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Role of small scale farmers and biodiversity in improving agricultural productivity and food security

Role of small scale farmers and biodiversity in improving agricultural productivity and food security



Chito Medina, Director, MASIPAG

Chito Medina, Director, MASIPAG



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    Role of small scale farmers and biodiversity in improving agricultural productivity and food security Role of small scale farmers and biodiversity in improving agricultural productivity and food security Presentation Transcript

    • • 1.5 B small scale farmers + 1.5 B urban gardeners, pastoralists and livestock keepers, hunter-gatherers, fishers, forest keepers, indigenous people• 85% of farmers have 2 ha or less• Produce at least 70% of world’s food Under corporate food system, net flow of food is from areas of poverty to areas of wealth and abundance ETC (2009)
    • ETC (2009)
    • • Small farms are 2 to 4 times more energy efficient than large conventional farms. (Chapell and Lavalle, 2009)• Organic yield 2.7 times more per ha than conventional farms in developing countries; similar yields in developed countries; 1.3 times more globally (Badgley et al., 2007)• Small farms permit the development of functional diversity with diversified production and the integration of crops, trees and livestock.
    • Philippine Agricultural Ecosystem1,663 plant species in agricultural systems• 477 angiosperm species with food value• 355 species with feed value• 632 species with medicinal / herbal value• 201 plant species with ornamental value• 35 species are fiber crops
    •  Genetic erosion Reduced Biodiversity (rice; associated biodiv.) Soil nutrient imbalance and depletion Pest and disease outbreaks Pesticide poisonings  Poverty,malnutrition and hunger  Eroded farmers’ knowledge
    • • Estimated 130,000 rice varieties in Asia in 1960; today IRRI bred varieties Geneticthem largely replaced erosion• 80 to 82% of ricelands in Thailand, Indonesia, Burma and the Philippines planted to HYVs• Farmers can’t go back to traditional varieties because they are no longer cultivated
    • MASIPAG: (Farmer-Scientist Partnership for Development) was organized in 1986 as response by farmers to the Green revolution Goal: Empower resource-poor farmers through access and control of production resources (seeds, technology, land)
    •  As organization and network:  635 Peoples Organizations; 35,000+ farmers  60 Non-Government Organizations  15 Scientist-partners  67 farmer rice breeders; 21 corn breeders  200+ volunteer farmer-trainers On-farm research resources  226 PO-managed trial farms +10 back-up  9 PO-managed native chicken gene pools
    • Rice diversity used for food security and resiliency: 1,105 Traditional Rice VarietiesSeeds 1,085 Masipag Rice 506 Farmer-bred Rice 75 Native Corn Varieties+12 M composites
    • Farmers improve rice by breeding 67 farmer rice breeders 506 rice varieties developed
    • Farmers’ Trial Farm for local adaptability Farmers’ laboratory Develop site-specific varieties Develop site-specific technology Seed bank Creative organizing Advocacy Farmers maintain and develop varieties in their trial farms
    • Locally Adapted MASIPAG Rice and TRVs Pangasinan – Lamyung, Bulik, Mogen, Kalinga – Onay Cagayan – Elon-elon, Ag 5, M8-3-1, Cinamon, , Pandan, Sampaguita, M35-1-1, M45-1, M69-4-1 Parirutong, India, Resco, Imp. Milagrosa, C22, M45, M3-4-1-2, M69-2-1, M120-4, M10-2-2-5, M44-3, M4-B1, M5-B1, M40-2-2, Nueva Vizcaya – Pinili, Hinomay, Valentino, Ag 19, M11-20, M3- M44-1, M140-2, M8-3-1 6, M109, M5-6, M45, M90, M11-20SG, M5-1, M30-1, M135- 1, M19, 102 Zambales - Aurora – Elon-elon, Camoros, Sampaguita, Wag-wag Aga, , Fortuna, Pandan, Japane Palawan, Raminad, Londan-honay, Galo, Ag 5, Ag 17, Kadali, se 3, C21, M45, M11R Ag 27, White Borong, Fortuna, M21, M6-11-1, M3, M4, M35 Nueva Ecija - Wag-wag Aga, Senador, AG5, AG10, Abra white, C22, M115-R, M146-1, M4-3-1, M45-1, M21-2-B2, M104- 2R, M108-1R, M35-4-1, M69-2-2, M5-BD-2, M130-3, M48-1- Oriental Mindoro – Elon-elon, Ka Luis, 1, M11-5-1, M86-3-1, M21, M11, M69, M5B2, M30, M45, M36-4- AG5, GV3, M13, XO, M97, M11, M45-1 2, M4-3-1 Laguna – Wag-wag Aga, Sampaguita, BS Nagkarlan, Africa, M5-AS, M8-2-1, M62-1-2, M45, M5-B-2, M13-1-1, Aklan – Imp. Camoros, M45-1, M15-12-1, M13-1-1B, M36-4-1, M30-10-1B, M4-3-1, M3-2-1, M10-2-1 M11-5-1, M31-37-B4, M21-b1-1, M76-4-1, M2-1-1, M5-CS, M125-2, M140-1, M13-2- 1B, M5-A1, M11-5-1, M36-2-1 Quezon – AG17, AG5, M41, M35, M12-21 Capiz – LibtongAntique – AG5, AG10, 16-70D, San Mal, Milagrosa, Kadidit, Ag Camarines Sur – AG24, Elon-elon, M5-Pablo, Minantika, Red Rice, M5-BD, M5- 23, M16-3, M115- A, M48, M70, M102, M103, M106, M107CS, M21-B3, M21-B1-1, M21-37-B4, M36- 1R, M114-4 , M110, M112, M128, M131, M1431, M36-3, M36-4-1, M62-1-1, M104-2, M139-2 Agusan del Norte- PalayNegros Occidental – Wag- Damo, AG5, AG10, Sta. Maria, Sanwag, AG10, AG5, Binangan, Dinorado, Fortuna, Imp. pablo, Carandang, Bengawan, Jap 1, TapolBorong, Imp. Milagrosa, Inuwak, Macan, Red Iloilo - Kagingi, Imp. Camoros, 1, India, M5-AS, M117, M11-20-1, M11-20-Borong, Sampaguita, White Borong, Zambales, 2R- Malido, Lubang, Inuwak, red Borong, B2, M4-4B, M5C, MC14-2R, M87-W, M6-IN, 90D-42, 90D-43, 90D-44 Bugana Rice, GL1-8-1, GL4-5- M15-12-1R, M10-2-1 14-1-15, GL4-9, M10-2-1, M104-1R, M11-20-1, M117-1R, M127-3, M13-2, M133-1, M139-1, M15-12-1, M20-1, M21-37-B4, M22-2-1, M36-1, M36-4-1, M4-4B, M5-BD, M50-1- Surigao del Sur – San Pablo, M2-1-1, M50-2, M5-AS, M62-1-1, M62-1-2, M6-6, M69-3-1, M8-2- 1, M5-BD, M13-2-1B, M3-4-1, M93-11, M8-3-1, M90-2, M90-LG, MV4-4, Mv4-8 Bohol - Melobina, Maragay, Ag 5, Magsanaya, M148-1, SKK Zamboanga del Sur – White Bengawan, Red Elon- Davao del Norte – AG5, Layong elon, Red Wag-wag, AG5, AG17, C35, M101-1-1, M112- Mabilog, Cicadiz, Sampaguita, Milagrosa, Hinuma 4, M115-6, M76-3-1, M8-1-1-2, M86-4-1, M97-2-1, M35-1- y, Malagkit, Tinangi, Bogret, Camoros, San 4-1, M97-ES, M5-AS, M15-12 Pablo, Red Wag-wag, Wag-wag Aga, M35, 4-11- 90, M21-4-1, M58, M50, M59, M75-1, M4-4-B2 Lanao del Norte – Ala, Wag-wag Aga, Sulig, Hinumay, AG5, M15-12- Davao del Sur – AG5, M117-3, M15-12- 1, M19, M68, M91, M86-4-1, M109, M117-1- 1, M117, M95-5, M5-AS 1R, M108-1R, M36-2, M86-4-1, M8-3-1 North Cotabato – C21, Moguama South Cotabato – Africa, Nagdami, Vahari, Vadani, BS Nagkarlan, Maligaya San Pablo, AG5, M2, Rice, Pinitumpo, AG5, Puro-puro, San pablo, Tinagi, M35-1-2- M3-1-1, M5-CS 1, M67-2-1, M5-BD, M26-4-1, M115-1A, M108-1R, M5-C3, M5- Bukidnon – Lubang, C18, Senador, Wag-wag Aga, Bengawan Puti, red Elon-elon, Red Borong, AG24, Bogret, Makagina, Mamintana, Pungko, Sologanon, SP Red, Sta. Maria, Sto. Niño, Sulig, AG5, Maligaya CS, M4-4B, M36-4-1, M14-1-1, M11-6-1, M123-2, M129-1, M10- Rice, AG10, Puro-puro, Red Binato, M5-BD, C11-4, Dong Red, M76-1, M94, M15-12-1, M3-4-1, M35-3-1, 2-2-5, M11-20-1, M11-6-1, M30-10-1B, M36-4, M-AS, M5- M51-1-1, M51-2, M5-C, M70-1W, M75-1, M86-1, M90-LG, M93-1 B2, M94-4-1,, M11-6-1, M126-1-2, M13-21B, M131-1, M146- 1, 21-2-B2, M15-12-1
    • Number of Traditional Rice Varieties (TRVs) andMasipag rice with special characteristics. Characteristic / Traditional Masipag Adaptation rice varieties riceHigh tillering capacity - 42Good ratooning ability - 24Low fertility soils 12 36Drought tolerance 8 9Saltwater tolerance 7 12Flooding tolerance 1 7Pest/disease resistance 6 17Red / Black/Violet 152 79
    • Rice varieties tolerant to climate change Drought tolerant – Elon-elon, San Solano, Nueva Vizcaya Vicente, Palawan, M160- 1 Salt Water tolerant– Loreto, Binulungan, M115- Calabanga, Cam Sur 1R, M45-1 Bato, Cam Sur Flood tolerant – M116-2, M115-1R, M160- 1, M45-1, PBB 401 Drought tolerantt – Drought tolerant – Batbatngon, Leyte Senador, Hubanib M6-14-1R Patnongon, Antique Alimodian, Iloilo Libagon, Southern Leyte Drought tolerant – Drought tolerant – M148-2, M394-1, M51- Red Borong, Zambales 2, M177-3, M74-1 MLD 4-1 Flood tolerant – Sta. Josefa, Agusan del Sur JDC 3 , JDC8, Dalagang Bukid Malng, North Cotabato Drought tolerant – M4-3-1, HinumayLegends: Sultan Kudarat, Saranggani Salt water tolerant – Farmer-bred lines Jasmine, Kanoni, Elon- Traditional rice varieties elon, Makaginga, Binulawan MASIPAG Selections
    • Using locally available resources for Soil Fertility Management Fermented Plant Juice, Fish Amino Acid, Indigenous microorganismsSoil Fertility Management Compost, Vermicompost Green manure
    • Alternative Pest Management Ecosystem balance to avoid Pests and Diseases Farm Management Practices • Soil nutrient management • Method and time of planting • Water management Crop and Varietal • Crop rotation Diversification Avoid pesticide use Insect Soil fertility Pest, Pathogens, Weed Method of planting Technology Development by Farmers
    • Diversified farm: better nutrition, betterincome; also coping mechanism toclimate change Eunie Geraldo’s Farm Malitbog, Bukidnon Philippines
    • Multifunctionality: Diversified and integrated farming systemsFarm Diversification Ducks: Natural pest control Livestock: Bank in the backyard!
    • Better food security and resiliency through biodiversityMASIPAG farmers use 42-51 different crops >>>14-16 crops more than the conventional farmers• Tuber crops are food insurance (sweet potato, cassava, taro, yam)• Resilient crops (banana)• Sturdy crops (coconut) > non-traditional food crops• Livestock
    • Farmer-Developed andAdapted Technologies Pangi leaves used as botanical pest control by Doming of Zamboanga del Sur Carabao driven rotary used in rice farming by Abraham of Sultan Kudarat
    • Local marketing ofOrganic Certification and Marketing organic products Farmers’ Guarantee System: • Organic standards • Internal quality control • Product and market development • Processing facilities • Management capacity bldg.
    • Improved Productivity: Mean yield of rice (kg/ha) (n=840) Masipag Masipag Chemical Organic In Conversion FarmingLuzon 3,743ns 3,436ns 3,851nsVisayas 2,683ns 2,470ns 2,626nsMindanao 3,767ns 3,864ns 4,131ns(Maximum) (8,710) (10,400) (8,070)
    • Improved Income: Net agricultural income per hectare (Pesos) (n=840) Masipag Masipag In Chemical Organic Conversion FarmingLuzon 24,412** 18,991** 13,403**Visayas 22,868** 16,039** 13,728**Mindanao 23,715ns 17,362ns 19,588nsAverage 23,599*** 17,457*** 15,643***** = highly significant differences ( 5%)*** = very highly significant differences (1%)ns = no significant difference
    • Improved Income:Annual Balance of Income and Expenditure per Household (in Pesos) (n=840) Masipag Masipag In Chemical Organic Conversion FarmingLuzon 11,331 9,702 -1,266Visayas -1,090 287 -4,974Mindanao 5,481 -232 -7,399
    •  Species and varietal diversity are important resources to increase farm productivity, food security and resiliency Farmers have a role to play in maintaining crop diversity in a useful and sustainable way