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Productivity, environment, climate and food security –how can agriculture meet the challenges?
 

Productivity, environment, climate and food security –how can agriculture meet the challenges?

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  • The transfer of externalities to the general society (at large and the future generations) has lead to cheap food and so wastage

Productivity, environment, climate and food security –how can agriculture meet the challenges? Productivity, environment, climate and food security –how can agriculture meet the challenges? Presentation Transcript

  • Productivity, environment, climate and food security – how can agriculture meet the challenges?
    Hans R. Herren
    Presidentwww.millennium-institute.org
    Presidentwww.biovision.ch
    Co-Chair IAASTD www.agassessment.org
    Coordinator UNEP GER Agriculture Chapter
    Swedish Society for Nature Conservation (SSNC)
    Royal Swedish Academy for Forestry and Agriculture, 8 September 2011
  • Productivity, environment, climate and food security – how can agriculture meet the challenges?
    …by developing and implementing new policies informed by the key findings and options for action emanating from the IAASTD report
    “Agriculture at a Crossroads”
  • The IAASTD Reports
    (www.agassessment.org)
    Co-Chairs: Hans R Herren & Judy Whakungu
    Director: Bob Watson
    K
    Multi-stakeholder: 400 authors, 52 countries
    Multi-disciplinary
    Multi-locational: Global / sub-Global Reports
  • The IAASTD
    IAASTD Development and Sustainability Goals (=MDG =
    the 4 main areas where agriculture needs to transition):
    • Eradicating of Hunger and Poverty
    • Improving Rural Livelihoods
    • Improving Nutrition and Human Health
    • Facilitating Environmentally, Socially, Equitable and Economically Sustainable Development
    …under the challenges of:
    • Climate Change
    • Population and Demand Growth
    • Growing inequity
    • Shrinking Natural Resources / Energy
  • Agriculture a main problem: the green revolution
    Bases of green revolution is unsustainable (E-S-E)
    David Tilman et al. Science 2001
  • Understanding the consequences:
    Climate change
    Source: Stern Review
  • Understanding the consequences:
    CC and water / temperature stresses
    0%
    2080
    -50%
    -15%
    +35%
    +15%
  • Understanding the consequences:
    overproduction, conversion and wastage
  • Main conclusions of the IAASTD
    “a fundamental shift in AKST and the linked agri-food system policies, institutions, capacity development and investments”
    Paradigm change: Transition to sustainable / organic /ecological agri - culture
    i.e., addresses multifunctionality and resilience
    needs of the small-scale and family farms (social & economic: equity issue, farmer status, land ownership, empowerment, women), quality job creation;
    • systemic and holistic approach (basic ecological principles); treat cause not symptoms;is part of the solution to hunger, poverty, health, CC
  • Challenges and options for action (IAASTD NAE)
  • IAASTD Agriculture at a Crossroads
    2009
    “Agriculture for Development”
    (WDR 08, World Bank)
    “The Environmental Food Crisis” 2009
    (UNEP)
    “A Viable Food Future” 2010
    (The Development Fund)
    “Innovations that Nourish the Planet”
    (SOW 11, World Watch Institute)
    “Securing Future Food” 2010
    (UK Food Group)
    “The future of food and Farming”
    2011 (UK Foresight)
    “Green Economy Report” 2011
    (UNEP)
    “Save and Grow” FAO 2011
  • Agriculture the main solution: Multifunctionality paradigm for sustainable development
    livable
    equitable
    sustainable
    viable
  • Agriculture the main solution: ..via a transition to sustainable, organic,
    agroecological, resilient, equitable agriculture
    High productivity
    Low productivity
    Sustainable
    Un-sustainable
  • Agroecology and Sustainable Development
    Solidarius certification
    Fair market Commercialization
    Extension Methodologies
    Legislation (policies)
    Cultural
    Socio-economics
    Conventional
    System
    Agroecology
    Conversion
    Environmental
    Alternative inputs
    Participatory research
    Farmer to farmer network
    Institutional partnerships
    Slide courtesy M. Altieri
  • Agroecology
    Agroecology is the study of the interactions between plants, animals, humans and the environment within agricultural systems.
    Consequently, agroecology is inherently multidisciplinary, including factors from agronomy, ecology, sociology and economics. In this case, the “-ecology” portion of "agroecology is defined broadly to include social, cultural, and economic contexts as well (Dalgaard et al.2003)
  • The Green way ahead: Organic
    agriculture (+resilience)
    Organic
    Conventional
    In 1995 –drought year
  • Green way ahead:
    ……..using the gifts of nature, habitat management
  • The Green way ahead: Animals on farm
    It is
    imperative to
    put the
    animals back
    on farm:
    sanitation,
    health,
    carbon cycle,
    sustainability
  • The Green way ahead: SRI: System
    of rice (and othercrops) intensification
  • Green way ahead:
    …no chemicals? more numbers 1:242 cost:benefits
  • Green way ahead: Biotechnology and genetic engineering
  • Green way ahead: genetic engineering: less choices, diversity..
    David Quist, 2010 pers com
  • The Green way ahead: More diversity (plants and animals)
    Encouraging a wider genetic base in agriculture…trees, fruits, grains, vegetables, lost crops, animals
    for nutrition, cultural diversity, incomes, pest control, resilience to climate change
  • The Green way ahead: Appropriate mechanization
  • Green way ahead: is knowledge intensive
    Improve and expand extension services (ICT)
    Introduce capacity building (ICT)
    Agriculture is very localized = local solutions
    Example: Biovision’s Farmer Communication Program
  • The forward looking scenarios:
    Analysis and investments
    Global investments across sectors (1% and 2% of GDP); 0.2% and 0.32% of GDP invested in AG and fisheries (50-50).
    • Pre harvest losses (training activities and effective pesticide (emphasis on natural/bio products) use)
    • Ag management practices (costs to transition from till to no till agriculture, training, access to small mechanization)
    • R&D (research on crop improvement, soil science and agronomy, appropriate mechanization, and more)
    • Food processing (better storage and processing in rural areas)
    In addition, need to invest in the “enabling conditions” (infrastructure, institutions, governance)
  • The forward looking scenarios:
    Its all connected…….system dynamics
    Land Loss & Flooding
    Food Production
    Health Catastrophes
    Energy Sector
    Human Population
    Migration
    Fresh Water
    Global Warming
  • Agriculture in a Green Economy (UNEP Report – 2011)
    Investing between 0.1% and 0.16% of total GDP ($83-$141 Billion) / year
  • The way ahead
    Rio+20
    What are the optionswhen “Business as usual” is not an option?
    When is: NOW
    We have the key findings and options for action from the IAASTD report series…
    Now is time to implement them
    understand and remove the roadblocks, expand the multistakeholder process and link it to other policy relevant processes (CFS, etc)
  • The way ahead
  • You cannot solve the problem with the same kind of thinking that created the problem. Albert Einstein
    hansrherren@mac.com
    Thank you