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Role of small scale farmers and biodiversity in improving agricultural productivity and food security
 

Role of small scale farmers and biodiversity in improving agricultural productivity and food security

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Chito Medina, Director, MASIPAG

Chito Medina, Director, MASIPAG

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    Role of small scale farmers and biodiversity in improving agricultural productivity and food security Role of small scale farmers and biodiversity in improving agricultural productivity and food security Presentation Transcript

    • • 1.5 B small scale farmers + 1.5 B urban gardeners, pastoralists and livestock keepers, hunter-gatherers, fishers, forest keepers, indigenous people• 85% of farmers have 2 ha or less• Produce at least 70% of world’s food Under corporate food system, net flow of food is from areas of poverty to areas of wealth and abundance ETC (2009)
    • ETC (2009)
    • • Small farms are 2 to 4 times more energy efficient than large conventional farms. (Chapell and Lavalle, 2009)• Organic yield 2.7 times more per ha than conventional farms in developing countries; similar yields in developed countries; 1.3 times more globally (Badgley et al., 2007)• Small farms permit the development of functional diversity with diversified production and the integration of crops, trees and livestock.
    • Philippine Agricultural Ecosystem1,663 plant species in agricultural systems• 477 angiosperm species with food value• 355 species with feed value• 632 species with medicinal / herbal value• 201 plant species with ornamental value• 35 species are fiber crops
    •  Genetic erosion Reduced Biodiversity (rice; associated biodiv.) Soil nutrient imbalance and depletion Pest and disease outbreaks Pesticide poisonings  Poverty,malnutrition and hunger  Eroded farmers’ knowledge
    • • Estimated 130,000 rice varieties in Asia in 1960; today IRRI bred varieties Geneticthem largely replaced erosion• 80 to 82% of ricelands in Thailand, Indonesia, Burma and the Philippines planted to HYVs• Farmers can’t go back to traditional varieties because they are no longer cultivated
    • MASIPAG: (Farmer-Scientist Partnership for Development) was organized in 1986 as response by farmers to the Green revolution Goal: Empower resource-poor farmers through access and control of production resources (seeds, technology, land)
    •  As organization and network:  635 Peoples Organizations; 35,000+ farmers  60 Non-Government Organizations  15 Scientist-partners  67 farmer rice breeders; 21 corn breeders  200+ volunteer farmer-trainers On-farm research resources  226 PO-managed trial farms +10 back-up  9 PO-managed native chicken gene pools
    • Rice diversity used for food security and resiliency: 1,105 Traditional Rice VarietiesSeeds 1,085 Masipag Rice 506 Farmer-bred Rice 75 Native Corn Varieties+12 M composites
    • Farmers improve rice by breeding 67 farmer rice breeders 506 rice varieties developed
    • Farmers’ Trial Farm for local adaptability Farmers’ laboratory Develop site-specific varieties Develop site-specific technology Seed bank Creative organizing Advocacy Farmers maintain and develop varieties in their trial farms
    • Locally Adapted MASIPAG Rice and TRVs Pangasinan – Lamyung, Bulik, Mogen, Kalinga – Onay Cagayan – Elon-elon, Ag 5, M8-3-1, Cinamon, , Pandan, Sampaguita, M35-1-1, M45-1, M69-4-1 Parirutong, India, Resco, Imp. Milagrosa, C22, M45, M3-4-1-2, M69-2-1, M120-4, M10-2-2-5, M44-3, M4-B1, M5-B1, M40-2-2, Nueva Vizcaya – Pinili, Hinomay, Valentino, Ag 19, M11-20, M3- M44-1, M140-2, M8-3-1 6, M109, M5-6, M45, M90, M11-20SG, M5-1, M30-1, M135- 1, M19, 102 Zambales - Aurora – Elon-elon, Camoros, Sampaguita, Wag-wag Aga, , Fortuna, Pandan, Japane Palawan, Raminad, Londan-honay, Galo, Ag 5, Ag 17, Kadali, se 3, C21, M45, M11R Ag 27, White Borong, Fortuna, M21, M6-11-1, M3, M4, M35 Nueva Ecija - Wag-wag Aga, Senador, AG5, AG10, Abra white, C22, M115-R, M146-1, M4-3-1, M45-1, M21-2-B2, M104- 2R, M108-1R, M35-4-1, M69-2-2, M5-BD-2, M130-3, M48-1- Oriental Mindoro – Elon-elon, Ka Luis, 1, M11-5-1, M86-3-1, M21, M11, M69, M5B2, M30, M45, M36-4- AG5, GV3, M13, XO, M97, M11, M45-1 2, M4-3-1 Laguna – Wag-wag Aga, Sampaguita, BS Nagkarlan, Africa, M5-AS, M8-2-1, M62-1-2, M45, M5-B-2, M13-1-1, Aklan – Imp. Camoros, M45-1, M15-12-1, M13-1-1B, M36-4-1, M30-10-1B, M4-3-1, M3-2-1, M10-2-1 M11-5-1, M31-37-B4, M21-b1-1, M76-4-1, M2-1-1, M5-CS, M125-2, M140-1, M13-2- 1B, M5-A1, M11-5-1, M36-2-1 Quezon – AG17, AG5, M41, M35, M12-21 Capiz – LibtongAntique – AG5, AG10, 16-70D, San Mal, Milagrosa, Kadidit, Ag Camarines Sur – AG24, Elon-elon, M5-Pablo, Minantika, Red Rice, M5-BD, M5- 23, M16-3, M115- A, M48, M70, M102, M103, M106, M107CS, M21-B3, M21-B1-1, M21-37-B4, M36- 1R, M114-4 , M110, M112, M128, M131, M1431, M36-3, M36-4-1, M62-1-1, M104-2, M139-2 Agusan del Norte- PalayNegros Occidental – Wag- Damo, AG5, AG10, Sta. Maria, Sanwag, AG10, AG5, Binangan, Dinorado, Fortuna, Imp. pablo, Carandang, Bengawan, Jap 1, TapolBorong, Imp. Milagrosa, Inuwak, Macan, Red Iloilo - Kagingi, Imp. Camoros, 1, India, M5-AS, M117, M11-20-1, M11-20-Borong, Sampaguita, White Borong, Zambales, 2R- Malido, Lubang, Inuwak, red Borong, B2, M4-4B, M5C, MC14-2R, M87-W, M6-IN, 90D-42, 90D-43, 90D-44 Bugana Rice, GL1-8-1, GL4-5- M15-12-1R, M10-2-1 14-1-15, GL4-9, M10-2-1, M104-1R, M11-20-1, M117-1R, M127-3, M13-2, M133-1, M139-1, M15-12-1, M20-1, M21-37-B4, M22-2-1, M36-1, M36-4-1, M4-4B, M5-BD, M50-1- Surigao del Sur – San Pablo, M2-1-1, M50-2, M5-AS, M62-1-1, M62-1-2, M6-6, M69-3-1, M8-2- 1, M5-BD, M13-2-1B, M3-4-1, M93-11, M8-3-1, M90-2, M90-LG, MV4-4, Mv4-8 Bohol - Melobina, Maragay, Ag 5, Magsanaya, M148-1, SKK Zamboanga del Sur – White Bengawan, Red Elon- Davao del Norte – AG5, Layong elon, Red Wag-wag, AG5, AG17, C35, M101-1-1, M112- Mabilog, Cicadiz, Sampaguita, Milagrosa, Hinuma 4, M115-6, M76-3-1, M8-1-1-2, M86-4-1, M97-2-1, M35-1- y, Malagkit, Tinangi, Bogret, Camoros, San 4-1, M97-ES, M5-AS, M15-12 Pablo, Red Wag-wag, Wag-wag Aga, M35, 4-11- 90, M21-4-1, M58, M50, M59, M75-1, M4-4-B2 Lanao del Norte – Ala, Wag-wag Aga, Sulig, Hinumay, AG5, M15-12- Davao del Sur – AG5, M117-3, M15-12- 1, M19, M68, M91, M86-4-1, M109, M117-1- 1, M117, M95-5, M5-AS 1R, M108-1R, M36-2, M86-4-1, M8-3-1 North Cotabato – C21, Moguama South Cotabato – Africa, Nagdami, Vahari, Vadani, BS Nagkarlan, Maligaya San Pablo, AG5, M2, Rice, Pinitumpo, AG5, Puro-puro, San pablo, Tinagi, M35-1-2- M3-1-1, M5-CS 1, M67-2-1, M5-BD, M26-4-1, M115-1A, M108-1R, M5-C3, M5- Bukidnon – Lubang, C18, Senador, Wag-wag Aga, Bengawan Puti, red Elon-elon, Red Borong, AG24, Bogret, Makagina, Mamintana, Pungko, Sologanon, SP Red, Sta. Maria, Sto. Niño, Sulig, AG5, Maligaya CS, M4-4B, M36-4-1, M14-1-1, M11-6-1, M123-2, M129-1, M10- Rice, AG10, Puro-puro, Red Binato, M5-BD, C11-4, Dong Red, M76-1, M94, M15-12-1, M3-4-1, M35-3-1, 2-2-5, M11-20-1, M11-6-1, M30-10-1B, M36-4, M-AS, M5- M51-1-1, M51-2, M5-C, M70-1W, M75-1, M86-1, M90-LG, M93-1 B2, M94-4-1,, M11-6-1, M126-1-2, M13-21B, M131-1, M146- 1, 21-2-B2, M15-12-1
    • Number of Traditional Rice Varieties (TRVs) andMasipag rice with special characteristics. Characteristic / Traditional Masipag Adaptation rice varieties riceHigh tillering capacity - 42Good ratooning ability - 24Low fertility soils 12 36Drought tolerance 8 9Saltwater tolerance 7 12Flooding tolerance 1 7Pest/disease resistance 6 17Red / Black/Violet 152 79
    • Rice varieties tolerant to climate change Drought tolerant – Elon-elon, San Solano, Nueva Vizcaya Vicente, Palawan, M160- 1 Salt Water tolerant– Loreto, Binulungan, M115- Calabanga, Cam Sur 1R, M45-1 Bato, Cam Sur Flood tolerant – M116-2, M115-1R, M160- 1, M45-1, PBB 401 Drought tolerantt – Drought tolerant – Batbatngon, Leyte Senador, Hubanib M6-14-1R Patnongon, Antique Alimodian, Iloilo Libagon, Southern Leyte Drought tolerant – Drought tolerant – M148-2, M394-1, M51- Red Borong, Zambales 2, M177-3, M74-1 MLD 4-1 Flood tolerant – Sta. Josefa, Agusan del Sur JDC 3 , JDC8, Dalagang Bukid Malng, North Cotabato Drought tolerant – M4-3-1, HinumayLegends: Sultan Kudarat, Saranggani Salt water tolerant – Farmer-bred lines Jasmine, Kanoni, Elon- Traditional rice varieties elon, Makaginga, Binulawan MASIPAG Selections
    • Using locally available resources for Soil Fertility Management Fermented Plant Juice, Fish Amino Acid, Indigenous microorganismsSoil Fertility Management Compost, Vermicompost Green manure
    • Alternative Pest Management Ecosystem balance to avoid Pests and Diseases Farm Management Practices • Soil nutrient management • Method and time of planting • Water management Crop and Varietal • Crop rotation Diversification Avoid pesticide use Insect Soil fertility Pest, Pathogens, Weed Method of planting Technology Development by Farmers
    • Diversified farm: better nutrition, betterincome; also coping mechanism toclimate change Eunie Geraldo’s Farm Malitbog, Bukidnon Philippines
    • Multifunctionality: Diversified and integrated farming systemsFarm Diversification Ducks: Natural pest control Livestock: Bank in the backyard!
    • Better food security and resiliency through biodiversityMASIPAG farmers use 42-51 different crops >>>14-16 crops more than the conventional farmers• Tuber crops are food insurance (sweet potato, cassava, taro, yam)• Resilient crops (banana)• Sturdy crops (coconut) > non-traditional food crops• Livestock
    • Farmer-Developed andAdapted Technologies Pangi leaves used as botanical pest control by Doming of Zamboanga del Sur Carabao driven rotary used in rice farming by Abraham of Sultan Kudarat
    • Local marketing ofOrganic Certification and Marketing organic products Farmers’ Guarantee System: • Organic standards • Internal quality control • Product and market development • Processing facilities • Management capacity bldg.
    • Improved Productivity: Mean yield of rice (kg/ha) (n=840) Masipag Masipag Chemical Organic In Conversion FarmingLuzon 3,743ns 3,436ns 3,851nsVisayas 2,683ns 2,470ns 2,626nsMindanao 3,767ns 3,864ns 4,131ns(Maximum) (8,710) (10,400) (8,070)
    • Improved Income: Net agricultural income per hectare (Pesos) (n=840) Masipag Masipag In Chemical Organic Conversion FarmingLuzon 24,412** 18,991** 13,403**Visayas 22,868** 16,039** 13,728**Mindanao 23,715ns 17,362ns 19,588nsAverage 23,599*** 17,457*** 15,643***** = highly significant differences ( 5%)*** = very highly significant differences (1%)ns = no significant difference
    • Improved Income:Annual Balance of Income and Expenditure per Household (in Pesos) (n=840) Masipag Masipag In Chemical Organic Conversion FarmingLuzon 11,331 9,702 -1,266Visayas -1,090 287 -4,974Mindanao 5,481 -232 -7,399
    •  Species and varietal diversity are important resources to increase farm productivity, food security and resiliency Farmers have a role to play in maintaining crop diversity in a useful and sustainable way