ABSTRACT



The main aim of this project is to study
the various types of electrical and
mechanical equipment involved in...
INTRODUCTION


KTPS-V Station was commissioned in 1996.



It was the first major thermal power station
in AP.



KTPS ...
WORKING PRINCIPLE


The thermal power station is a power plant in
which the prime mover is steam driven.



Water is hea...
PARTS OF THERMAL POWER
PLANT
TYPES OF CIRCUITS
For simplicity let us divide the whole
arrangement into four circuits.
1. Steam and water circuit
2. Air...
1.STEAM AND WATER
CIRCUIT
boiler

Drum

Super
heater

IP Turbine

Re Heater

Hp turbine

LP Turbine

Condenser
BOILER


A boiler is a device for generating steam for
power, processing or heating purposes.



The boiler used here is...
SCHMETIC DIAGRAM OF
BOILER
CLASSFICATION OF
BOILERS


Boilers are mainly classified into two types.
They are
1. Fire tube boiler
2.Water tube boiler
CONDENSER


Condenser is a
Surface heat
exchanger.



Exhaust steam from
LP turbine enters
into the condenser,
where it
...
FEED WATER FLOW FROM
CONDENSER
Condenser

CEPs

LPH

HP heaters

BFPs

Deaerator

Economiser

Drum

boiler
ECONOMISER


An economiser
extracts apart of this
heat from the flue
gases.



It uses extracted
heat for heating the
fe...
2.AIR AND GAS CIRCUIT
PRIMARY AIR FAN(PA FAN)
 The primary air has got two functions.
1.Pre heating the coal.
2. Transpor...
FORCED DRAFT FAN(FD
FAN)


The function of FD FAN is to supply sufficient
quantity of air required for complete
combustio...
AIR PRE HEATERS


Air pre heater function is to heat the air with
the help of flue gases.



The air heater used in KTPS...
INDUCED DRAFT FAN (ID
FAN)


The function of Induced Draft fan is to suck the
gases out of furnaces and throw them into t...
ELECTROSTATIC
PRECIPITATOR


The main function of ESP is to clean the gases
which are being released into atmosphere.
COAL AND ASH CIRCUIT


The coal flow is as shown below:

Coal
storage
plant

Crushers

Bunkers

Mills

Boiler
COAL HANDLING PLANT
ASH HANDLING PLANT






At the bottom of the furnace, there is a hopper
for collection of bottom ash.
Fly ash is captu...
COOLING WATER CIRCUIT
WATER SUPPLY




Water requirement for the KTPS is provided
from Kinnerasani Project.
The total water required for the s...
Primary Fuel Supply:



KTPS is linked to Singareni Collieries
Company limited (S.C.C.L.) for supply of coal
from Manugur...
STEAM TURBINE


Steam turbine is a
rotating machine
which converts the
heat energy of
steam into
mechanical
energy.
Description of Steam
Turbines
•

HP Turbine

•

IP Turbine

•

LP Turbine

HIGH PRESSURE TURBINE:
 In high pressure turbi...
TYPES OF TURBINES
IP TURBINE:
 Exhaust steam from hp turbine, after passing
through re heater is admitted for second phas...
Excitation system


The excitation system comprises of an exciter
and automatic voltage regulator.



The duty of an exc...
BRUSHLESS EXCITATION
SYSTEM:
Excitation system


The excitation system comprises of an exciter
and automatic voltage regulator.



The duty of an exc...
SALIENT FEATUREs OF K.T.P.S


TOTAL INSTALLED CAPACITY:

1)

KTPS-A Station

: 4*60 = 240 MW

2)

KTPS-B Station

: 2*120...
CONCLUSION






In a modern thermal power plant the Rankine
Cycle is modified to include superheating of
steam, regene...
An Overview of Thermal Power Plant
An Overview of Thermal Power Plant
An Overview of Thermal Power Plant
An Overview of Thermal Power Plant
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An Overview of Thermal Power Plant

  1. 1. ABSTRACT  The main aim of this project is to study the various types of electrical and mechanical equipment involved in the process of generation of Electrical power.
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION  KTPS-V Station was commissioned in 1996.  It was the first major thermal power station in AP.  KTPS V Stage had achieved 94.5% plant load factor.
  3. 3. WORKING PRINCIPLE  The thermal power station is a power plant in which the prime mover is steam driven.  Water is heated, turns into steam and spins a steam turbine which drives an electrical generator.  The coal is used as a major source of fuel.  The thermal power plant works on the principle
  4. 4. PARTS OF THERMAL POWER PLANT
  5. 5. TYPES OF CIRCUITS For simplicity let us divide the whole arrangement into four circuits. 1. Steam and water circuit 2. Air and gas circuit 3. Coal and ash circuit 4. Cooling water circuit. 
  6. 6. 1.STEAM AND WATER CIRCUIT boiler Drum Super heater IP Turbine Re Heater Hp turbine LP Turbine Condenser
  7. 7. BOILER  A boiler is a device for generating steam for power, processing or heating purposes.  The boiler used here is a two pass, tower type, reheat natural circulation single drum, balanced draft and dry bottom (open hopper type) boiler and is designed for burning coal as principal fuel.
  8. 8. SCHMETIC DIAGRAM OF BOILER
  9. 9. CLASSFICATION OF BOILERS  Boilers are mainly classified into two types. They are 1. Fire tube boiler 2.Water tube boiler
  10. 10. CONDENSER  Condenser is a Surface heat exchanger.  Exhaust steam from LP turbine enters into the condenser, where it condensates into water by exchanging its heat energy to cooling water.
  11. 11. FEED WATER FLOW FROM CONDENSER Condenser CEPs LPH HP heaters BFPs Deaerator Economiser Drum boiler
  12. 12. ECONOMISER  An economiser extracts apart of this heat from the flue gases.  It uses extracted heat for heating the feed water before it enters into the steam drum.
  13. 13. 2.AIR AND GAS CIRCUIT PRIMARY AIR FAN(PA FAN)  The primary air has got two functions. 1.Pre heating the coal. 2. Transportation of fuel into furnace. PA fan Air Heater Mills Boiler
  14. 14. FORCED DRAFT FAN(FD FAN)  The function of FD FAN is to supply sufficient quantity of air required for complete combustion.  The air flow is as shown below FD Fan Air Heater Furnace
  15. 15. AIR PRE HEATERS  Air pre heater function is to heat the air with the help of flue gases.  The air heater used in KTPS-V is a Regenerative Tri-sector air heater. The flue gases flow is as shown :  Boiler Air preheater ESP ID Fan Chimney
  16. 16. INDUCED DRAFT FAN (ID FAN)  The function of Induced Draft fan is to suck the gases out of furnaces and throw them into the stack.  Boiler is provided with two no. of Induced Draft Fans.
  17. 17. ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR  The main function of ESP is to clean the gases which are being released into atmosphere.
  18. 18. COAL AND ASH CIRCUIT  The coal flow is as shown below: Coal storage plant Crushers Bunkers Mills Boiler
  19. 19. COAL HANDLING PLANT
  20. 20. ASH HANDLING PLANT    At the bottom of the furnace, there is a hopper for collection of bottom ash. Fly ash is captured and removed from the flue gas by electrostatic precipitators. The flow of ash is as shown below Boiler Air pre Heater ESP Ash handling plant Ash pond
  21. 21. COOLING WATER CIRCUIT
  22. 22. WATER SUPPLY   Water requirement for the KTPS is provided from Kinnerasani Project. The total water required for the station is 1, 50,000 tons per day.
  23. 23. Primary Fuel Supply:  KTPS is linked to Singareni Collieries Company limited (S.C.C.L.) for supply of coal from Manuguru, Yellandu and Rudrampur mines.
  24. 24. STEAM TURBINE  Steam turbine is a rotating machine which converts the heat energy of steam into mechanical energy.
  25. 25. Description of Steam Turbines • HP Turbine • IP Turbine • LP Turbine HIGH PRESSURE TURBINE:  In high pressure turbine steam is expanded to do work.  High pressure turbine having 25 reaction stages. o  Steam admitted at 540 c and pressure 150 kg/sq.cm.
  26. 26. TYPES OF TURBINES IP TURBINE:  Exhaust steam from hp turbine, after passing through re heater is admitted for second phase of expansion of steam.  IP turbine having 17 reaction stages. LOW PRESSURE TURBINE:  Exhaust steam from IP turbine admitted to lp turbine for the last phase of expansion of steam.  LP turbine having 8 reaction stages
  27. 27. Excitation system  The excitation system comprises of an exciter and automatic voltage regulator.  The duty of an exciter is to provide the necessary field current to the rotor winding of the alternator.  Brush less excitation is used in KTPS Vth stage.
  28. 28. BRUSHLESS EXCITATION SYSTEM:
  29. 29. Excitation system  The excitation system comprises of an exciter and automatic voltage regulator.  The duty of an exciter is to provide the necessary field current to the rotor winding of the alternator.  Brush less excitation is used in KTPS Vth stage.
  30. 30. SALIENT FEATUREs OF K.T.P.S  TOTAL INSTALLED CAPACITY: 1) KTPS-A Station : 4*60 = 240 MW 2) KTPS-B Station : 2*120 = 240 MW 3) KTPS-C Station : 2*120 = 240 MW 4) KTPS-V Stage : 2*250 = 500 MW 5) KTPS-VI Stage : 1*500=500 MW Total installed capacity = 1720 MW
  31. 31. CONCLUSION    In a modern thermal power plant the Rankine Cycle is modified to include superheating of steam, regenerative feed water heating and reheating of the steam. Reheating the steam after it has partially expanded, improves the thermal cycle efficiency by 4 to 5%.Regenerative feed water heating by using Low pressure and High pressure heaters also improves the thermal cycle efficiency by 6 to 7%. So the overall efficiency of a modern thermal power plant is about 42%.
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