Productivity, environment, climate and food security –how can agriculture meet the challenges?


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  • The transfer of externalities to the general society (at large and the future generations) has lead to cheap food and so wastage
  • Productivity, environment, climate and food security –how can agriculture meet the challenges?

    1. 1. Productivity, environment, climate and food security – how can agriculture meet the challenges?<br />Hans R. Herren<br /><br /><br />Co-Chair IAASTD<br />Coordinator UNEP GER Agriculture Chapter<br />Swedish Society for Nature Conservation (SSNC)<br />Royal Swedish Academy for Forestry and Agriculture, 8 September 2011<br />
    2. 2. Productivity, environment, climate and food security – how can agriculture meet the challenges?<br />…by developing and implementing new policies informed by the key findings and options for action emanating from the IAASTD report<br />“Agriculture at a Crossroads”<br />
    3. 3. The IAASTD Reports <br /> (<br />Co-Chairs: Hans R Herren & Judy Whakungu<br />Director: Bob Watson<br />K<br />Multi-stakeholder: 400 authors, 52 countries <br />Multi-disciplinary<br />Multi-locational: Global / sub-Global Reports<br />
    4. 4. The IAASTD<br />IAASTD Development and Sustainability Goals (=MDG = <br />the 4 main areas where agriculture needs to transition):<br />• Eradicating of Hunger and Poverty<br /> • Improving Rural Livelihoods<br />• Improving Nutrition and Human Health<br /> • Facilitating Environmentally, Socially, Equitable and Economically Sustainable Development<br />…under the challenges of:<br />• Climate Change<br />• Population and Demand Growth<br />• Growing inequity<br />• Shrinking Natural Resources / Energy<br />
    5. 5. Agriculture a main problem: the green revolution<br />Bases of green revolution is unsustainable (E-S-E)<br />David Tilman et al. Science 2001 <br />
    6. 6. Understanding the consequences: <br />Climate change<br />Source: Stern Review<br />
    7. 7. Understanding the consequences: <br />CC and water / temperature stresses<br />0%<br />2080<br />-50%<br />-15%<br />+35%<br />+15%<br />
    8. 8. Understanding the consequences: <br />overproduction, conversion and wastage<br />
    9. 9. Main conclusions of the IAASTD<br />“a fundamental shift in AKST and the linked agri-food system policies, institutions, capacity development and investments”<br />Paradigm change: Transition to sustainable / organic /ecological agri - culture<br />i.e., addresses multifunctionality and resilience<br />needs of the small-scale and family farms (social & economic: equity issue, farmer status, land ownership, empowerment, women), quality job creation; <br />• systemic and holistic approach (basic ecological principles); treat cause not symptoms;is part of the solution to hunger, poverty, health, CC <br />
    10. 10. Challenges and options for action (IAASTD NAE)<br />
    11. 11. IAASTD Agriculture at a Crossroads<br /> 2009<br />“Agriculture for Development” <br />(WDR 08, World Bank)<br />“The Environmental Food Crisis” 2009<br />(UNEP)<br />“A Viable Food Future” 2010 <br />(The Development Fund)<br />“Innovations that Nourish the Planet”<br />(SOW 11, World Watch Institute)<br />“Securing Future Food” 2010 <br />(UK Food Group)<br />“The future of food and Farming”<br />2011 (UK Foresight)<br />“Green Economy Report” 2011<br />(UNEP)<br />“Save and Grow” FAO 2011<br />
    12. 12. Agriculture the main solution: Multifunctionality paradigm for sustainable development<br />livable<br />equitable<br />sustainable<br />viable<br />
    13. 13. Agriculture the main solution: ..via a transition to sustainable, organic, <br />agroecological, resilient, equitable agriculture<br />High productivity<br />Low productivity<br />Sustainable<br />Un-sustainable<br />
    14. 14. Agroecology and Sustainable Development<br />Solidarius certification<br />Fair market Commercialization<br />Extension Methodologies<br />Legislation (policies)<br />Cultural<br />Socio-economics<br />Conventional <br />System<br />Agroecology<br />Conversion<br />Environmental<br />Alternative inputs <br />Participatory research<br />Farmer to farmer network<br />Institutional partnerships<br />Slide courtesy M. Altieri<br />
    15. 15. Agroecology<br />Agroecology is the study of the interactions between plants, animals, humans and the environment within agricultural systems.<br />Consequently, agroecology is inherently multidisciplinary, including factors from agronomy, ecology, sociology and economics. In this case, the “-ecology” portion of "agroecology is defined broadly to include social, cultural, and economic contexts as well (Dalgaard et al.2003)<br />
    16. 16. The Green way ahead: Organic <br />agriculture (+resilience)<br />Organic<br />Conventional<br />In 1995 –drought year<br />
    17. 17. Green way ahead: <br />……..using the gifts of nature, habitat management<br />
    18. 18. The Green way ahead: Animals on farm<br />It is<br />imperative to<br />put the<br />animals back<br />on farm:<br />sanitation,<br />health, <br />carbon cycle,<br />sustainability<br />
    19. 19. The Green way ahead: SRI: System <br />of rice (and othercrops) intensification<br />
    20. 20. Green way ahead: <br />…no chemicals? more numbers 1:242 cost:benefits<br />
    21. 21. Green way ahead: Biotechnology and genetic engineering<br />
    22. 22. Green way ahead: genetic engineering: less choices, diversity..<br />David Quist, 2010 pers com<br />
    23. 23. The Green way ahead: More diversity (plants and animals)<br /> Encouraging a wider genetic base in agriculture…trees, fruits, grains, vegetables, lost crops, animals<br />for nutrition, cultural diversity, incomes, pest control, resilience to climate change <br />
    24. 24. The Green way ahead: Appropriate mechanization<br />
    25. 25. Green way ahead: is knowledge intensive<br />Improve and expand extension services (ICT) <br />Introduce capacity building (ICT)<br />Agriculture is very localized = local solutions<br />Example: Biovision’s Farmer Communication Program<br />
    26. 26. The forward looking scenarios: <br />Analysis and investments<br />Global investments across sectors (1% and 2% of GDP); 0.2% and 0.32% of GDP invested in AG and fisheries (50-50).<br /><ul><li> Pre harvest losses (training activities and effective pesticide (emphasis on natural/bio products) use)
    27. 27. Ag management practices (costs to transition from till to no till agriculture, training, access to small mechanization)
    28. 28. R&D (research on crop improvement, soil science and agronomy, appropriate mechanization, and more)
    29. 29. Food processing (better storage and processing in rural areas)</li></ul>In addition, need to invest in the “enabling conditions” (infrastructure, institutions, governance)<br />
    30. 30. The forward looking scenarios: <br />Its all connected…….system dynamics<br />Land Loss & Flooding<br />Food Production<br />Health Catastrophes<br />Energy Sector<br />Human Population<br />Migration<br />Fresh Water<br />Global Warming<br />
    31. 31. Agriculture in a Green Economy (UNEP Report – 2011)<br />Investing between 0.1% and 0.16% of total GDP ($83-$141 Billion) / year<br />
    32. 32. The way ahead<br />Rio+20 <br />What are the optionswhen “Business as usual” is not an option?<br />When is: NOW<br />We have the key findings and options for action from the IAASTD report series…<br />Now is time to implement them<br />understand and remove the roadblocks, expand the multistakeholder process and link it to other policy relevant processes (CFS, etc) <br />
    33. 33. The way ahead<br />
    34. 34. You cannot solve the problem with the same kind of thinking that created the problem. Albert Einstein<br /><br />Thank you<br />