Start with the name of ALLAH
the most merciful and mighty
Step in to Bright Future
Of Science & Information Technology, Peshawar
SURHAD UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE &
NATURE OF NURSING
Many authors have contributed their
thoughts about the nature of nursing.
Nursing has begun as the desire to
keep people healthy and provide
comfort, care and assurance to the
NATURE OF NURSING
• Nursing is as old as medicine.
• In ancient india,susrutha defines the ideal
relations of doctor,patient,nurse and
medicine as the four feet upon which a
cure must rest
• The entry of women into nursing can be
traced to approximately 300 A.D.
NATURE OF NURSING:
•Various definitions of nursing from the
times of nightingale to the present,
which help to know the nature of nursing
are as fallows:
•Nursing means" To have charge of the
personal health of somebody…and what
nursing has to do– is to put the patient in
the best condition for the nature to act
(Florence Nightingale 1859)
NATURE OF NURSING,
• Nursing is “both an art and science
involving the total patient, as promoting
spiritual, mental and physical health;
stressing health education and health
preservation, ministering to the sick,
caring for the patient environment and
giving health service to the family, the
community and the individual”
(Mother Olivia Gowan,1943)
NATURE OF NURSING
•In 1965 American Nurses' Association
define nursing as fallows:
•“Nursing is of a vital consequence to the
individual receiving services. It fills the
needs that cannot be met by the person,
family or other persons in the community”
DEFINITION OF NURSING AS
APPROVED BY CNR,1987
•In 1987,international council of nurses approved
the following definition of nursing:
•“Nursing as an integral part of the health care
system, encompasses the promotion of health,
prevention of illness, and care of physically ill,
mentally ill, and disabled people of all ages,in all
health care and other community settings”
NURSING AS A PROFESSION
WHAT IS A PROFESSION?
•A profession is an occupation based on
specialized intellectual study and training,
The purpose of which is to supply skilled
service with ethical components to others,
for a definite fee or salary”
CRITERIA OF A PROFESSION:
•In general to be a professional person, the person must;
•Have a grasp of fundamental truth—a kind of truth that
will make him free to think and act,
•Have the ability to apply truth in dealing with new
problem for which there is no precise answer at that
•Be able to remain unafraid under perplexities of
changing basic knowledge, demands social conditions or
CRITERIA OF A PROFESSION:
Many writers have listed the criteria of
professionalization are as follows:
•According to their criteria of profession, the
WHO has recognised”nursing as a profession”.
•Professional nursing is an art and
science dominated by an ideal service
in which certain principles are applied in
the skillful care of the such an
appropriate relationship with the
physician and with others who have
VALUES OF PROFESSIONAL
• The values related the professional nursing are
under three aspects i.e.
1. Values covering the professional nurse
2. Values covering the nurse-patient relationship
3. Values covering the relationships of the nurse to
colleagues and to the community .
Are as follows:
1. The nurse should enter the profession
with a strong moral character and during
the years that she engaged in her
profession she should continue to
develop ethical and moral principles
essential to gain confidence and trust of
those with who she works.
2. The nurse should be eager to secure
more knowledge of experience in
nursing. But this knowledge should be
gained to help people
3.The nurse, when engaged in the practice
of her/his profession should have the
primary obligation to make as much time
as possible available for the study and
care of patients.
4.The nurse should make available as much
time as possible for her/his work. But
she/he should continue her/his self
education to gain greater breadth and
depth of preparation in nursing skills and
to strengthen values which should guide
her/his action as a citizen, as a
professional nurse and as an individual.
5.The nurse should be willing to share her/his
research findings in nursing with others.
6.The nurse should be interested and willing
to add to his/her nursing responsibilities as
she/he progresses in her/his profession.
1. It is important that the nurse have friendly,
cheerful and pleasant relationships with the
patient and his family. But it is equally
important she/he not be familiar.
2. The nurses should show appropriate
concern for their patients without becoming
too involved emotionally.
3. The nurse must provide adequate and
unhurried care for each patient.
4.The nurse should do whatever is needed for
the patients physical, mental and spiritual
5.The nurses should be concerned with the
patients emotional needs as well as with his
6.The nurse must know their patient as a
person and give substantial attention to their
phychologic and social circumstances. They
must know themselves and not become too
subjective in their relationships to any patient.
7.The nurses should be good listeners but not
to the extant that they start offering nothing of
values to the conservation when it is needed
RELATIONSHIP OF THE NURSE TO
COLLEAGUES AND THE COMMUNITY:
1.The nurse must be conscientious in carrying out
the physicians instructions relating to the proper
care of the patient.
2.The nurse must respect the reputation of her/his
3.The nurse must collaborate with nursing team
rather then dominate them.
4.The nurse should be an active participant in
nursing organizations. But she/he should not
spend too much time away from her/his job.
5.The nurse must do all she/he can prevent
illness and promote health.
6.The nurse must seek better ways of carrying
out professional responsibilities.
7.The nurse should develop self-confidence and
trust, in emergencies, make quick decisions and
CODE OF ETHICS OF A
•One of the criterion of a profession is that the
profession" must recognize its obligations to
society by insisting that its members live up to
an established code of ethics”
•Ethics has always been an integral part of
•Professional code of ethics are a system of
rules and principles by which that profession is
demonstrate its responsibility to society.
THE PRACTICAL NURSE PLEDGE:
Before God and those assembled here, I solemnly
To adhere to the code of ethics of the nursing
To co-operate faithfully with the other members of
the nursing team and do carryout faithfully and to the
best of my ability the instructions of the physician or
the nurse who may be assigned to supervise my
I will not do any thing evil or malicious and I will not
knowingly give any harmful drug or assist in
THE PRACTICAL NURSE PLEDGE:
I will not reveal any confidential information that may come
to my knowledge in the course of my work.
And I pledge myself to do all in my power to raise the
standards and prestige of practical nursing;
May my life be devoted to service and to the high ideals of
the nursing profession.
FUNCTIONS OF PROFESSIONAL
Lesnik and Anderson have identified
seven areas of function in professional
nursing, based upon legislative and
judicial decisions. six of these are
classified as independent areas and one
as a dependent area:
1. The supervision of a patient involving the whole
management of care, requiring the application of
principles based upon the biological, the physical and
2. The observations of symptoms and reactions,
including symptomatology of physical and mental
conditions and needs, requiring evaluation or
application of principles based upon the biological,
the physical and the social sciences.
3.The accurate recording and reporting of facts,
including evaluation of the whole care of the
4.The supervision of others, except physicians,
contributing to the care of the patient.
5.The application and the execution of nursing
procedures and techniques.
6.The direction and education to secure physical
and mental care.
1.The application and the execution of
legal orders of physicians concerning
treatments and medications with an
understanding of cause and thereof
ABILITIES OF PROFESSIONAL
NURSE (Arthur corcy 1955)
All nurses, should:
•Be able to give expert bed side care and have such
knowledge of the household arts as will enable them to
deal effectively with domestic emergencies arising out of
•Be capable of taking part in the promotion of health and
prevention of disease.
•Possess the required knowledge about legal aspects of
•Be able to observe and to interpret the
physical manifestations of the patient’s
condition and also the social and the
environmental factors which may hasten or
delay his recovery.
•Possess the special knowledge and skill
required in dealing effectively with situations
peculiar to certain common types of illness.
•Be able to apply in nursing situations those
principles of mental health which make for a
better understanding of the psychological
factor in illness.
•Possess the essential knowledge and
the ability, to reach measures to
conserve and restore health.
•Be able by means of the practice of
nursing profession to attain a measure
of economic security and to provide for
sickness and old age.
NEED FOR NURSING ADMINISTRATION:
•Nursing is a major component of the health
care delivery system.
•The success of health care business depends
on nursing participating in changing the
systems for delivering cost-effective care and
creating strategies to ensure that clients
receive quality care.
•There is need to develop managerial skills and
leadership skills in nursing.
•These skills are also necessary for team
building at the organizational level, ensuring
success in all aspects of nursing administration
and maintaining high quality in the areas of
nursing service, nursing education and nursing
administration as a whole.
•Nurses in managerial roles must be able to
understand the conditions promoting and
innovating the expression of talent among team
•The nurses must be prepared to look
into the matters of all types of
management.So,managerial concepts or
concepts of administrative needed by the
nurses at all level, focus on how to deal
with peaple,how to manage resources,
and how to manager ones job.