©Münir Hançer

Conservation Biology
Volume 27, Number 6, December 2013

Featured
Paper…
Effect of Widespread Agricultural Chemical Use on
Butterfly Diversity Across Turkish Provinces
Contributed Paper by Burak ...
©DKM Archive

Researchers surveying butterflies in Central Turkey
Researchers surveying butterflies in Central Turkey
Effects of Widespread Agricultural Chemical Use on Butterfly Diversity Across Turkish Provinces
Conservation Biology

In a...
Rapid Ecosystem Change and Polar Bear Conservation
Conservation Letters

Wiskott’s Marbled White (Melanargia
wiskotti) is ...
Effects of Widespread Agricultural Chemical Use on Butterfly Diversity Across Turkish Provinces
Conservation Biology

Thir...
Effects of Widespread Agricultural Chemical Use on Butterfly Diversity Across Turkish Provinces
Conservation Biology

Butt...
Rapid Ecosystem Change and Polar Bear Conservation
Conservation Letters

Once considered too
dry to farm, the
habitat of t...
Effects of Widespread Agricultural Chemical Use on Butterfly Diversity Across Turkish Provinces
Conservation Biology

My r...
©Burak Pekin
Traditional agricultural lands in Turkey are
often scattered across small fertile valleys
nestled within a la...
Effects of Widespread Agricultural Chemical Use on Butterfly Diversity Across Turkish Provinces
Conservation Biology

The ...
Effects of Widespread Agricultural Chemical Use on Butterfly Diversity Across Turkish Provinces
Conservation Biology

…thr...
©Burak Pekin

Rapid Ecosystem Change and Polar Bear Conservation
Conservation Letters

Mixed-use landscapes that include
h...
Effects of Widespread Agricultural Chemical Use on Butterfly Diversity Across Turkish Provinces
Conservation Biology

My r...
Effects of Widespread Agricultural Chemical Use on Butterfly Diversity Across Turkish Provinces
Conservation Biology

…inc...
Village homes in rugged southeastern Turkey
near the Syrian border

PHOTO: A sub-adult polar bear wandering the shores of ...
Effects of Widespread Agricultural Chemical Use on Butterfly Diversity Across Turkish Provinces
Conservation Biology

Miti...
©Hilary and Geof Welch

Villagers haying a meadow of wild
flowers by hand scythe. Such
meadows provide important habitat f...
© Mark Day

Livestock like sheep play an important role
in traditional agriculture in Turkey
©Burak Pekin
Coastal communities in
western Turkey often support
both agriculture and tourism
related activities.

PHOTO: ...
©Münir Hançer

SCB Members log in to your
member home page to read:
Effect of Widespread Agricultural Chemical Use
on Butt...
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A Photo Essay: Effect of Widespread Agricultural Chemical Use on Butterfly Diversity across Turkish Provinces

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A Photo Essay: Effect of Widespread Agricultural Chemical Use on Butterfly Diversity across Turkish Provinces

  1. 1. ©Münir Hançer Conservation Biology Volume 27, Number 6, December 2013 Featured Paper…
  2. 2. Effect of Widespread Agricultural Chemical Use on Butterfly Diversity Across Turkish Provinces Contributed Paper by Burak K. Pekin a photo essay… Conservation Biology December 2013 Mark Burgman, Editor-in-Chief www.conbio.org Published by Wiley
  3. 3. ©DKM Archive Researchers surveying butterflies in Central Turkey Researchers surveying butterflies in Central Turkey
  4. 4. Effects of Widespread Agricultural Chemical Use on Butterfly Diversity Across Turkish Provinces Conservation Biology In addition to being highly sensitive to environmental change, butterflies are also highly representative of biodiversity at large spatial scales. They are thus a good indicator group with which to assess regional biodiversity losses. (Pekin, 2013)
  5. 5. Rapid Ecosystem Change and Polar Bear Conservation Conservation Letters Wiskott’s Marbled White (Melanargia wiskotti) is endemic to the Mediterranean Region of Turkey where it is threatened by agricultural intensification and urban development. ©Fatih Köleli A sub-adult female polar bear on a frozen lake along the shore of Hudson Bay. Small bears like this are usually wary of adult males which can be predatory.
  6. 6. Effects of Widespread Agricultural Chemical Use on Butterfly Diversity Across Turkish Provinces Conservation Biology Thirty-seven of Turkey's 373 species have a near threatened (NT), vulnerable (VU), endangered (EN), or critically endangered (CR) classification… Accordingly, I calculated threatened butterfly richness for each province as the number of species with an NT, VU, EN, or CE classification. (Pekin, 2013)
  7. 7. Effects of Widespread Agricultural Chemical Use on Butterfly Diversity Across Turkish Provinces Conservation Biology Butterfly species richness across Turkish Provinces All species 7 - 52 53 - 97 98 - 143 144 - 188 189 - 234 Threatened species 0-3 4-6 7-9 10 - 12 13 - 15 ©Burak Pekin
  8. 8. Rapid Ecosystem Change and Polar Bear Conservation Conservation Letters Once considered too dry to farm, the habitat of the endangered Levantine Silver-line (Apharitis cilissa) has been largely converted into irrigated commercial farmland following construction of several large dams in southeastern Turkey. ©Ali Atahan A four month old cub caught in the Beaufort Sea with its mother. Studies showing reduced body condition, declining reproduction, and lower survival have been correlated with reduced availability of sea ice.
  9. 9. Effects of Widespread Agricultural Chemical Use on Butterfly Diversity Across Turkish Provinces Conservation Biology My results revealed substantial differences in butterfly composition among Turkish provinces within the same geographic region...The compositional differences between provinces in the same region were largely explained by their area of natural land cover and agricultural chemical use. (Pekin, 2013)
  10. 10. ©Burak Pekin Traditional agricultural lands in Turkey are often scattered across small fertile valleys nestled within a largely mountainous landscape..
  11. 11. Effects of Widespread Agricultural Chemical Use on Butterfly Diversity Across Turkish Provinces Conservation Biology The strength of the effect of pesticide use on the relative number of threatened butterfly species was more than twice that of natural land cover and precipitation seasonality (Table 1)… (Pekin, 2013)
  12. 12. Effects of Widespread Agricultural Chemical Use on Butterfly Diversity Across Turkish Provinces Conservation Biology …threatened butterfly richness decreased most strongly with pesticide use and increased nearly as strongly with natural land cover
  13. 13. ©Burak Pekin Rapid Ecosystem Change and Polar Bear Conservation Conservation Letters Mixed-use landscapes that include human habitation, orchards, agricultural fields, grazing pastures, and natural vegetation cover are common features of give A typical ringed seal pup kill site in the Beaufort Sea in spring. Ringed seal femalestraditional birth to pups under snow along the ridged ice and polar bears hunt theseTurkish villages. areas for vulnerable pups and their mothers.
  14. 14. Effects of Widespread Agricultural Chemical Use on Butterfly Diversity Across Turkish Provinces Conservation Biology My results also suggest that agricultural intensification, reflected in pesticide use, poses as great of a threat to butterfly conservation as loss of natural land cover in Turkey because threatened butterfly species (both total richness and relative number of species) decreased most strongly as pesticide use increased. (Pekin, 2013)
  15. 15. Effects of Widespread Agricultural Chemical Use on Butterfly Diversity Across Turkish Provinces Conservation Biology …increased availability and widespread use of agricultural chemicals and other industrialized farming techniques are likely to make traditional farming practices obsolete. The loss of traditional agriculture and the associated migration of rural populations to cities pose an imminent threat to the cultural as well as biological diversity of Turkish landscapes. (Pekin, 2013)
  16. 16. Village homes in rugged southeastern Turkey near the Syrian border PHOTO: A sub-adult polar bear wandering the shores of Hudson Bay waiting for the return of winter. Delayed freeze-up is causing increased risk of starvation in the population. ©Burak Pekin
  17. 17. Effects of Widespread Agricultural Chemical Use on Butterfly Diversity Across Turkish Provinces Conservation Biology Mitigating agricultural intensification in Turkey is important for conserving the biodiversity of Turkey and Europe as a whole because Turkey harbors many of Europe's rare species. (Pekin, 2013)
  18. 18. ©Hilary and Geof Welch Villagers haying a meadow of wild flowers by hand scythe. Such meadows provide important habitat for butterflies and other wildlife.
  19. 19. © Mark Day Livestock like sheep play an important role in traditional agriculture in Turkey
  20. 20. ©Burak Pekin Coastal communities in western Turkey often support both agriculture and tourism related activities. PHOTO: Adult males play fighting along the coast of Hudson Bay, Canada. Without access to food while on land, adult males can be social and play fighting is thought to allow skill development for future competition for mates or food.
  21. 21. ©Münir Hançer SCB Members log in to your member home page to read: Effect of Widespread Agricultural Chemical Use on Butterfly Diversity across Turkish Provinces www.conbio.org PHOTO: A sub-adult polar bear wandering the shores of Hudson Bay waiting for the return of winter. Delayed freeze-up is causing increased risk of starvation in the population.
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