few years mobile phones evolved rapidly and they are becoming thinner and thinner with more and more technologiessupportedbythemsuchasGPS,Wi-Fi,3G,WiMAX, 4G LTE, GLONASS etc [2]. For such mobile phones, number of PIFAdesigns having different structures and configurations have been implemented to achieve single and multiband operation. While designing a PIFA structure the main objective is to cover the required operating bandwidth, because of this requirement the height of PIFA is generally taken in the range of 7-12 mm abovegroundplane.Butthislargeantennaheightresultsinthicker phones although the battery is very thin [3]. So, the height of PIFA can be taken as small as 4mm which reduces phone thickness, but this reduction in the antenna height results in narrow bandwidth coverage [4]. PIFA structure consists of a ground plane, a radiating element i.e. a patch, a feed wire or strip & one or more shorting pins or plates to connect the top patch and the ground plane. Fig. 1 shows a simple PIFA structure which is fed at the base by a feed wire. In a PIFA structure there are several design variables which can be varied and the performance of the desired antenna is achieved [3-4]. Some of the design variables are width, length and height of the top radiating patch, width and position of shorting pin or plate, location of the feed point, dimensions of the ground plane. The ground plane of PIFA antenna is very significant if it is used as a radiator along with the main patch [5]. The performance of the antenna can be enhanced by varying ground plane length. Optimum length of the ground plane is 0.4λ at the operating frequency [6]. In several designs, position of the antenna on the dielectric substrate is important as enhancement in the operating bandwidth can be achieved to few more percentage. L W Ground Plane Radiating Patch Feed point h Lp Wp Fig. 1: Simple PIFA Structure The basic formula to estimate the resonant frequency at which PIFA structure resonates is as given below (1) Where c is the speed of light, Wp and Lp are the width and length of the top patch, fr is the resonant frequency II. Proposed Antenna The structure of the proposed PIFA antenna with slotted ground plane is shown in fig. 2. The proposed PIFA antenna consists of main radiating patch, a rectangular slot on the ground plane, a shorting plate, coaxial feed and a ground plane. The antenna is designed using a dielectric material as FR-4 which has loss tangent, δ=0.02, dielectric constant, εr = 4.4 and substrate height, h = 1.6 mm. FR-4 Substrate Radiating Patch Shorting Plate Ground Plane Slot Ground Plane Lg Wg h Feed Pin Wp Lp Fig. 2: 3-D view of Proposed Antenna Structure Feeding point source simultaneously excites both the upper patch and ground plane slot. Total dimensions of the radiating parts of the antenna are 25.5 x 15 x 4 mm3 and that of ground plane are 58 x 39 x 4 mm3 . It can be observed that radiating parts covers small portion of the total size of the antenna leaving more space available for other electronic components [7]. To make the design suitable for real handset applications, the slot on the ground plane is situated under the top patch [8], which is an area away from other components of the handset such as battery, RF components,
  2. 2. IJECT Vol. 4, Issue 2, April - June 2013 ISSN : 2230-7109 (Online) | ISSN : 2230-9543 (Print) w w w.ijec t.org400 International Journal of Electronics & Communication Technology displays, speakers etc. Fig. 3 shows the detailed dimensions of the proposed antenna having a rectangular slot on ground plane near feeding point and also the distance of the slot from edges of the ground plane and that of shorting plate from the edge. TABLE 1: Detailed Dimensions of Proposed Antenna Parameter Value (mm) Parameter Value (mm) Lg 58 H 1.6 Wg 40 Lgs 14 Lp 25 Wgs 1.5 Wp 15 L1 36 Ls 4 L2 21.9 Ws 3.4 L3 15.6 III. Simulated Results The simulation and analysis of the proposed antenna is done usingHighFrequencyStructureSimulator(HFSS).Thesimulated reflection coefficient (S11) also known as return loss is presented in fig. 4. It can be observed from S11 plot that there are three frequencies at which resonance is achieved by the antenna structure. Wp Ls Lg h Wgs L2 L1 Wg Ws L3 Lp Lgs Fig. 3: Detailed Dimensions of Proposed Antenna (a) Top view, (b) Side View Fig. 4: The Simulated S11 (dB) of Proposed PIFA These three frequencies are 2.16 GHz, 2.96 GHz and 4.24 GHz withreturnlossof-11.29dB,-12.60dBand-17.47dBrespectively. ThecellularbandscoveredbyproposedantennaareUMTS(1920- 2170 MHz), 4G LTE {(2300-2400 MHz), Bluetooth (2400-2480 MHz), WLAN 802.11 {(2400-2485 MHz), (5170 - 5825 MHz)}, m-WiMAX (3400-3600 MHz). Comparing the overall size of radiating parts of the proposed antenna with the design discussed in [7] shows that there is 35% reduction in the volume of proposed antenna as size of PIFA in [7] was 26 x 25.6 x 3.57 mm3 . As the main objective of this research work is to propose a small antenna having thin structure, the height of PIFA selected is 2.4mm from the FR-4 substrate and 4 mm from the ground plane. With these dimensions selected for the antenna, the structure can operate at UMTS, LTE, Bluetooth, m-WiMAX, WLAN bands with good enough bandwidth to serve for these applications. IV. Conclusion In this paper, a multi-band planar inverted-F antenna (PIFA) using an open ended slot on ground plane is designed.The ground plane of the antenna is used as a radiator and helped in improving operating bandwidth and resonance of the antenna. Use of slot in ground plane also reduced volume of the antenna making it suitable for use in today’s slim handsets. References [1] Hang Wong, Kwai-Man Luk, Chi Hou Chan, Quan Xue, Kwok Kan So, Hau Wah Lai,“Small antennas in Wireless Communications”, Proceedings of the IEEE Journal, Vol. 100, No. 7, pp. 2109 – 2121, July 2012. [2] Kin-LuWong,“PlanarAntennasforWirelessCommunication”, Published by JohnWiley & Sons, Inc., Chapter: 2, pp. 26-65, 2003. [3] Ray J.A, Chaudhuri S.R.B.,“Areview of PIFAtechnology”, IEEE Indian Antenna week (IAW), pp. 1 – 4, Dec. 2011. [4] Belhadef,Y., Boukli Hacene, N.,“PIFAS antennas design for mobile communications”, 7th IEEE International Workshop on Systems, Signal Processing and their Applications (WOSSPA), pp. 119 – 122, May 2011. [5] SinhyungJeon,HyengcheulChoi,HyeongdongKim,“Hybrid PlanarInverted-FAntennawithaT-shapedslotontheground plane”, ETRI Journal, Vol. 31, No. 5, pp. 616-618, October 2009. [6] C. Picher, J. Angueral, A. Andújar, C. Puente1, S. Kahng, “Analysis of the Human Head Interaction in Handset Antennas with Slotted Ground Planes”, IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, Vol. 54, No. 2, pp. 36 – 56, April 2012. [7] Hattan F. AbuTarboush, R. Nilavalan, T. Peter, S. W. Chuang,“SmallandThinInverted-FAntennawithInsensitive Ground Plane for Mobile Handsets”, IEEE Loughborough Antennas and Propagation Conference (LAPC), pp. 109 – 112, November 2010. [8] Wen Xing Li, Xing Liu, Si Li,“Design of A Broadband and Multiband Planar Inverted-F Antenna”, IEEE [9] International Conference on Communications and Mobile Computing, pp. 90 – 93, April 2010.
  3. 3. IJECT Vol. 4, Issue 2, April - June 2013 w w w.ijec t.org International Journal of Electronics & Communication Technology   401 ISSN : 2230-7109 (Online) | ISSN : 2230-9543 (Print) Naveen Kumar is pursuing M.E. from National Institute of Technical Teachers’ Training & Research, Chandigarh, India. He has completed B.Tech in E.C.E. from SVIET, Mohali (Punjab), India in the year 2009. He has 2 years of academic experience. His areas of interest are Wireless & Mobile Communication and Antennas. Garima Saini is currently working as an Assistant Professor at National Institute of Technical Teachers’ Training & Research, Chandigarh, India. She has completed her M.E. from PTU, Jalandhar, India and B.Tech from JMIT, Radaur, India. She has 12 years of academic experience. She has authored research papers in reputed International Journals, National and International conferences. Her areas of interest are Advanced Digital Communication, Wireless & Mobile Communication and Antennas.