September 1987Honourable Clifford LincolnPresident of the Canadian Council ofResource and Environment MinistersDear Mr. Lincoln: It is our pleasure to present theReport of the National Task Force onEnvironment and Economy to you, asPresident of the Canadian Council ofResource and Environment Ministers. Our report contains recommenda-tions for actions which we feel willassist Canada in its efforts to integrateenvironmental and economic decisionmaking. The Task Force members areunanimous in their desire to ensurethat progress is made on this importantissue. / .. I, / ,. -32%Gerard LecuyerTask Force ChairmanRoy AitkenTask Force Vice-ChairmanAcknowledgementsThe Task Force would like to gratefullyacknowledge the efforts of its Secreta-riat in the preparation of this report.The 22 member group was composedof civil servants, corporate officials andenvironmental interest groups repre-sentatives, who all gave freely of theirtime, talent and energy. Litho’d in Canada
FOREWORDNATIONAL TASK FORCE ON ENVIRONMENT AND ECONOMY The National Task Force on Envi- on Environment and Development, and Members of the Task Force share aronment and Economy was established in particular, the special meeting of the common desire to improve upon exis-by the Canadian Council of Resource World Commission with members of ting processes which result in economicand Environment Ministers (CCREM) CCREM in Edmonton, Alberta, during and environmental decisions and toin October 1986 to initiate dialogue on their visit. CCREM also asked the Task remove barriers to environmentallyenvironment-economy integration Force to consider the findings of the sound economic development. Theamong Canada’s environment minis- World Conservation Strategy Confer- Task Force believes that sustainableters, senior executive officers from ence held in Ottawa in June 1986, economic development is central toCanadian industry, and representatives where worldwide progress on conser- continued economic prosperity bothfrom environmental organizations and vation strategy development was within Canada and throughout thethe academic community. CCREM reviewed. world.asked the Task Force to recommend The mandate of the Task Force hasactions and to report back in September been to foster and promote environ- Introdtiction .................... 11987. mentally sound economic development. The Task Force was formed as a Task Force members have approached Towards Sustainable Economicdirect follow-up to the visit to Canada this mandate with recognition of and Development ................... 3in May 1986 of the World Commission support for the main conclusions and recommendations of the World Com- Informed Decision Making ...... 4 mission on Environment and Develop- ment. In its final report, Our Common Leadership ...................... 6 Future, which was released in April 1987, the World Commission expressed Round Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IO optimism that the world can solve its environmental and economic develop- Conservation Strategies . . . . . . . . . 12 ment problems “in a more open, fair and just manner in a new era of eco- International Responsibilities . . . . 14 nomic growth”. Communications and Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Follow up 1.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 2
INTRoDucnoN IN TRUST FOR FUTURE GENERATIONS This report contains ideas and These ideals cannot easily be put ronmental considerations are essential recommendations into practice through for bringing Canada’s political, social to social and economic planning, Can- environment and continued economicand economic structures which have ada’s cabinet chambers and board development into harmony. Our mainbeen designed for other purposes. The rooms must assume new responsibili- objective is to promote principles of shared responsibility environmentally and ties. We have made recommendations sound economic growth and develop- integrated decision making must on leadership in government and indus- become the foundation for try which reflect and reinforce these our institutions and guide our responsibilities. We have also recogniz- “All CQIU&,IIZS have a major U& to play in key decision makers. One of ed the leadership role played by non- government organizations with respect making sustainable development a reality.” the most important of our recommendations proposes a to the early identification and public Honourable Gerard Lecuyer new cooperative initiative to debate on environmental issues. Minister of Environment, Manitoba integrate economic and envi- We are in basic agreement with the report of the World Commission on “It is time for government and business to :~~~~r~~~~p~~~~~~~~~~~eh Environment and Development, and come together to deal with these issues.” of senior decision makers in have made recommendations to contin- Roy Aitken every province and territory ue and to strengthen Canada’s role in Executive Vice-President and at the national level in the international movement to inte- Into Limited Canada. We have called for grate environmental protection and the creation of Round Tables economic development. We have given on Environment and Eco- our support to Canada playing an even ment, not to promote either economic nomy, to provide a forum for these larger role in projects demonstrating// growth or environmental protection in decision makers to work towards a the linkage of economic and environ- isolation. Complete integration of the consensus on this fundamental issue. mental concerns and in international! environment and the economy would We give support to the develop- negotiations and discussions dealingI be a tall order in any country; it is made ment of “conservation strategies” in with development and trade.I no easier by the complexities of the every Canadian jurisdiction. Our pri- We have made recommendations/ Canadian mosaic. We believe, however, mary interest in such strategies is to to increase public participation through/ that such integration is possible. In fact, use them as a basis for development better understanding of this issue. InI/ we believe it is absolutely necessary. which ensures that the utilization of particular, we have recommended that/ With good will, leadership and new resources today does not damage the our children be given substantiallyI processes for decision making and plan- prospects of future generations for improved environmental education at ning, we can meet our responsibility to maintaining or improving their use. We the elementary and high school levels, future Canadians by managing care- are convinced that the problems of the along with a greater understanding of fully and protecting the resources we past can be largely avoided by making the concept of sustainable economic hold in trust for them. use of the technologies and knowledge development. Our recommendations reflect the that we already possess or are now In formulating our recommend- principles that we hold in common with developing. We, therefore, recommend ations, we have taken into account the the World Commission on Environ- the development of conservation stra- different degrees of development and ment and Development (WCED). These tegies as a valuable multisectoral different economic and environmental include the fundamental belief that approach to defining and implementing circumstances in various jurisdictions in environmental and economic planning sustainable economic development. Canada. The recommendations reflect a cannot proceed in separate spheres. We have made specific recommen- consensus on the types of action whichI, Long-term economic growth depends dations to explore tools and techniques should be considered in all parts of! which can assist all of us to better Canada, recognizing the progress whichI on a healthy environment. It also affects the environment in many ways. understand the linkages between the some jurisdictions have already made Ensuring environmentally sound and environment and the economy. In this on several of our recommendations. sustainable economic development way it will be increasingly possible to Implementation of the recommen-I requires the technology and wealth that provide incentive systems which lead dations, in total, will require a commit-I, is generated by continued economic more systematically to economically ment of significant money, time andI growth. Economic and environmental and environmentally sound effort. We urge the establishment of, planning and management must there- development. funding and support mechanisms, fore be integrated. Given the recognition that envi- through relevant programs, donations1 or endowments to foundations or other methods of support. We acknowledgeI that we are only at the beginning of aI//! long road leading towards a healthy andI prosperous future. The time to start in earnest is now.I1, 2I/I
TowARDs SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC DEW~E~~ENT ENVIRONMENT IS WHERE WE ALL WVE; DEVELOPMENT IS WHAT WE All DO. The economy and its participants preservation of the current stock of Efforts have been made in Canadaexist within the environment, not out- natural resources or any particular mix to achieve sustainable economic deve-side it; we cannot expect to maintain of human, physical and natural assets. lopment. The greatest weakness ineconomic prosperity unless we protect Nor does it place artificial limits on eco- these efforts has been the sectoralthe environment and our resource base, nomic growth, provided that such approach to planning and development.the building blocks of development. growth is both economically and envi- This too is starting to change, but theCorrespondingly, economic growth and ronmentally sustainable. Sus-prosperity provide us with the capabil- tainable economic develop-ity to support wise resource manage- ment implies that resources ‘It is not possible to have a sound economyment and protect environmental qua- and the environment must be without a healthy environment.”lity. For this reason, we support the managed for the long term, Honourable Tom McMillangoal of sustainable economic develop- taking into account their pos- Minister of Environment, Canadament, which we generally define as sible value in the future asdevelopmentutilization which ensures of resources that the and the envi- well as their value now. “Environmental and economic concerns Governments and indus-ronment today does not damage pros- try have reacted to correct must go hand in hand. ”pects for their use by future many of the problems created David Buzzelligenerations. by past mismanagement of Chairman and President At the core of the concept of sus- the environment. Sustainable Dow Chemical Canada Inc.tainable development is the require- economic development callsment that current practices should not for a different approach. It would process must be accelerated. Govern-diminish the possibility of maintaining minimize environmental impact and ments increasingly recognize that theyor improving living standards in the future clean-up costs by advanced and -hold resources in trust for both presentfuture. This means that our economic integrated planning. In a phrase, the and future generations. Industry issystems should be managed to maintain remedial, reactive approach would be increasingly working towards long-or improve our resource and environ- replaced by “anticipate and prevent” as term environmental solutions. Limitedmental base so that the generations the dominant concept underlying progress to date by all sectors is athat follow will be able to live equally environment-economy integration. reflection cf the complexity of the pro-well or better. Sustainable economic The political and economic struc- blems and of structural limitations indevelopment does not require the tures of Canada and the world are our economic, sccial and political awakening to the need to make econo- systems. mic development sustainable. Decision The goal of sustainable economic making has not yet adapted to fulfil1 development cannot be attained this need. Change is necessary, and it without significant change in the way must occur now. our economic initiatives are planned and supervised. This makes it a challen- ging goal, even more so in the Cana- dian context because it will require dif- ferent approaches in various economic sectors and political jurisdictions across the nation, although the same under- lying principles should apply to every jurisdiction. 3
INFORMED DECISlON MAKINGFINDING INCENTIVES FOR CHANGE Regulations are a necessary part of efficient and effective pollution control Informed decision making can beenvironmental management. As trus- and environmental protection techno- encouraged and demonstrated by prac-tees of the environment, governments logies and practices. We must also seek tical examples. To indicate new direc-must act with vigour to protect it. But to value environmental amenities such tions by concrete examples, we urgeregulation is only one element of the as recreational opportunities and aes- the use of demonstration projects (pro-solution: Canada has a mixed economy, thetic attributes that contribute to jefs exempIificafeurs). These can be used to quality of life. It is not appro- test new concepts or illustrate new priate to quantify all intangi- methodologies, but most importantly,“We must not just say but show that ble values in terms of dollars to prove that integrated environmentalthe environment andfhe economy and cents, nor is it appro- and economic planning can work effec- priate to base all decisions tively. Many such projects already existm ust work toget her. ” solely on cost-benefit analy- and should be given greater recogni- Honourable Clifford Lincoln sis. Methods do exist, how- tion. New projects should be developed Minister of Environment, Quebec ever, which can be used to where opportunities exist and these“Agreement on . problem definition is apply economic weights or should be communicated to the public values to environmental and shared with other jurisdictions andcruFia1 to a successfd outcome. ” resources, attributes, effects industries. Ian Smyth and benefits which are not To establish new measures of President otherwise bought and sold. success, we urge that outstanding Canadian Petroleum Association We should use these methods achievements in environmentally sound where they make sense and economic development be formallyand the market system with its energy where they can contribute to fair and recognized and widely publicized.and technological creativity must also equitable decision making. Awards of excellence and demonstra-contribute to the solution. In order to We must improve our ability to tion projects can be among the initia-do this, we must develop new tools and forecast the impact of new kinds of tives considered by the proposed Round techniques for informed decision development and new industrial pro- Tables on Environment and Economy. making. cesses and products. Technological We must strengthen our data base innovation can pose threats to the on resource distribution and environ- workplace and the environment, but it mental quality, and we must share such can also be used to enhance workplace data more efficiently and more quickly safety and environmental quality. The between jurisdictions. We strongly sup- development of new processes and port efforts to develop state of the techniques which make less use of environment reporting at the provin- hazardous materials or control them cial, territorial and national levels as a better must be a priority. Incentives to primary means of sharing our data and increase the likelihood of such deve- communicating effectively to the public lopments should be put in place. In a on the use and quality of our resources new era of economic growth, the deve- and environment. lopment of clean industrial technology We must further explore and deve- will be essential. Clean technology and lop methods for the valuation of the research and expertise which it resources such as water, soil and requires represent an important com- forests. We must explore the pricing of ponent of the growing “environmental” these resources and review the practice economic sector. of discounting future benefits and costs in order to factor the needs of future generations into present development decisions. Pricing mechanisms can be used to ensure that costs are equitably distributed, and can induce both public and private sector agencies to adopt 4
INFORMED DECISION MAUNGFINDING INCENTIVES FOR CHANGE Regulations are a necessary part of efficient and effective pollution control Informed decision making can beenvironmental management. As trus- and environmental protection techno- encouraged and demonstrated by prac-tees of the environment, governments logies and practices. We must also seek tical examples. To indicate new direc-must act with vigour to protect it. But to value environmental amenities such tions by concrete examples, we urgeregulation is only one element of the as recreational opportunities and aes- the use of demonstration projects (pro-solution: Canada has a mixed economy, thetic attributes that contribute to jets exemplificateurs). These can be used to quality of life. It is not appro- test new concepts or illustrate new priate to quantify all intangi- methodologies, but most importantly,“We must not just - say but show that ble values in terms of dollars to prove that integrated environmentalthe environment and the economy Y and cents, nor is it appro- and economic planning can work effec-must work together. ” priate to base all decisions tively. Many such projects already exist solely on cost-benefit analy- and should be given greater recogni- Honourable Clifford Lincoln sis. Methods do exist, how- tion. New projects should be developed Minister of Environment, Quebec ever, which can be used to where opportunities exist and these“Agreement on problem definition is apply economic weights or should be communicated to the public values to environmental and shared with other jurisdictions andcrGa1 to a successful outcome. ” resources, attributes, effects industries. 1 . . Ian bmyth and benefits which are not To establish new measures of President otherwise bought and sold. success, we urge that outstanding Canadian Petroleum Association We should use these methods achievements in environmentally sound where they make sense and economic development be formallyand the market system with its energy where they can contribute to fair and recognized and widely publicized.and technological creativity must also equitable decision making. Awards of excellence and demonstra-contribute to the solution. In order to We must improve our ability to tion projects can be among the initia-do this, we must develop new tools and forecast the impact of new kinds of tives considered by the proposed Roundtechniques for informed decision development and new industrial pro- Tables on Environment and Economy.making. cesses and products. Technological We must strengthen our data base innovation can pose threats to theon resource distribution and environ- workplace and the environment, but itmental quality, and we must share such can also be used to enhance workplacedata more efficiently and more quickly safety and environmental quality. Thebetween jurisdictions. We strongly sup- development of new processes andport efforts to develop state of the techniques which make less use ofenvironment reporting at the provin- hazardous materials or control themcial, territorial and national levels as a better must be a priority. Incentives toprimary means of sharing our data and increase the likelihood of such deve-communicating effectively to the public lopments should be put in place. In aon the use and quality of our resources new era of economic growth, the deve-and environment. lopment of clean industrial technology We must further explore and deve- will be essential. Clean technology andlop methods for the valuation of the research and expertise which itresources such as water, soil and requires represent an important com-forests. We must explore the pricing of ponent of the growing “environmental”these resources and review the practice economic sector.of discounting future benefits and costsin order to factor the needs of futuregenerations into present developmentdecisions. Pricing mechanisms can be used to ensure that costs are equitablydistributed, and can induce both public and private sector agencies to adopt 4
RECOMMENDATIONS To enhance understanding of the - Information generation and reporting 1.5 Greater resources must belinkages between the environment and systems such as state of the environ- dedicated to cooperative research andthe economy, the Task Force makes the ment reporting. the development of common data basesfollowing recommendations: - Improved techniques for the valua- by governments and industry. 1.1 Government, industry, acade- tion of environmental stresses and the 1.6 Special emphasis is required onmic and other non-government organiz- benefits of environmental protection. research into and promotion of wasteations should develop new tools and - Economic incentives which promote disposal and recycling, as well as envir-improve existing tools which achieve effective environmental protection by onmental clean-up and enhancementmore efficient and effective envir - business. technologies and techniques.onment-economy integration. These 1.7 More research is needed on 1.2 Government, industry and non-tools should include consideration of, the concept of sustainable economic government organizations should useand where appropriate, application of: development and the linkages between multipartite processes to deal with spe-- Analytical methodologies and techni- cific issues, projects or programs. economic development and the envir-ques such as cost-benefit analysis, risk onment so that we can better under- 1.3 Various jurisdictions and eco-assessment, and increased use of envir- stand those linkages and apply data and nomic research organizations, such asonmental impact assessment. information to make better decisions. the Economic Council of Canada,- Economic mechanisms such as should explore opportunities and pric- 1.8 Specific projects demonstratingcontaminant charge schemes, trade- ing mechanisms for promoting efficient environment-economy integration (pro-able emission/discharge rights, financial resource utilization and environmental $5 exumplifirafrurs) should be developedassurance and performance deposits, quality. and implemented, with multisectoralinvestment tax credits, credits for involvement, in every province/ 1.4 A system for measuring theexceeding environmental standards, territory and at the national level. contribution of the environment sector,and reduced interest bonds. including natural resources, to the 1.9 Outstanding work on national economy and national wealth environment-economy integration and should be developed, drawing upon the environmental excellence should be work of existing organizations (e.g. the recognized by awards. The proposed Economic Council of Canada, Statistics Round Tables should make these Canada). awards annually. The Round Tables should also identify projects which suc- cessfully integrate environment and economic development, and communic- ate these projects to the public.
__---~ - -___I___--- ._--___-.- ._._. ---- .--- - --__-_.. LEADERSHIP RECOGNIZING RESPONSlBIUTlES In a new era of environmentally The First Ministers regularly resources and protect the environment. sound economic development, a full address economic development issues at All corporations should adopt codes of partnership of governments, industry, federal-provincial conferences. Envir- practice which enshrine this non-government organizations and the onmental issues should have compar- responsibility. general public must guide us through able and closely linked prominence. Industry leaders recognize the an integrated approach to environment Such top level coordination must also direct benefits of reduced clean-up and take place at the highest remedial costs and the indirect benefits levels within governments. in quality of life to be achieved by envir- “Without environmental securitv, there This includes cabinet commit- onmentally sound economic develop- can be no economic security, and leadership tees and key economic deve- ment. What is best for the environ- lopment committees. These ment, however, may represent an is required to make this a reality. I’ committees must accent and expensive policy for individual corpora- Honourable Jim Bradley understand the interdipen- tions if their competitors are achieving Minister of Environment, Ontario dence of the economy and the lower costs by ignoring environmental environment. standards. In such cases governments “Let’s treat Canada as if we plan to stay.” Increasingly, industry have a role to play in promoting fair Susan Holtz finds that environmental and competition and ensuring environment- Ecology Action Centre economic benefits can be al protection. Such government action complementary. At times, rests upon a foundation of support by however, environmental industry, non-government organiza- and economy. Environmental organiza- benefits entail substantial expenditures, tions and, ultimately, the people of tions will continue to fulfil1 an impor- and this should be recognized as a cost Canada. tant role as advocates for the environ- of doing business. In both cases, corpor- ment. Governments and industry, ations show leadership by fulfilling however, must develop and assume their responsibility to conserve new responsibilities to successfully integrate environmental considerations into economic planning. Governments act as trustees of the resources we will pass on to future generations. Governments must there- fore exercise comprehensive and far- sighted leadership in supporting and promoting sustainable economic deve- lopment. Governments can supplement regulatory control with incentive mechanisms. They can open planning processes to participation by groups which have a stake in development decisions. They can strive for harmony in environmental standards and pro- cesses across the country. In accepting this responsibility, governments will have to change the way they approach the environment and the economy. They must integrate environmental input into decision making at the highest level. Environ- mental considerations cannot be an add-on, an afterthought. They must be made integral to economic policy making and planning and a required element of any economic development proposal. 6
Industry associations can achieve Associations can also contribute to the past decade, moreover, environmentalbetter integration of environmental environmental consciousness of small organizations have evolved considera-and economic concerns by adopting to medium sized firms, which may bly in sophistication and capability.codes of practice to govern and guide lack the resources to retain environ- Many of these organizations haveindustrial decision making. Codes of mental specialists, by sharing infor- drawn membership and expertisepractice can be used to establish mation on links between the envi- from the industry and governmentinternal goals and performance stan- ronment and the economy. sectors. Labour organizations havedards for industry on environmental The Task Force acknowledges similarly given increased priority tomatters which go beyond minimum that leadership takes many forms. workplace safety and health condi-regulatory requirements while main- While industry and governments are tions and have become strong support-taining sensitivity to costs and other major economic decision makers and ers of environmental causes. Abori-economic factors. Industry is best able must show leadership in investment ginal groups are a major force callingto assess its own capabilities and decisions and economic policy making for conservation and the preservationopportunities and should be given and planning, environmental organi- of cultural and heritage resources.incentives and recognition for improv zations are leaders in the early re- These trends are welcome and indi-ing environmental performance. cognition of and public debate on cate that we can move into a new era environmental issues. Over the of cooperation and partnership which makes both economic and environ- mental sense.
To encourage leadership in 2.2 Environment Ministers should - Ensuring that all government pro-environment-economy decision making, be members of key economic develop- cesses for screening, review and evalua-the Task Force makes the following ment and priorities and planning com- tion of economic development projectsrecommendations: mittees of cabinet, or be closely associa- include both socio-economic and envi- ted, by appropriate mechanisms, with ronmental criteria. Government these committees. Where this is not - Ensuring that every major report on 2.1 The First Ministers must already the,case, it should be implemen- economic development, and every rela-assume an overall leadership role and ted on or before September 1988. In ted cabinet document, demonstratesdemonstrate a commitment to addition, Environment Ministers must that the proposal or activity is economi-environment-economy integration by: have sufficient resources to support cally and environmentally sound.- Directing that cabinet documents and government initiatives on integration - Ensuring that all government pro-major government economic develop- of environment and economy. grams which give funding or loan guar-ment documents demonstrate that they 2.3 Environment Ministers, antees to industry are conditional onare economically and environmentally through CCREM, should continue their meeting environmental standards.sound and therefore sustainable. work towards the harmonization of - Meeting regularly to discuss- Discussing environment-economy environmental standards and legislation environment-economy integration.integration at First Ministers’ and the streamlining of processes such - Taking specific steps to open envi-Conferences. as environmental assessment across ronmental, resource and economic- Ensuring that all levels and depart- Canada. This issue should be consider- development policy making and plan-ments of government establish consul- ed by CCREM in September 1988, and ning to greater public input.tation processes which encourage and should include public and private sector consultation and involvement. - Including methods for incorporatingfacilitate public involvement and environmental assessment in allinfluence in policy making and planning 2.4 All Ministers must become federal-provincial economic develop-processes. directly responsible and accountable for ment agreements. Establishing formal mechanisms to the environmental and economic consequences of their policies, legisla- - Developing federal-provincial agree-hold M’inisters and their departments tion and programs. This can be accom- ments directed specifically at sustain-accountable for promoting environ- plished, in part, by the following activi- able economic development.mentally sound economic development. ties and mechanisms:- Developing an environmental code ofethics and principles, including princi-ples of prior notification and consulta-tion, which will provide guidance on themanagement of environmental mattersamong governments in Canada. 8
Industry 2.8 Companies which have an should make a special effort to inform impact on the environment should their members on environment- 2.5 The Business Council on economy linkages and should assist provide their boards of directors withNational Issues and the Canadian them in gaining the skills and techni- annual reviews on environmental per-Chamber of Commerce should form cal expertise necessary to operate formance and the implementation ofenvironment-economy task forces to accordingly. Industry associations are their environmental principles andprovide leadership to the business encouraged to form specific commit- policies, in order to ensure that thosecommunity on environment-economy tees or other mechanisms to deal with responsible for corporate direction areintegration. This would be in keeping environment-economy integration. fully informed.with the recommendation that the Associations and large companies pos- 2.9 Industry, in every provinceFirst Ministers discuss this issue at sessing environmental expertise and territory, should participate fullyFirst Ministers’ Conferences. should share their knowledge and in the proposed Round Tables on 2.6 Industry associations, on skills with small and medium sized Environment and Economy.behalf of their members, should business and with other associations 2.10 Industry should, as a matterendorse and support environmental and companies. of principle, seek to operate responsi-assessment as an integral part of the 2.12 Industry should support bly in all jurisdictions, domestic anddecision making process. Every effort ongoing research into tools and foreign, taking all reasonable precau-should be made to cooperate with mechanisms to promote environment- tions so that its operations are consis-governments in their efforts to har- economy integration. tent with environmental protectionmonize and streamline environmental and sustainable economic 2.13 Industry should support andassessment processes across Canada. development. participate in the recommended 2.7 Individual companies should National Conference on Sustainableadopt and implement environmental 2.11 Industry and trade associa- Development in 1989 or 1990, and in tions, such as the Canadian Pulp andprinciples and policy guidelines such the United Nations global conferenceas those prepared by the International Paper Association, the Mining Asso- on environment and development ciation of Canada, the CanadianChamber of Commerce. Special proposed by the World Commission Chemical Producers’ Association, andefforts should be made by industry on Environment and Development. the Canadian Petroleum Association,and trade associations to encouragesmall and medium sized business toadopt such principles and guidelines.
ROUND TABLESAN OPEN AND INTEGRATED PROCESS During this century human acti- demand for information and involve- We recommend a new process ofvity and technological capability have ment. Government and corporate deci- consultation which will involve seniorgrown vastly and widened the scope sion making processes have had to decision makers from these diverseand complexity of resulting social, eco- change to meet this demand. groups. This process must involve indi-nomic and environmental problems. The desire for participation viduals who exercise influence overThere has been a rapid growth in extends beyond specific projects. It policy and planning decisions and who includes an interest in the can bring information and different planning and policy making views to the debate. The process should“The Round Table approach is an that affect the country’s envi- be designed to work towards consensusexcellenf means of safeguarding both ronmen ta1 and economic and to exert direct influence on policythe environment and industry. ” future. Many sectors of and decision makers at the highest Canadian society, embodying levels of government, industry and David Morton different interests, want a non-government organizations. Accor- President and Chief Operating Officer Alcan Aluminium meaningful role in these fun- dingly, we recommend the establish- damental processes. These ment of Round Tables on Environment“There is a wholesome change occurring groups include environmental and Economy. organizations, labour, small The Round Tables are intended toin environmental decision m&q. ” business, academics and abo- be forums in which senior decision Charles Mallory riginal peoples among others. makers can meet to candidly discuss Vice-President, S.T.O.P. There are many points of environment-economy issues and make view and many interests in recommendations directly to the First‘There is tremendous potential for economic and environmental Ministers of their respective jurisdic-a new kind of decision- making..” issues. Each of these is impor- tions. Round Tables should also report Adam H. Zimmerman tant. No single point of view, their conclusions directly to the public. Chairman, Noranda Forest Inc. in isolation, can adequately Each province and territory should reflect the complexity of the have its own Round Table, drawn from interests involved. senior decision makers in the groups in its jurisdiction which have significant interest and expertise in environmental and economic issues, including:
government; industry, both large and strategy development, special reports Of all our recommendations, wesmall; environmental organizations; or demonstration projects (projets exem- consider Round Tables to be among thelabour; academia; and aboriginal peo- plifirafwrs). The Round Tables could most important. Their implementationples. Each Round Table should reflect also review progress on state of the and success are fundamental to thein its makeup the unique environment environment reporting. achievement of environmentally soundand economy of its province or terri- economic development in Canada.tory. A national Round Table, draw-ing most of its membershipprovincial and terrtorial from the Round RECOMMENDATIONSTables, can bring issues and ideas tothe national agenda and provide a To create a permanent forum in 3.2 Concurrent with the forma-national perspective on regional which all sectors can meet to cooperate tion of provincial and territorial Roundissues. Chairpersons for all Round on preventive strategies and to Tables, a national Round Table shouldTables should be appointed by and influence planning, the Task Force be formed from representatives ofshould report to the First Ministers of makes the following recommendations: these Round Tables, with additionaltheir jurisdictions. All Round Tables 3.1 Each province and territory members added from the federal cabi-should include environment, resource, should form a multisectoral Round net and national non-governmentand economic development ministers. Table on Environment and Economy organizations, labour, academic and Round Tables are not proposed to to bring existing organizations toge- business associations as appropriate.challenge the authority of any exis- ther to cooperate on environment- The Chairperson of the national Roundting office or institution. Instead, they economy integration at the provincial Table should be appointed by andwould exert influence, founded on and territorial levels. Members of report to the Prime Minister.their credibility, their independence CCREM, in consultation with theirand their access to the views of cabinet colleagues, should take the ini-important sectors and levels of tiative to form the Round Tables. Thesociety. Depending on the needs and Chairperson of each Round Tabledesires of each jurisdiction, the Round should be appointed by and report toTables’ mandates might include over- the First Minister of the jurisdictionseeing and advising on major studies, in which it is formed. The Round Tables should be fully operational in every province and territory by Sep- tern ber 1988. 11
CONSERVATIoN STRATEGlESBLUEPRlN7-S FOR SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT Population growth, technological Consultation and participation can Different conservation strategiesinnovations and the increasing demands help overcome these difficulties. Based may be required to adapt the principleon resource use have made it impera- on the initiation of a broad dialogue of sustainable economic development totive to develop plans for the rational between various interests, the process different jurisdictions. Each jurisdic-management and protection of living of conservation strategy development is tion’s strategy will draw upon theresources. The purpose of such plans is itself a mechanism for building a expertise of appropriate sectors and consensus to support integra- interests and will reflect prevailing“Consentation sfralegies are essenfial ted management of our regional conditions. Each may differ in resources. The creation of content, but all should agree on under-components of broad based economic Round Tables on Environ- lying principles. We recommend thatdevelopment strafegies. ” ment and Economy can help CCREM prepare a compendium of Honourable David Porter facilitate and focus the build- Canadian experiences in developing Minister of Renewable Resources, Yukon ing of this consensus. conservation strategies to aid in reach- Environmental and ing a common understanding and“Environmental conservation and economic conservation organizations commitment to this effort.development not only can co-exist, have played a leading role in We strongly recommend a process Canada in the effort to deve- of consultation between jurisdictions asthey must co-exisf, for one is a lop conservation strategies. they prepare their strategies. In thiscondition of the other.” / This effort must now become way, provincial and national strategies Dr. Donald Chant much broader in scope. can reflect and build upon the ecosys- Chairman and President Governments are showing tems which underlie economic activity, Ontario Waste Management Corporation increasing interest in moving in addition to their emphasis on indivi- forward in this area. This - dual resource sectors.to ensure that our renewable resource interest must be extended to ensure We confirm that conservation stra-base is sustained for future utilization, that environment, resource and eco- tegies are a vital part of the integrationand to ensure that we preserve genetic nomic ministries become active partici- of the environment and the economy indiversity and maintain essential ecologi- pants. Industry has a specific and neces- policy and decision making. We urgecal processes and life support systems. sary role to play in participating in the commitment from all CanadianSuch plans are called conservation stra- debate and influencing its outcome to governments to arrive at conservationtegies. They are frameworks for judi- permit continued private sector econo- strategies, and we call on non-cious use of our renewable resources mic activity and development on a sus- government organizations and industryand can be used as blueprints for sus- tainable basis. We cannot overempha- to guide policy makers to make conser-tainable economic development in the size the importance of securing vation strategies a reality.renewable resource sector. industry’s commitment to and support It will not be easy to relate the glo- for the conservation strategy process.bal concepts of the World ConservationStrategy to Canada’s diverse jurisdic-tions. The difficulties of reconcilingcompeting interests in a conservationstrategy are compounded by the needto understand and work within ecosys-tems, as well as within the resourcesectors and political boundaries thatoutline familiar patterns of Canadianpolicy making.
RECOMMENDATIONS To develop effective and coordina- 4.3 In the next two years, provin- 4.5 Non-government organiza-ted conservation strategies across cial and territorial governments should tions and industry should:Canada, the Task Force makes the fol- organize workshops and seminars on - Participate in the planning, designlowing recommendations: conservation strategies, with progress and implementation of the public invol- 4.1 Provincial and territorial to be reviewed at a major National vemen t component of developinggovernments should assume responsibi- Conference *on Sustainable Develop- conservation strategies.lity for the coordination and develop- ment in 1989 or 1990. - Conduct and participate in work-ment of conservation strategies in their 4.4 Every province and territory shops, seminars and annual meetingsjurisdictions. should have a conservation strategy in focusing on components of the conser- 4.2 CCREM, in consultation with place by 1992. A national strategy vation strategy appropriate to theirindustry and non-government organi- should be prepared which integrates organizations.zations, should prepare a compendium the provincial and territorial strategies - Be prepared to develop briefs or dis-of Canadian experiences in developing and links them to the international cussion papers about specific aspects ofconservation strategies by September scene. This work should be presented sustainable development, as part of1988. The compendium will aid jurisdic- by Canada at the U.N. global confer- policy development processes.tions in working out procedures and ence on environment and development proposed by the World Commission on - Provide assistance and advice regard-protocols for the development and inte- ing the coordination and integration ofgration of conservation strategies. Environment and Development. resource management across sectors and political jurisdictions.
INTERNATIONAL RESPONSIB~-IES TOWARDS GLOBAL lNTEGRATION OF ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT PLANNING The recommendations of this Task dependent industries, are strengths ened policy statement commits CIDAForce are consistent with those of the which should be shared with other to sustainable development initiativesWorld Commission on Environtnent nations. The expertise and technology by requiring environmental impactand Development. Like the World exist in many areas; we need only find assessments of all projects financed byCommission, we have concentrated on mechanisms to facilitate their adapta- CIDA and more emphasis on fundingissues of structural change in the belief tion and use in Canada and in other of projects that enhance the environ- countries. The development ment. Another important role may be“Canada has an obliaation to share of these mechanisms could be played by Canadian representatives to a task for consideration by multilateral development agencies suchits expertise in the puktrit of sustainable .. the national Round Table on as the World Bank. They can influence . .development. ” Environment and Economy. financing decisions in favour of envi- Honourable Ken Kowalski In its bilateral aid deci- ronmentally and economically sound Minister of Environment, Alberta sions, Canada can exert an development projects, thus complemen- even more direct influence to ting the many initiatives essential to“Canada has the opportunity to sewe as enhance environmentally making sustainable economic develop-Q role model forglobal integration responsible planning. A signi- ment a reality.of development policy. ” ficant and promising policy Lloyd McGinnis initiative by the Canadian Chairman of the Board International Development Canadian Chamber of Commerce Agency (CIDA) has already been announced. This enlight-that by changing the process it is possi-ble to change the outcome. Ourrecommendations parallel those of the World Commission in the whole area ofstructural integration to bring the sec-tors together and in urging that eco-nomic development ministers be made responsible for the environmentalimplications of their decisions. Ecosystems extend across in terna- tional boundaries. Major environmentalproblems, such as the greenhouse effectcaused by carbon dioxide emissionsfrom burning fossil fuel and damage tothe ozone layer, are truly global, bothin cause and effect. Similarly, the globaleconomy is interdependent. Actions orconditions in one jurisdiction can affectsocial and economic conditions in an-other. For these reasons we share withthe World Commission a convictionthat global sustainable economic deve-lopment can only be reached by nationsworking cooperatively for a commonfuture. Canada should both share itsexpertise and learn from others in theinternational effort to attain sustainableeconomic development. Canadian skillsin environmental impact assessmentand planning, and in resource- 14
We note the progress made inter- The integration of environmental tally, to provide an example to the restnationally by industry through such and economic decision making, if it is to of the world on how this integrationefforts as the World Industry Confer- lead to sustainable development, must be might be carried out. Canada must doence on Environmental Management global in nature. Canada has an oppor- more than just show its support at the(WICEM), held in 1984 in Versailles, tunity and a challenge to work with U.N. General Assembly. It mustFrance. The pioneering role played by other nations to implement the World demonstrate a commitment to workthe International Chamber of Com- Commission concept and, more specifi- with the world community.merce (ICC) resulted in a set of Envi-ronmental Guidelinestry in 1974, with revisions for World Indus- made in RECOMMENDATIONS1981 and 1986. These guidelines To continue and to strengthen Cana- 5.3 Canada should explore andcontain a basic statement of principles, da’s role in the international movement promote mechanisms to ensure thatas well as guidelines for industrial oper- to integrate environmental protection environmentally sound economic deve-ations, relationships between industry and economic development, the Task lopment is an important component inand public authorities, and relationships Force makes the following international discussions and negotia-between industry and society. recommendations: tions dealing with development and A further significant step was trade. Canada should also ensure that taken bv the ICC in 1986, with the 5.1 Canada should show leader- each international development project formation of the International Envi- ship in the development of internation- in which it participates is environmen- ronmental Bureau (IEB). The IEB func- al programs by carrying out projects tally and economically sustainable. tions as an international trans-industry which demonstrate the environment- clearinghouse on environmental man- economy link. (For example, projects on 5.4 Canada should ensure that its agement information. The progress forest, water or soil management; representatives on multilateral deve- made by the ICC in recognizing effects of climate change.) lopment bodies strive to have envi- environment-economy linkages is ronmental and economic sustainability 5.2 In the global discussion on sus- encouraging. Canadian industry should built into the policies and procedures of tainable development initiated by the make every effort to participate in and these organizations. report of the World Commission on support the IEB. Environment and Development, 5.5 Canada should provide support Canada should share its experiences to the recommendation of the World with the world community on how to Commission on Environment and integrate environmental and economic Development that there be a U.N. glo- decision making. bal conference on environment and development.
1 I-_-_. _ .._ _- ._-_,_ -_ --- .-.--A--“... “----.-.-l COMMUNICATIONSEDUCATION AND MOBIllZlNG PUBUC SUPPORT AND PREPARING OUR FUTURE DECISION MAKERS The support of the Canadian public The proposal for a Year of the and cultural aspects of this goal is an essential part of environment- Environment in Canada would require brought up-to-date and given profile. economy integration. A high level of extensive planning. The concept behind Many other ideas can and should be public awareness and concern over the this proposal is that a major effort included in this initiative, especially deterioration of environmental qualitywould be organized to bring environ- those which the proposed Round exists, as evidenced by public opinion mental and economic issues to the Tables on Environment and Economy attention of every Canadian. might develop. This would include extensive “An informed populace will accelerate As a Task Force we also identified media coverage, commission- a need for education at all levels of environment-economy integration. ” ed books and articles, televi- society. The importance of educating Honourable Laird Stirling sion programs, school pro- our children to the new economic and Minister of Environment, Nova Scotia grams, workshops, open environmental realities cannot be houses and a host of-other overstated. We believe that our children “We must tru to ensure that the next activities throughout the should have a better understanding of the environment so they can treat it with respect when they become deci- sion makers in their own right. School curricula must be changed to enhance understanding of how the environment and the economy affect each other. Young Canadians will then learn how their future well-being depends upon that interaction. We recognize that cur- riculum changes cannot be achieved overnight in ten provinces and two ter- ritories. Nevertheless, we urge that change begin now if our children are to emerge from school, a decade hence, better prepared to participate in and influence integrated decision making. A communications strategy with an extended time horizon and adequate support is required to bring the level of depth and coherence to this issue that is warranted. Accordingly, we recom- mend the design and implementation of d major communications/participation program to promote an understanding of and i,litiate a national dialogue on the importance of environment- economy integration. As part of this program, 1989 or 1990 should be des- ignated as “Year of the Environment in Canada” with sustainable economic development as the central theme. The program should be jointly designed, supported and implemented by governments, industry, labour and non- government organizations and should make maximum use of the advice of the Round Tables on Environment and Economy. 16
RECOMMENDATIONS To increase public understanding economy integration. This program 6.2 CCREM members, in concertand participation, the Task Force makes should be jointly designed and suppor- with education ministers and thethe following recommendations: ted by government, industry and non- Round Tables, should design an action 6.1 CCREM, in cooperation with government organizations and should plan to substantially upgrade environ-the Task Force and the proposed Round include two major events: mental education. Special attentionTables, should design and implement a - 1989 or 1990 being designated the should be given to the elementary andmajor communications/public participa- Year of the Environment in Canada, junior high levels. Environmental eco-tion program to promote understand- with sustainable economic development nomics and, in particular, the concept ofing and initiate a national dialogue on as the central theme, and sustainable economic development,the importance of environment- - CCREM hosting a major National should be incorporated into high school Conference on Sustainable Develop- and undergraduate studies. mentin 1989 or 1990. FOLLOW UPAN AGENDA FOR CHANGE This Task Force has set in motion To ensure that the changes which In the interim, we invite commentcertain processes that we believe will we have recommended get underway, and debate on our recommendations, sobring solutions within our reach. Once and to provide continuity until the that CCREM can receive a comprehen-begun, these processes will inevitably Round Tables on Environment and sive and balanced overview and pro-call for change and further progress. Economy are established, we ask for an gress report at its 1958 AnnualWe cannot overstate the importance of opportunity to serve further. We there- Meeting.moving forward on the agenda which fore ask that CCREM extend the man-has been laid out, despite the uncertain- date of the Task Force by one year toties attached to setting new processes permit us to report on the progressin motion. made on our recommendations. RECOMMENDATIONS To follow up on the recommenda- 7.2 CCREM should extend the For further information on thetions made in this report, the Task mandate of the Task Force until Sep- work of the National Task Force onForce makes the following tember 1988, so that the Task Force Environment and Economy, pleaserecommendations: can review progress by all sectors in contact: 7.1 Each province, territory and implementing the recommendations Canadian Council of Resourcethe federal government should develop made in this report. and Environment Ministersan action plan showing how it will 7.3 CCREM should widely distri- 4905 Dufferin Streetimplement the recommendations of the bute the Task Force Report and invite Downsview, OntarioTask Force. comment and public debate on its M3H 5T4 recommendations. Telephone: (416) 739-4695 7.4 CCREM should prepare an evaluation of the effectiveness of the Task Force’s recommendations and their implementation. The evaluation report should be presented at the 1989 CCREM Annual Meeting.