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let us keep our environmental clean and free from wastes

let us keep our environmental clean and free from wastes

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  • 1. WASTE MANAGEMENT WITH IN URBAN AREAS IN UGANDA; A CASE STUDY OF KYAZANGA TOWN COUNCIL, LWENGO DISTRICT. BY Natamba Shadrack Signature ………………………. Date …………………… RS09M13/503 A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO THE FACULTY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AWARD OF THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN DEVELOPMENT STUDIES OF UGANDA CHRISTIAN UNIVERSITY. SEPTEMBER /2011
  • 2. ABSTRACTThe study on ‘waste management with in urban areas in Uganda; A case study of KyazangaTown Council, Lwengo District’. The situation of waste management in the emerging TC’s isalarming and it was upon these observations that the researcher was compelled to carry out thestudy. The objective of the study was to establish the underlying causes of poor wastemanagement and to seek opinions from the local people on how the problem would be solved.This research acknowledges the fact that many scholars have written a lot on wastemanagement. Therefore, this research contains literature that has been reviewed from differentscholars that relate to the study. This literature helped the researcher to be in position to relateand verify whether what other scholars have written could be applicable to Kyazanga and thishelped in identifying the gap that these researchers have not been able to identify.An exploratory research design was used to explore all dimensions of poor waste management.A mixed methods approach was used to obtain a variety of information on poor wastemanagement. The primary data which was collected from the field using Questionnaires andinterview guides was recorded, tabulated and analyzed using tables to come up with theinformation about the causes of poor waste management in urban areas in Uganda; A case ofKyazanga TC.The reasons of the persistent poor waste management are beyond the numerous legal andinstitutional frame works in place despite their presence. These include; ignorance, lack ofdumping site, lack of the technical staff, failure to prioritize waste management especially duringbudgeting among others.Recommendations have been made for example, the researcher advised that waste managementbe prioritized in the TC’s action plans and budget allocations, and commitment of stakeholders9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  • 3. in the terms of providing finances, time and materials to implement waste management plannedactivities, strengthen the existing initiatives on waste management for instance the Volunteeryouth group and this could be done by giving the group an opportunity to collect wastes/garbagefrom the Council and be paid for the services, and finally the researcher advised the Council torevise and strengthen the by-laws and legislation relating to waste management as well as theirenforcement and the need for major generators of waste e.g. markets, schools to manage theirown wastes through developing frame works and self regulation e.g. by-laws for wastemanagement among other many recommendations.9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  • 4. DECLARATION I Natamba Shadrack declare that this piece of work is the first of its kind and it’s not a photocopy of someone’s work. I am the author of this dissertation and any assistance I received in preparation is fully acknowledged and disclosed. Any sources of data, ideas and words either direct or paraphrased have been cited in this piece of work. I certify that this dissertation was prepared by me with the guidance of my supervisor specifically for the partial fulfillment for the degree of Master of Arts in Development studies of Uganda Christian University. …………………………………… NATAMBA SHADRACK (1ST September, 2011).9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  • 5. DEDICATION: I also dedicate this work to my family members; dad, mum, and my siblings and my fiancé. I do dedicate this piece of work to Ps. Billy Rutledge from Hetteras island Church, United states and church at large for supporting me throughout my study of this Masters degree. You made it possible for me to accomplish this study.9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  • 6. AKNOWLEDGEMENTI am totally convinced that the success in getting this study done did not come by single effortsof my hands but the efforts of different players whose contributions were very instrumental tosee me through.First and foremost, I want to thank the Almighty God for the insights, guidance, energy andwisdom to complete this dissertation.My highest gratitude goes to my University supervisor, Mr. Kizito Martin for guiding, collectingand directing me throughout this study.I particularly express my sincere appreciations to the Town clerk of Kyazanga TC, Mr. MayanjaMajwala Badru for the time he spent with me during the research, moving with me and helpingin identifying the key informants who helped me in data collection.Special thanks go to my all respondents, I cannot mention each of you by name but I hold you sodearly. Thanks for the information.9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  • 7. KEY ACRONYM AND ABBREVIATIONSPEAP: poverty Eradication Action PlanNEMA: National Environmental Management AuthorityNGO: Non-Governmental OrganizationCBO: Community Based OrganizationEIA: Environmental Impact AssessmentUNDP: United Nations Development ProgrammeT.C: Town CouncilMDG: Millennium Development GoalKTC: Kyazanga Town CouncilWHO: World Health OrganizationUNFCCC: United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.CDM: Clean Development Mechanism.GHGs: Greenhouse gasses9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  • 8. CHAPTER ONE1.0 Introduction.Uganda like many countries in the world suffers from poor waste management. Poor wastemanagement is increasingly becoming a big problem in many cities in sub-sahara Africa andKyazanga is no exception. This study was conducted in Kyazanga Town council, LwengoDistrict where by the researcher sought to explore the underlying causes of poor wastemanagement in the Town Council and at the end of the research, number of possible solutionswere proposed. The study investigated the relationship between waste management and what ismanifested as a result of the phenomenon (effects).It was found that waste management is not an isolated phenomenon that can be easily classifiedand solved with one strategy. The study found out that poor waste management is particularly anurban issue that is closely related, directly or indirectly, to a number of issues such as urbanlifestyles, resource consumption patterns, jobs and income levels, and other socio-economic andcultural issues. All these issues have to be brought together on a common platform in order toensure a long-term solution to urban waste.Talking about methodology, this research being exploratory in nature, it used mixed methodsapproach because of the need to obtain a variety of information on poor waste management. Anon-probability sampling techniques like purposive and quota sampling techniques will beemployed. Questionnaires and interview guides were administered to those sampled toparticipate in the study about the causes of poor waste management and these were supplemented9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  • 9. by observation. Data was analyzed in line with the research objectives and questions andrecommendations were made accordingly.Therefore, the study was seeking to validate what other scholars have written about poor wastemanagement as a whole and how applicable to the people of Kyazanga Town Council.1.1 Background of the StudyThe management of waste is one of the challenges facing many urban areas in the world. Wherethere is an aggregation of human settlements with the potential to produce a large amount ofsolid waste; the collection, transfer and disposal of that waste has been generally assumed bymunicipal authorities in the developed world. The format varies, however in most urban areas.Wastes are collected either by a government agency or private contractor, and this constitutes abasic and expected government function in the developed world (Zerbock, 2003).Developing countries have solid waste management problems different than those found in fullyindustrialized countries; indeed, the very composition of their waste is different from that of‘developed’ nations. Although low-income countries’ solid waste generation rates average only0.4 to 0.6 kg/person/day, as opposed to 0.7 to 1.8 kg/person/day in fully industrialized countries,Cointreau (1982) and others (Blight and Mbande 1996, Arlosoroff 1982) noted several commondifferences in the composition of solid waste in developing nations: • Waste density 2-3 times greater than industrialized nations, • Moisture content 2-3 times greater, • Large amount of organic waste (vegetable matter, etc.), • Large quantities of dust, dirt (street sweepings, etc) • Smaller particle size on average than in industrialized nations.9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  • 10. These differences from industrialized nations must be recognized both in terms of the additionalproblems they present as well as the potential opportunities which arise from their wastecomposition.As earlier noted in the introduction, Poor waste management is not an individual country’sproblem but rather it is increasingly becoming a big problem in many cities of the world. Forinstance, according to the 1999 State of the Environment Report for South Africa (DEAT, 1999),the country generates over 42 million m3 of solid waste every year. This is about 0.7 kg perperson per day, which is more typical of developed countries than a developing country (bycomparison the figure in the UK is 0.73 kg, 0.87 kg in Singapore and 0.3 kg in Nepal). Inaddition, 5 million m3 of hazardous waste is generated every year (DEAT, 1999). Every day 2.6million of domestic and commercial waste water is processed at treatment works. The last figuredoes not include agricultural and some industrial waste, which are the largest sources of waste(DEAT, 1999).In Uganda like in many other developing countries, typically one to two thirds of the wastegenerated is not collected (Zerbock, 2003). As a result, the uncollected waste, which is often alsomixed with human and animal excreta, is dumped indiscriminately in the streets/wards and indrains, contributing to flooding, breeding of insect and rodent vectors and the spread of diseasessuch as cholera among others.Most researchers have linked Waste generation directly to the size of population and the variousactivities undertaken by different categories of the population including large scale industries,small-scale industries, trading/businesses, municipal farming, household, schools and hospitalsamong others. Hence, it clearly means that waste generation will increase with increasingpopulation growth (ibid).9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  • 11. In Kampala alone, waste generation estimations have been rated at 0.2 metric tons per personannually on average (Ngategize et al., 2001). Therefore, considering an urban population of 3.7million people that is; 13.4% of the total population (Uganda Population secretariat, 2007), itmeans that approximately 740,000 metric tons of solid waste are generated in urban areas peryear. Of this, only 41% solid waste generated is disposed off properly (UNDP, 2005). Theremaining 51% is left uncollected thereby ending up dumped in drainage and sanitary drainagechannels, natural water courses, manholes, undeveloped plots and road sides among other unfitplaces (NEMA, 2004).Poverty Eradication Plan (PEAP) recognizes that waste management is almost non-existent inUganda. It denotes that for instance in Kampala, refuse is collected from only 20% of thepopulation and only half of it is disposed in a proper way with the rest being dumpedindiscriminately (PEAP, 2004/2005). Furthermore, little attention has been given to waste waterdisposal and storm drainage. Drainage is poor and limited to major roads and pathways.Most local governments and urban agencies have, time and again, identified solid waste as amajor problem and this has been attributed to poor institutional arrangements, poor technologiesused and lack of the capacity to handle wastes (ibid). This has reached proportions requiringdrastic measures. We can observe three key trends with respect to waste - increase in sheervolume of waste generated by urban residents; change in the quality or make-up of wastegenerated; and the disposal method of waste collected, by land-fill, incineration among others. Inrelation to Kyazanga, the researcher’s efforts to find the related literature were futile. However,as already mentioned, this research established that Kyazanga TC was not be unique from otherurban areas. (See the findings in Chpt 4).9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  • 12. In conclusion, it is important that the right action be carried out at the right level. Thus, actions atthe household level should be predominantly social, technology and economic in nature.Similarly actions to be taken at the state and nation level should also be predominantlyeconomic, political and administrative in nature.1.2 Problem Statement.Despite several efforts, legal and institutional frame works that are in place to enhance properwaste management, there is still persistent poor waste management in Uganda and Kyazangainclusive. Legal frame works like the constitution of the Republic of Uganda 1995 Article 245(a) provides measures intended-To protect and preserve the environment from abuse, pollutionand degradation,”1 The National Environment (Waste Management) Regulations, S.I. No52/1999;2 The Local Government Act 1997, all have provisions of how all wastes shall beproperly managed among other regulatory frame works likePeople do not care about the way wastes are handled be because of the ignorance about thelikely dangers of poor waste management and the institutions like the Town Council has notplayed its part as well due to both human and financial resources.In addition to the above, there is the lack of proper institutional arrangements, poor technologieslike lack of modern trucks and the lack of the capacity by the council to handle the wastesgenerated and there is no Private-Public partnership or CBOs ready to do the work.1 The constitution also enshrines a constitutional right to a clean and healthy environment in its article 39.Civil society has used article 50 of the constitution to enforce this right using public interest litigation.2The National Environment (Waste Management) Regulations, S.I. No 52/1999. STATUTORY INSTRUMENTS.1999 No. 52. Regulations, 1999. (Under sections 53(2) and 107 of the National Environment Act, Cap 153) [19thOctober 1999]9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  • 13. For instance, Studies indicate that each person in Kampala city produces 1 Kg of solid waste perday (Tenywa et al., 2007). The waste generated in towns in Uganda, Kyazanga inclusive ishardly collected and even what is collected is not sorted and there is no gazetted area to disposeoff wastes. Additionally, even the government development programs rarely put wastemanagement aspects into consideration for instance the health facilities, public markets, schoolsamong others. Furthermore, there are limited appropriate technologies and practices for wastemanagement and also the limited capacity among stakeholders (technocrats, extension agents,private sector etc) in addressing waste management issues.This state of affairs has far reaching implications on community livelihoods and environmentposing great health risks for instance; solid waste at informal disposal sites produces toxic gases,bad odour and creates air pollution. This has led to increased incidences of diseases like cough,diarrhea, Fever among others, hence increasing public expenditure on drugs. Yet a properlymanaged waste is wealth (Zake et al 2008:6). Wastes have got enormous opportunities forinstance metallic containers can be used to make paraffin candles (tadoba), children toys, simplelocal measuring cans, wrapping paper and envelopes out paper wastes, and waste can be analternative to generate fuel. A case in point is Kasubi community development association whichhas resorted to using banana peelings to come up with charcoal briquettes and this has madehouse hold energy conserved (EA, 2007). This problem of poor waste management requiresinnovative solutions and one of the solutions could be a participatory approach where the localpeople are involved to define the problem and then propose the solutions.Therefore, this study sought to explore the causes of poor waste Management and the localpeople’s opinions on how the problem would be minimized. The data gathered in this study9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  • 14. provided leaders with information relating to how they may address or mitigate factorsresponsible for poor waste management in the Town council.1.3 The purpose of the studyThe purpose of this study was to establish the underlying causes of poor waste management andto seek the local people’s opinions on how the problem would be handled.1.4.1 Specific objectives  To find out the means used too collect, transport and dispose off wastes.  To establish the underlying causes of poor waste management in Kyazanga Town Council from both the leaders and the local people.  To identify the possible solutions to archive proper waste management.1.4.2 Research Questions.  What mechanisms are in place to collect, transport and dispose off wastes in the town council?  What are the causes of poor waste management in Kyazanga T.C.?  Are there ways that can be employed to deal with poor waste management in the council?1.5 Scope of the Study.1.5.1 Geographical scopeThe study was conducted in Kyazanga Town council one of the Newest Town Councils thatgained status in July 2010, Lwengo district, which is located in the Western wing of centralregion. The town council is bordered by Masaka in the east, Rakai in the south, Lyantonde in thewest and Sembabule in the North. The study covered 100 respondents in the bid to establish theunderlying causes of poor waste management in Kyazanga Town Council and the studyemployed both quantitative and qualitative methods.9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  • 15. 1.5.2 Study scopeThis study helped identify the causes of poor waste management in Kyazanga T.C, and remedieswere developed. The study confined only on wastes from households, schools and health centresin the selected zones. The study highlighted the effectiveness of the current waste managementpolicies. As a result the necessary remedies were recommended. The studies also drew lessonsfrom best practices elsewhere and suggested ways of adopting them.The researcher reviewed documents, reports and collected data from 2005 to date. The datacollected covered five years before Kyazanga gained a Town Council status and after in order tobe able to illustrate whether with the new status, the problem of poor waste management hasreduced, remained the same or intensified. 1.6 Significance of the StudyIt is hoped that the findings of this study will help raise awareness on issues pertaining to wastemanagement for the community and policy makers especially at the Town council level. And thisawareness will help build initiatives to reduce the problem. A copy of this research shall be sentto the Town Council upon approval by the University authorities.The study will help provoke debate on waste management issues. In the course of this debatebetter options may be developed and these would be helpful to the urban authorities in theirplanning strategies since they will be able to identify the gaps existing in the waste management.Partners in development could use this information by identifying specific income generatingactivities, thus making waste contribute to the poverty eradication programme in KyazangaTown council. In his studies in Kenya, Kim (1998), notes, while there is considerabledocumentation on innovative community-level waste management schemes in Asian and Latin9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  • 16. American cities, little research has been done on the importance of, and potential for, waste re-use in African cities. This study identified the contribution of waste.(see Chapt.4).This research generated more information to the already existing body of knowledge in the areaof waste management and to Kyazanga, it is the first one of this kind.In addition to the above, the study will also provide future scholars and researchers withinformation regarding the causes of poor waste management especially in Kyazanga Towncouncil.1.7 JustificationIt is highlighted that Africa is littered with non-engineered landfill sites and other inefficientmeans of waste disposal strategies for instance; Incinerators with inappropriate air pollutioncontrol devices. This unpleasant development has led to some untimely human deaths, whichwas estimated to be up to 20,000 in a year (NEMA, 1998).Poor waste management has been found to result into pollution of both surface and ground waterthrough the leachate draining and impairing the permeability of soils as well as blockage ofdrainage systems (NEMA, 1998). Studies in the Kasubi- Kawala area have established that thecount of harmful Coliforms (1980 cfu/ml), Eschelica coli (540 cfu/ml) in protected springs farexceed the World Health Organization (WHO) thresholds (0 cfu/ml).It was against this background that the study on waste management was carried out to explorethe underlying causes to the challenges of waste management in Kyazanga town and indeed thecauses were identified and possible remedies suggested.9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  • 17. 1.9 Conceptual framework illustrating the relationship between the causes of poor waste management and its effects. The conceptual frame work illustrates the relationship between the presumed causes (independent variables like- lack of awareness, Ignorance by the local people, Weak policies, Lack of enough trained manpower, Inadequate funds etc) of poor waste management and the presumed effects (dependent variables)-what is manifested as a result of the phenomenon.Independent variables Dependent Relationship Interventions variables Causes of poor waste management Effects  Public awareness creation Lack of awareness  Indiscriminative dumping  Strengthening of the legal and Ignorance by the local will lead to Infrastructure institutional framework people destruction like roads  Capacity building/training Lack of enough trained  Un-collected wastes, manpower  Funding inventory of dumping on roadsides this Weak policies leads to Contamination of hazardous waste Inadequate funds water bodies Sanitation Expected output and hygiene  Buildings without  Proper waste management dumping sites  Improved health  Failure to implement the  Save income-that would laws have been spent on drugs  Reduction on expenditure on say fuel From the above illustration, it can be observed that the presumed causes (independent variables) lead to presumed effects (dependent variables). Independent variables like lack of awareness lead to ignorance of the local people about the effects of waste management, and lack of enough trained manpower and weak policies and inadequate funds are presumed to lead to indiscriminative dumping of wastes on roadsides; the residents set structures like buildings without dumping sites because of weak laws among others. 9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  • 18. It was found out that all these led to a number of Health problems and these include;Infrastructure destruction, Contamination of water bodies and Sanitation and hygiene andenvironmental degradation.However, it is presumed that strengthening the legal and institutional frameworks, capacitybuilding and funding inventory of hazardous waste among others will yield several outputs likeProper waste management, improved health since the cause of illness will have been dealt with,save income-that would have been spent on drugs and also save the environment from beingpolluted among others9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  • 19. CHAPTER TWO2.0 Literature Review2.1 IntroductionIn this chapter, attempts were made to review relevant literature to help in the understanding ofpoor waste management. The researcher acknowledges the fact that there is some literature onwaste management in Towns of Uganda and in other countries of the world. Most of theliterature reviewed was from the different sources like text books, websites, News papers andjournals. In this section, the main purpose was to review issues related to waste management thathave been investigated by other researchers, in order to gain more insights into the subject underthe study and avoid duplications of efforts in this area.2.2 Definition of terms and concepts.Waste is a man-made substance in a given time and places which in its actual structure and stateis not useful to the owner or is an output without an owner and purpose. In other words, waste isanything that we no longer need. It is also commonly referred to as rubbish, trash, garbage,refuse, effluents and “unwanted or unusable materials”. (Zake J: 2007).Synonymous to solid waste are terms such as “garbage”, “trash”, “refuse” and “rubbish”(Zurbrugg, 2000). Urban dwellers generally consume more resources than rural dwellers, and sogenerate large quantities of solid waste and sewage. For example, solid waste disposal is a majorproblem in urban African centres, where more than half the populationIt is important to note that wastes take two forms that is; solid or liquid wastes; Solid wastes referto particles or materials which are no longer useful to their owners and which require to be
  • 20. discarded. They are movable objects, which have no direct use and or no ‘current’ market valueor no use to the individual that they require to be disposed off. They are bothorganic/biodegradable for instance the waste generated from animal and plant remains; it may bebroken down by living organisms such as bacteria, protozoa and fungi. This form of wasteoccurs as green plant tissue waste, food remains, paper, animal and waste (faeces and urine), andnon-organic/non bio- degradable wastes, is that form of waste that cannot be broken down byliving organisms. It includes metals, polyethylene, most plastics and rubber. Most nonbiodegradable wastes are produced from manufacturing industries.On the other hand, Liquid wastes refer to waste materials that contain full liquids. These includewaste water from industries, households; sewerage and leachates from land fill or garbage heaps.This is equally harmful to the water sources hence endangering both human beings who dependon such water sources and the aquatic life. It also destroys the land and its level of productivitysince some of these wastes like grease, paints will deepen into the soils hence affecting the soilalkalinity (Environmental Protection Agency, 2008).The term ‘Waste Management’ includes all issues and processes associated with the generation,processing, and disposal of all categories of wastes produced by human activities or related tohuman existence; it includes, therefore, the stages of production and minimization, collection,handling and transportation, reuse and recycling, and treatment and disposal of all such wastes.(Zake J, 2007)Despite the fact that waste handling and transport varies from region to region, country tocountry, there are waste management concepts that are universally accepted and implemented.9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  • 21. These are the waste hierarchy or the 3Rs (reduce, reuse and recycle), the extended producerresponsibility (EPR) and the polluter pay principle.According to NEMA (2000), Solid waste management encompasses generation, collection,transportation and disposal of wastes. Authorities have the responsibility to ensure safe, reliableand cost effective removal and disposal of solid waste Garbage is collected from both the well todo households and poor ones now lives in urban areas. Northern Africa is the most urbanized,while in Southern and in Western and Central Africa, urbanization levels are still lower (about33-37 percent.) East Africa is the least urbanized sub-region, with 23 percent (United NationsPopulations Division, 1997).2.3 Why undertake waste management?Waste management is undertaken mainly to minimize the effect of wastes on resource loss andconservation, health, environment, costs, and aesthetics. It incurs financial and social and othercosts including ‘external’ costs. The term includes the issue of ‘regulation’ of the various aspectsof management of wastes.Waste management is the process by which products and by-products generated by business andindustry are collected, stored, transported, treated, disposed off, recycled or reused in an effort toreduce their effect on human health. Therefore, a properly managed waste; that is well collectedand sorted recycled, treated, disposed off hygienically will promote a clean and safe environmentto live in. Waste management is practiced by small businesses when they collect and sort theirwastes, recycle their wastes, treat their wastes, dispose of their wastes or implement ways ofreducing their waste (EPA, 2008).9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  • 22. 2.4 Global perspective about waste generation and management.Headley (1998) states that in Barbados, there are no containers designated by municipalities orcollection companies to “set out” waste for collection; it is up to individual residences todesignate some sort of collection container. Frequently, these are plastic barrels or discarded oildrums, however the majority of households simply place grocery bags full of waste on the streetto await collection. There may be physical dangers to waste workers in dealing with the former;weather, animals, and other disturbances prior to collection threaten the integrity of the latter. Inan examination of current problems in Kenya, Mungai (1998) agreed that the first step in“sanitary and efficient” waste management must be to ensure that all households use some formof corrosion-resistant container with lids in order to facilitate collection. Lidded containerswould exclude most animal pests, reduce the amount of rainfall soaking into garbage and help toreduce trash blowing about on the street.A major problem is that of development at or on top of landfills; many shantytowns are builtfrom disposed-of waste and in some cases entire neighborhoods are sited on top of existinglandfills. For example, the Smoky Mountain dump in Manila, Philippines had as many as 10,000families living in shacks on or adjacent to the dump site (UNEP 1996). Aside from the obvioushealth implications, these concentrations of people further complicate transport and unloadingprocedures and present numerous safety and logistical concerns (Blight and Mbande 1996).UNEP estimates that approximately 100,000 people currently scavenge wastes at dump sites inthe Latin American region alone. Further, many people, not only those residing near landfills,make their living from scavenging on solid waste before it enters the municipal waste stream.Street-level waste picking often removes recyclables and other ‘high-value’ waste items from9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  • 23. items set out for collection; although these practices serve to reduce the overall quantity enteringthe waste stream, these practices often scatter waste about, compounding problems for pick-upand transfer operators (Pfammatter and Schertenleib 1996). Although it takes only 5-10 secondsto empty a 45-gallon container of waste into a collection truck, but 1-2 minutes to shovel theequivalent amount of waste (Gage 1998). Any potential change to the waste disposal frameworkmust take into account the urban poor, many of whom may be dependent on waste scavengingfor their entire subsistence. In one study at the Bisasar Road landfill in Durban, South Africa,scavenging on waste supported 200 families, “earning” the equivalent of $15,500 per month, or$77 per family per month (Johannessen 1999).According to the 1999 State of the Environment Report for South Africa (DEAT, 1999), thecountry generates over 42 million m3 of solid waste every year. This is about 0.7 kg per personper day, which is more typical of developed countries than a developing country (by comparisonthe figure in the UK is 0.73 kg, 0.87 kg in Singapore and 0.3 kg in Nepal). In addition, 5 millionm3 of hazardous waste is generated every year (DEAT, 1999). Every day 2.6 million of domesticand commercial waste water is processed at treatment works. The last figure does not includeagricultural and some industrial waste, which are the largest sources of waste (DEAT, 1999).2.5 Challenges met in waste Reduction at the Global level.Until recently, the focus in South Africa for example; has been on waste disposal and impactcontrols or "end of the pipe" treatment (DEAT, 2000). However, this focus has faced a numberof challenges and these include:• Lack of waste avoidance, minimization and cleaner production technology initiatives;• Lack of regulatory initiatives to manage waste minimization;9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  • 24. • Few incentives for reducing waste;• Industries not required submitting plans for waste disposal when applying to establish newenterprises;• Inadequate resource recovery and a general lack of commitment to recycling – no legislation,policy or waste management culture that promotes resource recovery or makes it financiallyviable; and• Lack of appropriate waste management strategies and treatment technologies associated withthese policies also have a negative effect on human health. In addition to lack of a variety ofappropriate waste treatment methods.Some of the consequences of previous waste management policies include; continued air andland pollution, the pollution of fresh and marine waters, resulting in the disruption of ecosystemprocesses, habitat destruction and species loss. The amount of waste produced also placesincreasing pressure on the countrys landfills. Increasing amounts of land set aside for landfillscould lead to habitat destruction and species loss.2.6 Some of interventions globally.A mere 13% of American waste is recycled (Anonymous, 1992). Recycling is a resourcerecovery program, which extends the globes mineral supply by reducing the amount of virginmaterials that need to be removed from the globe to meet the demand. Resource recovery savesenergy, causes minimal pollution and land disruption, cuts waste disposal costs, and extends thelife of landfills by preventing waste from residing there.9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  • 25. The percentage of paper that is being recycled in other nations sends a clear message toAmericans: we are not doing enough. Americans only recycle 28% of the paper they use,although they lead the world in paper consumption and paper waste. France, Sweden,Switzerland and Finland recycle at least one-third of their paper expenditures. Japan, Mexico,and the Netherlands are at a 44% rate, which is the highest in the world. The American federalgovernment alone uses two percent of all paper products in this country, but half of the trash itthrows away is paper (Miller, 1990).Greatly increased recycling in this country could be reached through several measures. Someanalysts claim that 50% to 80% of the nations natural resources could be recycled or reused bythe year 2012. Some measures to achieve this include enacting a national bottle bill into law,banning disposable plastic items, requiring labels on products made with recyclable materialsand the percentages used, using education and advertisements to discourage the "throwaway"mentality, requiring households to separate wastes for recycling (or offering financial incentivesfor doing so), and decreasing subsidies for virgin-material industries, and providing subsidies forsecondary-material industries and waste reduction programs.Anything that is naturally degradable can be thrown into a compost bin. Food and organic wastecreated by food processing plants, kitchens, galleys, animal feedlots, yard work, and sewagetreatment plants. Paper, leaves, and grass clippings can be decomposed in this process inbackyard compost bins, and the end result can be used in gardens and flower beds.Hazardous waste includes heavy metal contaminants (like lead and mercury), medical andinfectious waste, chemical waste, and nuclear waste. The latter is so dangerous due to theextremely high toxicity, which remains that way for thousands of years. The technology for9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  • 26. safely and effectively treating and disposing hazardous waste has not even come close to thetechnology for producing the stuff.2.7 Uganda’s perspective on waste managementIn Uganda, the public has not taken any positive steps in solid waste management practices likesource reduction, re-using, recycling or properly disposing of the portion that cannot bereclaimed. Instead the public has for the most part maintained an “I don’t care” attitude ofgenerating as much waste as possible unconscious of the implications for its collection anddisposal (ERL 1990, KCC 1995 and NEMA 1996).In Uganda, the solid waste generated comprises of 73% 0rganic waste; 5.3% paper; 1.7% sawdust; 1.6% plastics; 3.1% metals; 0.9% glass; 8% tree cuttings and 5.5% street debris (Ngategizeet al., 2001). Kampala city gives a good illustration of this problem.Since 1969, there has been a big increase in the volume of solid waste generated due to the risein population. In 1969, 198 metric tonnes were generated everyday and currently 800 tonnes(800,000kgs) is being generated everyday according to the Kampala City Council (KCC report:2008).In addition to the above, waste generation is directly proportional to population increase. Eventhough high/medium income earners are fewer than low income earners, and their per capita,waste generated by low income earners is more than double the quantities generated by highincome earners. However, the daily and annual waste generation for low income earners is morethan double that for high income earners. This could be attributed to accumulation among lowincome earners settlements due to inadequacies in waste collection services among others.9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  • 27. The greatest challenges facing Uganda’s rapidly growing urban centres, is the hazard of urbanwaste, according to the Globe Clean Services, business manager, Rashid Magezi (cited in TheNew Vision 3rd April 2010). He adds that, “The volume of solid waste generated in urbancentres in Uganda has been increasing mainly as a result of the growing urban population,concentration of industries, consumption habits of residents, inadequate finance and facilities tomanage waste collection and disposal” Many Ugandans perceive waste collection as a luxurybut not a necessity. The concept of collecting garbage is still new to most people, since you haveto tell them a number of times before they can ingest the idea.Magezi insists that garbage disposal in the urban areas is a real challenge compared to ruralUganda where waste is mostly dumped in open places, gardens and open pits. In addition wastein the rural areas is mostly organic.2.8 What are the causes of poor Waste management in Uganda?It is obvious to note that high-income households generate MORE wastes than low incomehouseholds but accumulation is higher in low income areas compared to high income settlementsdue to availability of waste collection services. (ERL, 1990, KCC 1995, and NEMA, 1996).Therefore, there are a number of causes of poor Waste management in Uganda and these includebut not limited to;Lack of dumping sites where to deposit the solid waste. This is because the issue of wastemanagement is new in the country. It wasnt considered to be a problem before. Currently, inKampala, the dumping is done by the K.C.C. at Mpererwe, a landfill made in 1996 after theformer one at Lweza and Lubigi (ERL, 2008).9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  • 28. Ignorance of the masses about the need to dispose of these wastes well and how to dispose ofthem (the wastes) off. There is lack of enough literacy programs on Waste management whichleaves most of the people backward on waste management. This is because of poor or nosensitization of the masses by the government and other organizations of Uganda.Inefficient collection methods which is mainly due to lack of funds to provide the necessarymachinery. In Uganda, machinery like the trucks that carry the waste from the various areas havepoor covering systems such that even the waste goes on leaking on the road while beingtransported, and even there are few places with proper garbage containers or at times thecontainers are over flooded when there are rain showers.Poor government attitude towards waste management. From a citizens point of view, it isrealized that very little money from the government is directed towards waste management, withmost of it going towards industrialization. This leads to poor purchase of collecting equipment.Another cause is poverty that exists in Uganda. This undoubtedly leads to masses buying cheapnon bio-degradable containers which are not easy to dispose off, and also substitutes like paperbags are not easily available to poor urban dwellers.Also the low price of these solid wastes especially polythene bags which are very cheap ascompared to other containers makes them very common, which makes their proper disposal verydifficult.Lack of trained manpower/personnel to deal with garbage collecting machinery and to ensure theproper disposal of the solid waste for example door to door collectors in most advancedcountries.9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  • 29. Lack of recycling facilitates in most parts of the country for instance most of the polythene bagsused are not recycled by the manufacturing industries and Misallocation of funds and evenembezzlement of the little funds allocated for such work.2. 9. Some of the human and environmental problems that can attribute topoor waste management.It should be noted that inadequate waste collection by the relevant authorities and theinappropriate methods used by other generators leave a lot of solid waste unattended to. This is asource of pollution and provides breeding ground for rats, fleas, mosquitoes among other. Theconsequences of poor waste management are very complex (KCC; 2000). However, the majorimpacts include but not limited to:Infrastructure destruction; Solid waste haphazardlydumped in manholes for drainage, telephone cables,sewerage system, roadside drainage gutters creates blockagesand leads to floods across roads, streets, parks and otherspaces. The repair of underground telephone and electric cables is hampered as solid wastesblock manholes that would facilitate easy access. This makes repair works expensive and manactivities are disrupted because of constant service failures. The blockage of drainage channelsby mud, polythene and other solid wastes create pools of water, which render transport duringthe rainy seasons messy and eventually potholes develop on the roads. (NEMA 2000/2001).Contamination of water bodies: Most of the solid waste generated in Kampala is dumped inthe wetlands and these are the major sources of domestic water to Kampala’s population. Though50% of Kampala’s populations have running water on the premises (Kampala 1995) and more9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  • 30. recent 2002 data indicates over 90% accessing safe water. Even then some pipes pass via solidwaste and sewerage sites and water is bound to get contaminated since most of the pipes are veryold. The concern for contamination is due to current accessibility to safe water with 36% of thepopulation drawing their water from “protected” spring, 11% from unprotected springs and 3%from open courses with their waters from the wetlands and underground acquifers. (KCC; 2000).These sources are contaminated through percolating leachates from decomposing garbage,discarded oils from garages and some pit latrines in the low lying areas directly touch the watertable. Direct dumping is also evident on the shores of L. Victoria and its catchment region andyet 3% of the population draws their water directly from open sources (LAVLAC 2005).Generally Nakivubo swamp, which opens in L. Victoria, has a high nutrient load as a result ofrainfall run off from Kampala City (Kansime and Nalubega 1998).Sanitation and Health: Open dumping is the order of the day in Kampala City and this hascreated unsanitary conditions on streets and pathways. Such irresponsible dumping leads tounpleasant smells and are fertile grounds for breeding sites for flies and other vectors. Thescenery of flies, rodents and vectors scrambling for the rotting solid waste is unsightly andunhygienic. All this results in the pollution of both surface and ground water through leachateand impairing the permeability of soils as well as blockage of drainage system (NEMA2000/2001). The public is threatened by communicable diseases such as diarrhoea, cholera,dysentery etc. Cases of cholera outbreak in Kampala are common, the most recent being early2005. In a recent study of pollution load finding indicate high concentration of nitrates nearunofficial dumping grounds in the catchment of Natete River, (Lwasa, Majjaliwa et al. 2006).9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  • 31. This exacerbates environmental health problems in the urban poor settlements of Kampala metroarea.Increased Presence of Garbage plastic mineral water bottles and Polythene Bags: Most low-income settlements are littered with solid wastes and polythenebags. The communities have been unable or unwilling to payfor garbage collection and sanitation facilities. Some peopleregard garbage collection as the responsibility of KCC usingmoney from taxes. The study has established that there is lackof space to place garbage skips while landowners do not allowplacement of garbage skips on their land. Coupled with lack of skips and inability of the privategarbage collectors to cope with the generation rate, solid waste dumping sites are a commonfeature in Kampala especially in wetland and high-density residential areas. Most conspicuous ofthe waste stream is the plastic wastes in different categories from plastic bottles to polythenebags which are carried downstream in the catchments by storm water and wind. These havebecome a nuisance in the city and metro area.It should be noted that the Government attempted to ban the polythene bags production one yearago however, the government in its own way has failed to control the problem of poor polythenewaste disposal through its failure to enhance strict rules that can help reduce the problem. Theofficials of the various government organs have failed to provide sufficient supervision of thedamping of the wastes as a result, polythene waste are continually poorly damped and this ishazardous to the community and the people living around it.9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  • 32. 2.10 Policy context/frameworks for waste management in Uganda,International and regional levels.There are various laws that regulate the generation and management of solid wastes in Uganda,and internationally though some are out dated. They include;Agenda 21 - program of action for sustainable developmentAgenda 21 is a comprehensive blue print for global actions for sustainable development into the21st century. Uganda being a member of the United Nations is party and accountable to Agenda21. It commits governments, United Nations organizations, development agencies,nongovernmental organizations and independent sector groups to implement programs andactions which would halt and reverse the negative impact of human behavior on the physicalenvironment and promote and promote environmentally sustainable economic development in allcountries. In the context of waste management, Agenda 21 presents Section 21 onenvironmentally sound management of solid waste, particularly highlighting program areas andassociated strategies to be implemented by all countries to ensure proper waste management(Agenda 21, 1994). How this frame work has been implemented is a question of debate.United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)Biodegradable solid waste decomposition generates green house gases (GHS) such as Methanewhich contributes to depletion of the thin layer (Ozone) that protects the earth from direct heatfrom the sun. Loss of this layer means that sun rays hit directly on the earth resulting intemperature raises which influence climate on the earth and these changes have manifest asglobal warming, prolonged droughts, and unreliable rainfall. However, Uganda is signatory tothe United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) of the Kyoto9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  • 33. Protocol. The UNFCCC provides an international framework for mitigating causes of climatechange and its effects at both international and national level. For instance, the CleanDevelopment Mechanism (CDM) makes it possible for companies or countries that have toreduce emissions under the Kyoto Protocol to invest in emission reduction projects in developingcountries. There is a need for exploring opportunities in the Clean Development Mechanism toutilize the accumulated solid waste managed under the land fill at Kiteezi for energy productionLinking waste management to the Millennium Development goals (MDGs)Uganda subscribes to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) of the United NationsCharter. The targets under these eight goals respond to the world’s main development challengesand are anticipated to be achieved by 2015. The MDGs are drawn from the actions and targetscontained in the Millennium Declaration that was adopted by 189 nations-and signed by 147heads of state and governments during the UN Millennium Summit in September 2000.Addressing the challenges of waste management and flood mitigation should be linked to theMDGs because they directly and indirectly contribute to achievement of the targets under MDGs1, 3, 6 and 7.5The constitution of the Republic of Uganda 1995 Article 245 (a) provides measures intended-To protect and preserve the environment from abuse, pollution and degradation.” The NationalEnvironment (Waste Management) Regulations, S.I. No 52/1999; Provides that all wastes shallbe properly managed among other regulatory frame works like The Local Government Act 1997.The Town and country planning act 1964 provides a policy legal frame work against whichphysical planning is done on urban settlements. It provides for the creation of Town and country9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  • 34. planning board, a body responsible for hand use planning approval and gazzetting structuralplans. However this law is out dated and in effective to enforce compliance and discipline andthis has greatly contributed to irresponsible littering of garbage.By the year 2025, it is estimated that Uganda’s population will be about 54 million, with over30% living in urban areas. It is therefore important that policies are designed to address potentialadverse effects. Since population increase is said to be one of the causes of rampant poor wastemanagement.2.11 Opportunities from wastes.It should be noted that though the word "waste" refers to something that is "no longer serving apurpose", something "without value" (as the Concise Oxford Dictionary puts it), Obviously,however, certain people in certain circumstances consider waste materials as a resource for theirfamily, their livelihood, or their enterprise. The so- called waste materials may serve as a crucialresource within households. For example, oily milk packages may be used as fuel; leftover foodmay be fed to pigs and goats; discarded cardboard may serve as walls and roofs of houses. Ifthat is the case, one can expect that household members re-value waste materials and see theirusefulness for different purposes, such as domestic utility, saving on household expenditures,earning money, or other purposes (ERL, 2008). Therefore, this study was seeking to find outwhether the people in Kyazanga have some of these practices that serve to promote a clean andsafe environment.2.12 Gaps identifiedAlthough several researchers have carried out a number of studies on the causes of poor wastemanagement and have provided a number of solutions to waste management in different parts of9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  • 35. this Uganda and the world at large, it should noted with concern that most if not all these studieshave been carried out in big towns like Kampala, Masaka, jinja, Mbale Mbarara among othersand not in the small emerging towns like Kyazanga. Therefore, the Researcher carried this studyto validate whether such causes of poor waste management and their solutions are applicable toKyazanga Town council and establish Proposals for Change and Improvement in wastemanagement. (See the findings in Chpt 4).2.13 Recommendation.The inadequacies and inconsistencies in the Environmental policies in the context of wastemanagement at both national and local levels call for a comprehensive national policy to guideand streamline waste management in Uganda. These processes should be initiated by the allstakeholder in waste management sector.9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  • 36. CHAPTER THREE:3.0 Methodology3.1 IntroductionThis chapter presents the methods and tools that were used to conduct this research. It specifiesthe research strategy, sampling procedures, research instruments and data analysis techniquesthat were used to explore the underlying causes of poor waste management and seek the localpeople’s opinions on how the problem would be handled.This chapter describes the methods and the procedures that were used to conduct the research. Italso describes the research design (Triangulation method) that is qualitative and quantitativedesigns this is because there was a need to obtain a variety of information on the same issue, touse the strength of each method to overcome the deficiencies that could come from using onedesign and to achieve a higher degree of validity and reliability. Data was collected from twomain sources, primary and secondary. Primary sources of data comprised mainly interviews, anduse of questionnaires. Secondary data was collected from the already existing documents aboutwaste management at the Town Council.3.2 Research designThe research strategy that the study utilized was the descriptive method. A descriptive researchintended to present facts concerning the nature and the status of the situation, as it exists at a timeof the study and to describe the present conditions, events or systems based on impressions orreactions of the respondents of the research. This study was also concerned with the relationships9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  • 37. and practices that exist, beliefs and processes that are ongoing, effects that are being felt ortrends that are developing about poor waste management. The researcher used cross-sectionstudy and triangulation methods (i.e. qualitative and quantitative designs). In this study, bothmethods were be utilized for instance the qualitative opinions that were obtained were confirmedby statistical data. Finally, the study used in-depth interviews, observations (qualitative) as wellas survey and statistical records like graphs, pie-charts and tables (Quantitative).3.3 Area and population of Study.The study was conducted in Kyazanga Town council, Lwengo district one of the newly createddistrict formerly part of Masaka district. It is one of town councils that form Lwengo district. It islocated in the approximately 96 miles (154km) and 46 km from Masaka along Masaka –Mbarara Road and 10 km from Lwengo district headquarters. The Town council has a totalpopulation of about 15832 of whom 4625 are female, 4432 are male and 6775 are childrenbetween 0-18 years. The 2002 Uganda national census estimated the population of LwengoDistrict at about 242,300. The exact population of the district as of December 2010 is not known.The Population in Kyazanga is mixed with different tribes ranging from Banyankole-Bakiga,Bafumbira, Banyarwanda and Baganda. The main activity of the people in Kyazanga T.C isbusiness- (small scale business); while other people are peasants who go to the nearby village forfarming since this is the main source of food and livelihood survival. The Town Council housesthe only Health centre IV in the district and most of the educational institutions.The nature and the characteristics of the Population in Kyazanga (mixed) and the nature of theactivities (small scale business) can be attributed to poor waste management in the area, where alot of waste is generated through their retail businesses.9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  • 38. 3.4 Sample size estimation.The sample size comprised of 76 respondents (local people- considering a number of issues likeresidential, business-small or high etc) from different Wards of Kyazanga T.C, 10 educationinstitutions, 4 health centres/clinics and 10 the Local leaders a total of 100 respondents wasselected from the four zones of Bukyanagandi, Kanakulya Byuma, central and Maida.3.5 Sampling procedure and sampling techniques.The researcher used a non probability sampling procedure where purposive and quota samplingtechniques were employed. This was because, in purposive/judgmental sampling, the researcherpurposively chose respondents who, in his opinion, were thought to be relevant to the researchtopic. In this case the researcher was convinced that his judgment was more important thanobtaining a probability sample because the problem of waste management is not a newphenomena therefore, to obtain relevant data, one must choose relevant respondents. Whereas inquota sampling instead of dividing the population into strata and randomly choosing ofrespondents, the researcher chose to set a ‘quota’ of respondents to be chosen in specificpopulation groups, by defining the basis of choice ( gender, education, status, wealth etc) andthis still was used in determining size.3.6. Data collection techniques.The researcher used both qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection becausequalitative methods involve the use of words rather than numbers; the methods involveddescriptions of the study and this helped the researchers to go beyond conceptions and generateand revise frameworks. This approach helped the researcher to generate quality information that9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  • 39. gave meaning to numbers. While quantitative methods involved the collection of numerical datain order to explain, predict and control phenomena of interest and the data that was collected ispresented as a table in numbers. The numerical data obtained is used to explain the social life ofthe people of Kyazanga in relation to waste management. These methods included,administering questionnaire, interviewing and observation.3.7. 0 Tools to be used in research3.7.1 QuestionnairesThe questionnaire comprised of sections like; the demography where the respondent’s sex,marital status, income level, type of apartment-rental or owned among others were asked. Theyalso consisted of questions both open and closed in which if answered well, would haveexhausted the research objectives and question. In this method of data collection, the respondentsgot and filled in a formerly well structured questionnaire. These questionnaires were home/officedelivered. The questionnaires were personally delivered to and later picked from the premises ofthe respondent. The respondents were given time to fill in the questionnaires. The researcherbelieves that this method gave the respondents enough time to reflect, concentrate and in someinstances to consult. However, to the semi- literate respondents, the questions were read by theresearcher and then translated into local languages for clear understanding and proper responses.3.7.2 The interview guideThe researcher conducted personal interviews especially to key informants like the Town Clerk,chair person LC III and the Health Inspector. The Researcher also introduced himself to therespondents by presenting an introductory letter from the university. The Interviewer thenprecisely explained the purpose of the carrying out the study on the causes of poor waste9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  • 40. management in Kyazanga T.C. The researcher went ahead to explain how the potentialrespondents were selected and that the responses were to be confidential and anonymous, whichcould not be used against the respondent. It was made clear to the respondents that the interviewswere not testing knowledge but rather helping the researcher to learn from them. Whileinterviewing, the researcher was guided by a well structured set of questions which worked as ainterview guide.3.7.3 Observation and a camera.This is “a purposive or intentional examination of something, particularly for purposes of datagathering”. (Chaplain 1968). The researcher used observation method where the occurrences ofpoor waste management events were highly recorded. The researcher used tools like a camera totake pictures of wastes littered anyhow in the Town council.3.7.4 Secondary data.This is the use of the already collected data that was not specifically gathered for the researchquestion at hand. This data could be government or non-governmental or private statistics. Theresearcher had anticipated to get information relevant to the study by reviewing documents aboutwaste management; these documents included, the publications, annual reports of the ministry ofhealth, periodicals, journals, magazines and other literature written by different knowledgeablescholar. The researcher hoped that such information would help as the starting point foradditional research. Unfortunately, the T.C has got only a work plan pamphlet which wascompiled in 2009. This is the only working, and guiding document the TC owns which has half apage information on waste management. This partly explains why this study was conducted inorder to provide information for the leaders and the entire community.9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  • 41. 3.8 Procedure for Data Collection.Both open-ended and closed-ended questionnaires were also used for data collection. Mostlyclosed-ended questionnaires were used to collect easily analyzable data. Interview guides weredesigned and reviewed by the researcher. A set of question were prepared for reference by theresearcher and were approved by the research supervisor. The researcher pre-tested thequestionnaire before he finally put to use.After the approval of the research proposal, the researcher identified two Research Assistants(R.As) with a bias in social research who were oriented on this research and trained ininterviewing; data collection and data coding skills and then pre tested the questionnaires.At this point it was important to prepare a plan for data processing and data analysis based onwhich aspects of data collected was to generate qualitative and quantitative analyzable data.After scheduling the meeting with respondents, the research team started with in-depth personalinterviews each lasted for 10-15 minutes. During all these sessions, the researcher was themoderator while one of the R.As was taking down notes and the whole team carefully listenedand observed the conversations.3.9.0 Data Quality Control.Data safeguarding and ensuring the accuracy and completeness of the same quality controlcomprises of validity of the instrument that used in the study. This was maintained through testsof validity and reliability.9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  • 42. 3.9.1 Validity.Validity in this case refers to the appropriateness, meangfulness and usefulness of theinferences/deductions a researcher makes (fraenkel & Wallen 1996:153). In order to establishvalidity of the instruments, the draft questionnaire was given to the supervisor and academiccolleagues and experts. They were requested to comment on the question wording and the depthof the questionnaire and its ability to address the research objectives (relevancy). The commentsthat were obtained helped to improve on the research instrument.3.9.2 Reliability.Reliability refers to the consistency of the responses obtained from one administration of aninstrument to another and from one set of items to another (Fraenkel & Wallen 1996:160). Toensure consistence of the research instrument, the researcher used simple language and clearinstructions which were quite appropriate to the respondents. Instructions were made as simpleand clear as possible. Questions were phrased clearly to ensure consistence in responses of theparticipants. The respondents who participated in the study were expected to be knowledgeableto provide reliable information. The selected sample was adequate and representative. After allthat, the instrument were pre-tested in a pilot study and the researcher pre-tested a minimum of10 questionnaires. The researcher did that in instances where he was not sure about the adequacyof the optional response categories that had been devised for one question, for instance questionsthat had options like ‘Others, please specify’, the researcher’s concern was be that the responseset to that question might not be effective; as a result the option ‘Others, please specify’ mightattract a disproportionally large number of responses, a problem the researcher wished to avoid.The results of the pre-testing brought on board very important modifications in the questionnaire.9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  • 43. These tests were carried out to ensure consistency and to find out how easy the final study wouldbe done.3.10 Research Formalities.The research procedure began by getting introduction letter from the University which waspresented by the researcher to the authorities in Kyazanga to be allowed to access secondarydata, reports and carry out research in the areas. And in return, the Town Clerk replied by writingan acceptance letter to the Researcher.(see Appendix)3.11 Data Analysis and interpretation.It should be noted that, data obtained from the field in raw form is difficult to interpret. Theinitial data collected was subjected to quality checks, to ensure that the recordings were correctlydone with minimal errors. This entailed editing, repeating interviews where necessary, coding,summarizing, categorizing and grouping similar information, analyzing according to the themeof the study. The researcher deemed it important to note quotations and observations madeduring the interviews and their sources or the name of the interviewee. All the questionnaireswere analyzed whether completed or not.Data analysis and processing was on-going and statistical analysis was done manually and wherepossible the researcher used Microsoft Excel Spreadsheets, and frequencies of the emergingissues were then established in a tabular or graphic form like pie-chats, bar graph and frequenciesand percentages were generated. (See Chpt 4).Care was taken to avoid discarding any data, as this could be reverted to in later analysis.Relevant quotations were ear-marked. Analysis was done manually as earlier mentioned by9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  • 44. identifying areas of emphasis according to themes and the responses summarized in a narrativeform as a presentation of the major findings of the study.At the end of it all, it was from the results of analysis that the researcher was able to make senseof the data in order to give concrete interpretation and discussion of the data obtained in relationto phenomenon of poor waste management.3.12 Limitations of the study and possible way forward.The study was comprehensive and the researcher used considerable finances to execute the studysuccessfully. However, despite the envisaged limitations of logistical and financial difficulties,the researcher endeavored to get the required resources to complete the study within the requiredtime frame.The researcher found some respondents who were not willing to cooperate in giving outinformation concerning poor waste management claiming I was T.C staffs who was disguising tobe a researcher instead looking for information to pin them for poor waste management.However, the researcher tried to build a rapport first which helped in building a strong bond withthe respondents which later enabled him to get the required information.Time factor; this was one of the greatest challenge the researcher faced during the research.There was limited time for the researcher to go the field, make introductions, carry out research,collect data, interpret the findings and then write a scholar report.9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  • 45. 3.13 Dissemination of the results.Once this copy of the research is approved, the researcher will distribute the findings to the areas/ offices that were helpful during data collection exercise. For instance, Town council offices andthe council Health inspect, to enable them update their information and to discover the gaps inthe policy about waste management. The university will retain a copy of approved dissertationfor academic reference and the researcher will retain a copy.3.14 Ethical consideration  The researcher sought permission from the local council leaders in order to allow him collect data  He deemed it necessary not include the names of the respondents on the questionnaires.  The researcher explained the purpose of research to the respondents3.15 Conclusion.All in all, the chapter shows the methodological framework that guided the researcher in thecollection and analysis of data acquired from the different study respondents.It shows thevarious data collection techniques that were employed to enable the researcher to get all therequired information that was needed for this research. It brouht out the particular category ofpeople that were involved in this research and why they were picked upon.9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  • 46. CHAPTER FOUR4.0 DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS4.1 Introduction In this chapter, the researcher presents the findings of the study conducted on wastemanagement within urban areas in Uganda; a case study of Kyazanga town council, Lwengodistrict. The findings are presented using tables, bar graphs and pie charts, which are lateranalyzed by percentages under some of the variables. Most of the findings are descriptive innature.4.2. Back ground Characteristics of Respondents4.2.1. Sex of the respondents.The researcher considered the sex of the respondent because he wanted to study the variations inthe views and perceptions and the role played by both men and women regarding wastemanagement.Table 1: Sex of the RespondentsSex Frequency PercentageFemale 51 51%Male 49 49%Total 100 100%9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  • 47. Figure 1: Distribution of respondents by sex. Respondents by sex 52%%ges 51% 50% Percentage 49% 48% Female Male sexThe findings presented in table 1 above show that, out of the total sample size of 100 respondentscontacted during the study, 51% were females and 49% males. Findings specifically revealedthat the women were more engaged in waste management issues than the men. This was becausemost households that were interviewed, husbands would ask their wives to respond to theresearcher than themselves claiming the wives were more engaged than themselves and that thewomen had more of the domestic responsibilities to handle compared to men. And therefore,women were found to be more engaged in waste management than men and possibly thisexplains the burdens women carry on top of the domestic role they play. It was found out thatsince waste management was a new phenomenon, women (who in this case are the mostresponsible) tend to give waste management the last priority hence poor waste management inthe Town Council.4.2. 2: Distribution of individual respondents by the zone.With the guide of the local leaders we were to identify four zones which include; Bukyanagandi,Kanakulya Byuma, Maida and central zones from the total number of Twelve (12) zones.Bukyanagandi, Kanakulya Byuma and Mayida zones were selected because they have more9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  • 48. residential people and a lot of illegal wastedumping in more observed than any other zonewhile Central zone is known for being the hub ofbusiness in the Town council.Health centres and schools visited are spreadthroughout different zones that were selected. Itshould be noted that Kyazanga being one of thegrowing Town Councils, a lot is needed especially planning for infrastructure developments ob.It was observed by the researcher that there is no single zone that is said to be residential orbusiness oriented. All zones have people doing small scale business (Retail shops) andResidential. However, zones like Central accommodates more people in business than any otherzone. It was therefore; found out that these zones due to their large numbers alongside poorbuilding plans explain why a lot of waste is choking the Town Council.Table 2: The distribution of respondents by zones. Zone Frequency Percentages Central 32 32% Bukyanagandi 30 30% Kanakulya 24 24% Byuma Maida 14 14% Total 100 100%9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  • 49. Figure 2: The pie-chart showing the distribution of the respondents by zone.From above, central zone had the highest number of respondents with 32% because it has thehighest number of residents in business sector and an area that generates a lot of garbage that isindiscriminately littered anywhere. The study also selected Bukyanagandi, Kanakulya Byunmaand Maida Zones with 30%, 24% and 14% respectively. These zones were selected because theyhave the highest dilapidated structures and this go hand in hand with waste management. Suchzones can afford of wastes as a challenge to their health. On top of the above, these zones havethe highest open dumping spaces. Approximately, ¾ of the apartments selected were eitherdumping wastes behind the shelter or in any open place. The current situation in conjunctionwith the attitude of the people if not handled carefully and strongly, these zones could be asource of diseases that can be spread to other zones.9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  • 50. 4.2.3: The income level category.The researcher had interest in the income level category of the people of Kyazanga in order todraw relationship between wealth/income and waste management. There were three categories ofincome that the researcher observed i.e. low income, middle income and high income.Table 3. The distribution of the respondents as per the income category. Income level Frequency Low 50 Middle 30 High 20 Total 100Figure 3: Income levels of Respondents. Income levels of respondents 50 40 Low No. of 30 Middle Respondents 20 High 10 0 FrequencyFrom the graph above, half of the total number of respondents was under low income categoryrepresenting 50%. Majority of these respondents said that because of using cheap non bio-degradable containers which are not easy to dispose off, like ‘Buveera’. The alternatives thatshould have been used like paper bags are not easily available to poor urban dwellers. Evenwhen some of the alternatives are available, the prices of these solid wastes especially polythenebags are low compared to other containers which makes their proper disposal very difficult. To9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  • 51. the middle and high income apartments, a lot is also generated by relatively managed andcollected by the Volunteer Youth Group. It is important to observe at this point that the roleplayed by the service providers should be cross cutting NOT segregate as it is. It was reportedthat poor households were NOT receiving any service from the Team at all.4.2.4 Category of the premise of collection.This study considered two major categories of apartments/premises. These included basicallyresidential and business sector. The researcher found out that at a household level all sorts ofwastes are generated and so is the case for the business sector. The business sector includespeople engaged in retail and wholesale shops, stalls of green vegetables, and restaurants. Theresearcher included this section of premise of collection for a number of reasons; one was toestablish the source of the wastes that are choking the T.C, are the major generators, if there anymeans used to collect, transport and dispose off.a). The residential premises.The table below shows the number of respondents under Residential premises in relation to theirincome level.Table 4 (a). Premise of collection Residential premise Frequency Percentage ( %) a) Low Income 25 50% b) Middle 15 30% income c) High Income 10 20% Total 50 100%9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  • 52. Figure 4 (a):Distributions of respondents at the residential level in relation toincome levels. Residental Respondents 60% 50% Respondents Percentage of 40% 30% Percentage ( %) 20% 10% 0% Low Income Middle High Income income Income levelThe findings in table 4 above indicate that a total number of 50 respondents were interviewed.Low income household since they are the majority had 50% representation, 30% for middleincome and 20% for high income.b). The business sector.Table 4 (b). distribution of respondents in the business sector as pertheir income level.BusinessLow Income 25 50%Middle income 15 30%High Income 10 20%Total 50 100%9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  • 53. Figure 4 (b). Respondents from the Business sector. Respondents from the Business sector 30 60% Respondents in 25 50% Respondents Percentage 20 40% No. of 15 30% 10 20% 5 10% 0 0% Low Income Middle income High Income Income level No. of Respondents PercentageThe findings in table 4 (b) above, it is indicated that still a total number of 50 respondents wereinterviewed in the business sector. The researcher drew respondents from different income levelsin order to study the variations in the opinions about waste management in the TC. Low incomebusiness dealers formed 50% representation, 30% for middle income and 20% for high incomeas it was the case in the residential respondents. It can be observed that in both categories ofrespondents i.e. residential and business, the low income people are the majority. The questionthen is; does the level of income determine the waste management in TC? This question is to beanswered in the following analysis.4.2. 5: Position of the respondents in the apartment.The research chose this demographic characteristic of respondents in order establish who plays abigger role in waste management at both house hold level or at a business establishment.9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  • 54. Table 5: distribution of respondents by positions. Residential level No. of respondents Percentage (%)Spouse of the Head of 41 40establishment/House wivesOwners /Heads 51 52Employees/ Care takers 8 8Total 100 100Figure 5: Distribution of respondents by positions held in the establishment.The position of each respondent was taken to be a very important demographic variable for thestudy because these position influences one’s ability to engage in an activity that isenvironmental friendly or not. As seen in the table above, 41% of people were Spouses of theHead of establishment/House wives, 51% of the respondents were heads/owners of theapartments compared to 8% of the employees/care takers.4.2.6: Education levelsThe researcher considered education as a very important demographic characteristic duringwhich people not only get to know about themselves but also what happens around them. It was9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  • 55. believed by the researcher that people who have had an opportunity to know the dangers of poorwaste management are better placed to manage wastes either by having a collection container orhaving an alternative way of managing wastes properly. Respondents were classified into foureducation levels of education including No formal education, primary, secondary, and tertiary(University). Table 6. Education levels of the RespondentsEducation Level Frequency Percentage (%)Non formal 53 53Primary 21 21Secondary 19 19Tertiary (University) 7 7Total 100 100Figure 6. Distribution of respondents according to their levels of Education. Respondents by education level No. of Respondents 60 60% 50 50% Percentage 40 40% Frequency 30 30% 20 20% Percentage 10 10% 0 0% (University) Secondary Primary Non formal Tertiary Education levelFrom table 6, indicates that the majority of the respondents had not attained formal education(53%). Those who had attained primary education were 21%. Respondents with secondaryeducation level were 19% and those with tertiary and university education were only 7%. Thehigher percentage of respondents with Non-Formal education level was expected since they form9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  • 56. the highest percentage in the area and probably this explains why the issues of wastemanagement are lagging behind in Kyazanga Town Council. The researcher noticed during thisstudy that because of the low levels of education, most of such respondents had no idea about thelegal and institutional frame works in place. In other words lack of information goes hand inhand with the level of education.It should be noted with concern that the level of education forms the basis of waste management.It was found out that low levels of education contributes to poor waste management mechanismswhile high level of education contribute positively towards waste management. Therefore, theresearcher deemed it was necessary to include this demographic characteristic while assessingthe persistent causes of waste management.4.2.7: Time spent in KTC. (How long have you stayed in Kyazanga).Majority of the respondents especially in the residential apartments have stayed in Kyazanga fora period ranging from three years and above. Meaning there are those who have been in the areafor more than forty years and others for the whole of their lives. On the side of those engaged inbusiness, there are those who have just stayed in Kyazanga for a year while others have beentheir for a long period of time and this became very hard for the researcher to generalise sincesome respondents were born in the area and they are now engaged in business. The researcherchose to use the time spent in Kyazanga because it would help to explain whether therespondents knew the stages the area had gone through from a hunting and grazing area totrading centre to Town Board and finally to Town Council. Of course each of these levels have arole to play on waste management.Does such a population structure and settlement pattern explain why waste management is poorin the area? To some extent yes; the researcher found out that because people have spent a long9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  • 57. period of time in the area, it becomes hard for local leaders to enforce the laws/ordinances onwaste management because most the people are closely related families. It was suggested that tosucceed in executing duties pertaining waste management, a civil servant who is not born in thearea would be better placed.4.3: Is waste management a problem?The researcher included this question in order to know how establish whether the residents ofKyazanga could notice that poor waste management was a problem. The respondents were fromresidential, Business sector, Health centres and schools. In all these apartments, the respondentsadmitted that waste management is a problem and they argued that the problem, was very seriousas the population continues to grow.Table 6: distribution of responses on whether waste management was aproblem. Respondents Frequency Percentage (%) Responses Low Income 50 50% Yes Middle income 30 30% Yes High Income 20 20% Some how Total 100 100%9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  • 58. Figure 7: Responses on whether waste management was a problem. Responses on problem of waste mgt 60% 50% 40% 30% Percentage (%) 20% 10% 0% Yes Yes Some how Low Income Middle income High Income Income levelFrom the figure (7) above, 50% of the respondents were under low income category said thatwaste management was indeed a threat and their response to the question was yes. This was thesame case with the middle income which was represented by 30%. Unlike the two, the highincome respondents did not look at waste management as a problem because most of their time,they are enclosed in their perimeter block with full water tanks, gas cylinders or charcoal andthey could afford to pay a person to collect their wastes at least three times a week and thesecomprised of 20% .4.8. What form of wastes is commonly generated in the apartments?Most respondents generated wastes that included; organic waste like kitchen waste, vegetables,flowers, leaves, fruits and non organic wastes like plastics, polythene bags, paper, glass, andmetals. It was found out that in a week, the residential respondents approximately generatedbetween 8-10 kg of wastes. While the people engaged in business generate between 10-20kgs.9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  • 59. This poses a great challenge when it comes to waste management. There is no proper means ofcollecting, transporting and disposal of such wastes.4.9. Does your house hold have a container?The respondents were asked whether they had containers where wastes were being collectedfrom and the responses varied as follow.Table 8: distribution of responses on the question whether therespondents had a container. Respondents Frequency Percentage (%) Responses Low Income 50 50% No Middle income 30 30% Yes High Income 20 20% Yes Total 100 100%Figure 8: Distribution of Responses on whether Premises had containers Responses on the availability of the container 20% Yes 50% No Low Income 30% yes Middle income High Income9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  • 60. Findings presented in table 8, generally shows that most of the respondents who participated inthis study had no containers or anything they used to store in their collected waste at a householdlevel/premises and this took the largest percentage of 50%. Findings also revealed however that asignificant percentage of the respondents (30%) had where to store the accumulated waste butnot a proper waste container. The 30% used polythene bags, sacks and other materials. Thesewould at times tire or break before disposed off. And the rest of the respondents 20% hadcontainers where they would store their wastes until the volunteer group comes for collection.The study further revealed that majority of the respondents who never had containers were thelow income earners. While conducting the study, it was observed that such house holds wereeither throwing wastes behind the house or in an open space. And this poses a health threatespecially when it rains. To the respondents who are high income earners, they at least hadpolythene bags, sacks, metallic containers among other ways. One would be able to tell adifference between such house holds and those of the low income earners. However, much asthese house holds could afford to have collection containers and have the volunteer group collectwastes, it revealed that there was no proper ways of disposing off these wastes.Source: field dataThe researcher on his further investigation into the matter observed that whereas some businessrespondents, at least had; a metallic container, polythene bags or the bucket where they would9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  • 61. keep their wastes and that this limited the littering of such wastes with in the apartments. Most ofthese wastes would be found in water channel, along the road, in open spaces, in corridors asseen in the pictures above.4.10. Who provided the container that was used on your premises?In order to establish the source of the container, the respondents were asked who provided thecontainer that was used in the premises. Findings from this question are presented in table 9below.Table 9: distribution of responses on who provided the container Category of Frequency of Percentage of Responses respondents respondents respondents Middle 30 60 Self High 20 40 Self Total 50 100%Figure 9: distribution of responses on who provided the container. Percentage of respondents 60 40 60 50 40 30 Percentage of respondents 20 10 0 self self Middle High9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  • 62. From the above, of the 50 respondents who had containers, 60% (30 respondents) were themiddle income earners while 40% (20 respondents) were high income earners. The studyrevealed that these two categories had at least a polythene bag or a sack. However, this did notguarantee proper waste management outside the premises. Other studies else where in the worldhave shown that the well to do (Rich) countries have better mechanisms of managing wastes thatthe poor countries. The researcher believes that the aspect of income has a great role it playstowards proper waste management although for Kyazanga T.C, it is a different case since theabove category of people have no place of disposing off the accumulated wastes and they end upthrowing those polythene bags, sacks among other containers in open spaces or along the road.This was observed while answering the question ‘where do you empty your container from?’It should be noted with concern that the deposal methods of wastes generated in the T.C are notspecific in a sense that if one can find an open space, on a pile along the road or any alternativethen, he/she dumps the wastes there.It was observed that open dumping of wastes is one of the major challenges faced by the TownCouncil (see the pictures below). This dumping site boarders Natatete zone and the Central zone.In the zones that extend to the peri-urban like Kanakulya Byuma and Bukyanagandi,management of biogradable wastes is not a challenge as it is disposed off in the gardens.It was found out that the current dumping site is located in an environmentally sensitive area forexample the site is approximately 100 metres from the house holds, the fore right corner, there awell where people fetch water for domestic use, there is a road that has now been now beennarrowed because of accumulated wastes and the water ways (culverts) have been blocked9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  • 63. causing flooding in rainy seasons and off course diseases that are related to poor wastemanagement like dysentery.The dumping site in Central zone. Same dumping siteSource: Field dataAs seen in findings presented in the pictures above, respondents reported that whereas theCentral zone had the above dumping site, which is used by those who can afford to carry theirwastes to the place, it was discovered that this was not the case with zones like KanakulyaByuma Maida and Bukyanagandi. Every house hold had its unique way of disposing of wastes.Some residents simply dump their wastes behind the house (see the picture below).However, the Non-biogradable waste is burnt which exposes the environment at risk. The smoke9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  • 64. may end up destroying the ozone layer which may expose people to health related hazards likecancer. (See the picture taken during the data collection below). Burning of wastes at Kyazanga Health Centre IVThe researcher recommends that the local leaders sensitise the local people about the likelydangers of emitting such gases/smoke to the atmosphere. This calls for explaining them the otheralternative methods that affordable but also environmentally friendly.4.11: Does your house hold receive any a collection service of any type?In order for the researcher to establish whether there were any services in the Town Councilcollecting and transporting wastes from the area, the respondents were asked to answer abovequestion. Like it is the case in the other neighbouring TCs, one may assume that the servicesavailable in other T.Cs are also available in Kyazanga. The responses to the question arepresented in the table below.Table 10: distribution of responses on services received Respondents category Frequency Percentage (%) Responses Low Income 62 50% No Middle income 23 30% No High Income 15 20% Yes Total 100 100%9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  • 65. Figure 10: Responses on services received Percentage (%) Yes 15% No 23% Percentage (%) No 62% Low Income Middle income High Income No Yes Yes Percentage (%) 62% 23% 15%It was found out that 85% of the respondents who were in low and middle income categories didnot receive any service of any form. However, this was different from their counterparts in thehigh income earners (15%) were receiving some services from a youth volunteer group whichwas an initiative by the current Town Clerk Mr. Mayanja Badru. Unfortunately, the initiatorwhen consulted on whether this volunteer group was only helping the rich and leaving the poorbehind, he had no idea that the practice was segregative in nature.Further analysis of this showed that due to the long distance to the dumping site, most of therespondents could not afford to transport their wastes to the site prompting them to throw thewastes by the roadside or in any open places un like the high income people whose wastes werecollected by the Volunteer group who had a vehicle.The researcher recommends that the volunteer group should NOT segregate house holds sincethe wastes generated at these house holds is equally dangerous to the society as a whole. Thiswill reduce on the chances of disposing off wastes in open places, burying, burning among otherways of disposing off those wastes.9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  • 66. 4.12: Do you think the acquisition of the Town Council status made anyimprovements in waste management?In order for the researcher to gain insights on whether the status of the TC has had any positivein relation to waste management, the researcher asked the question above and the responses wereas follows in the table below.Table11: Impact of the TC status. Responses Frequency Percentages No with explanations 37 37% Yes with explanations 63 63% Total no. of Respondents 100 100%Figure 11: Distribution of responses on the impact of the TC status.This question had mixed reactions especially from the side of the poor people (37%) whoclaimed they were being left out in the waste management and collection services but at leastthey would see what was going on in the neighbourhood. However, some respondents (63%)argued that there were incredible changes since Kyazanga was granted the Town Council status9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  • 67. July 2010. This gave birth to the strong technical staff led by the Town Clerk Mr. MayanjaBadru who initiated the Youth group that he pays 90,000/= per month from his own salary. TheTown Council had no budget for waste management yet this is one of the greatest problemsfaced by the residents of Kyazanga. In the researcher’s opinion, this is a great servant hood butnot sustainable in situations where the Town Clerk is transferred to another TC as it is the normin the Civil service sector, such a project may phase out. However, the Town council hopes toallocate some resources towards waste management.In relation to the above, 67% of the respondents had witnessed some change especially at household level where a lot of wastes is predominantly burnt. The researcher was able to observe thatat least most of the buildings had a burning area of wastes. The effort in doing this was attributedto the existence of the Town Council where the Town Clerk and his team would move house tohouse sensitising people to burn wastes.However, the researcher noted that with time the Town Council may face a problem ofenvironmental pollution since every shelter burns wastes.The wastes are collected twice in a week in some households and. They do not pay for theservices received. It is important to note that 80% of the garbage generated is barely collectedand even what is collected is not sorted which puts ecology to danger.4.13: What do you think is the cause of poor waste management in yourneighborhood?This question was open to different views from different respondents. The intension of this wasto allow the respondents give their views though to some could appear vague e.g. presence ofopen piles in the neighborhood could prompt one also to dump there and the practice can go onand on.9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  • 68. Different respondents gave some reasons that were cross cutting while others gave totallydifferent reasons as below presented:Lack of dumping sites where to deposit the solid waste. This is because the issue of wastemanagement is new in the Town Council. It wasnt considered to be a problem before. Andtherefore, the leaders never put emphasis on proper wastemanagement. People dump wastes any where they see openpiles and when one moves around the Town Council,he/she may think that waste in way of life.Ignorance of the masses about the need to dispose of thesewastes well and how to dispose of them (the wastes) off. There is lack of enough literacyprograms on Waste management which leaves most of the people in the Town Council backwardon waste management. This is because of poor or no sensitization of the masses by the leadersand other bodies/institutions of Uganda.It was found out that whereas the other established Town Councils all over the Uganda have gota vote for waste management in their budgets, Kyazanga T.C has never thought of allocated evena single coin in their budget for waste management. This implies that there can never beefficient collection methods which are mainly due to lack of funds to provide the necessarymachinery. The researcher used the word machinery to refer to issues like the trucks that carrythe waste from the various areas, and the waste containers/skips among others. In relation to theabove, the Local leaders’ poor attitude towards waste management. From a citizens point ofview, the researcher noted that the directly elected leaders had no commitment to lobbying forfunds towards waste management.9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  • 69. Out of the 100 respondents, 78 people (78%) argued that poor waste management at a house holdlevel was due to poverty. This undoubtedly leads to masses buying of cheap non bio-degradablecontainers which are not easy to dispose off, and also substitutes like paper bags are not easilyavailable to these emerging poor areas. However, this is a question of debate whether povertymeans not to collect all those non-bio gradable waste and dispose them off hygienically?. On toppoverty, most respondents said that the low expense of these solid wastes especially polythenebags which are very cheap as compared to other containers makes them very common, whichmakes their proper disposal very difficult.During the time of this study, the Town Clerk confirmed that the Town Council had no trainedmanpower/personnel to deal with garbage collecting machinery and to ensure there iscompliancy to proper disposal of the waste is in place. In fact there was no one appointedwhether trained or not for the responsibility. This was due the due to budgetary constraintsamong the several reasons. It was for that reason why the Town Clerk had to sacrifice part of hissalary to give to a youth volunteer group to collect wastes in the town. Unfortunately, this groupwas collecting wastes only in the middle and high income apartments leaving out the low incomeapartments which leave almost ¾ of the wastes un-collected and once it rains; these accumulatedwastes are distributed equally to the whole town.The emerging Kyazanga Town Council lacks recycling facilities. Most respondents argued that ifthere was a facility of such kind possibly the polythene bags used would be recycled and thiswould reduce on the scattered polythene bags. Kyazanga is commonly referred to as a ‘Kaveera’Town.9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  • 70. There is little emphasis on voluntary work. People dont work together as a community for thebetterment of the environment. It was found out that Kyazanga has various associations/voluntary organizations such as scouts that have not emphasis in such activities.Increasing rural urban migration leading to high population hence more garbage generation.According to the 2002 Uganda Population and Housing Census, Kyazanga T.C had an estimatedtotal population of 9,650 with an average of 4 people per household. According the KyazangaSub- county year Rolled Development Plan (2009-2015), the total population in 2009 was12,528, it is projected to be 18,882 and 57,806 in 2020 and 2050 respectively. This is aremarkably big increase in the population. Data collected reveals that majority of the residing inKyazanga are born there. However, over the years, there has been an influx of people differentrural communities and they have today become permanent residents. This worries the leadershipin place that as more numbers come in the more the problem of waste management becomesbigger and complicated.Uncontrolled and improperly planned urban human settlements as well as land relateddevelopments; during the study, the researcher learnt that the Town council had just recruited aTown Engineer. This implies that all the buildings that were constructed before 2011 had no planand therefore, they never put into consideration waste management. Most of the rental houses inKyazanga do not have any gazetted place for waste collection. Most of the school in the Towncouncil do not have space where to collect wastes from. These schools include; St.Mary’s P/s inBukyanagandi zone, Kyazanga Junior and Ikrah Education centre all in Central zone andTakuwah P/S in Maida zone. These schools have no room for expansion. None of these primaryschools had a facility of any form that was in place to minimize the indiscriminative dumping of9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  • 71. wastes within and outside the apartment and this can be blamed on uncontrolled and improperplaned land related developments.A conceptually deficient land management paradigm, largely based on ownership; the currentdumping site in central Zone is a privately owned land that has on several occasions resulted intoconflict between the urban leadership and land owners, and subsequent improper wastemanagement at the site. However, the Town council has already surveyed the land out side thetown that will be used as the dumping site once purchased.Reluctances to behavioral change; this has led to failure of the households to use garbage bins forproper waste management. The researcher noticed that even the poor households could at leastafford a sack/or a bucket where to store the generated wastes. People seem to take wastemanagement as a new phenomenon which does not require the due attention it deserves.Similar to the above is that, it would seem that the easiest and most effective way to reduce theamount of waste to be disposed of would be to simply produce less in the first place. This is astrategy that seems simple in concept and has shown promise; however the amount of wasteproduced, even in big towns like Kampala, Mukono, Mbale among others is often a function ofculture and affluence. Most respondents confessed that they are living in a society that has beenlabeled a “throw away society”, where increases in health and convenience associated withconsumer goods has resulted in an increase in packaging (more items are individually packaged),resulting in significant increases in Urban solid wastes as production becomes cheaper.The Researcher observed that the emphasis on mass production and the development of cheapconsumer goods has caused quality and longevity of goods to be sacrificed in the name of lowestmarket price, causing people to be more likely to simply throw away and replace items instead of9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  • 72. repairing or maintaining them. A good example is theKaveera that is used once and thrown away.The respondents also identified other constraints towardsachieving environmentally sound management of waste intheir neighbourhood and these include the following:  Lack of knowledge and skill to identify technologies affordable by the common person for the environmentally sound management of Hazardous Waste.  Lack of public awareness of the nature of Waste and the danger they pose to their health and environment.  Lack of political will by various Local leaders to put in place appropriate legislations to deal precisely with the issue of Waste Management.  Inability to measure and quantify the level of degradation that have occurred as a result of unsound management of Hazardous Waste.4.14: What are the indictors of poor waste management in this area?Over the years, Kyazanga has been synonymous with ‘Kaveera’ a sign of poor waste disposal.There is prevalence of haphazard/random dumping of waste everywhere in the Council that onewould easily be convinced that the authorities are not doing much to solve the problem. AlongKanyonnyi road, there is a line of shops, stall of food stuffs, makeshift restaurants, residences,and saloons. People often buy foodstuffs from these places yet mounds of rotting garbage lie justbeside the restaurants.9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  • 73. The TC under normal circumstances should be responsible for collecting wastes and its propermanagement. However, what was observed during the study was that, it is a commonphenomenon to find heaps of garbage along the road, pathways, in water tunnels among otherareas. Besides that, it was observed that there is poor disposal of human waste especially inconjested zones of Byakyanagandi and Kanakulya Byuma. And because of this, people’s healthhas been at a far greater risk than ever especially when it rains.The other manifestation of poor waste management in the Town Council is the persistent floodsespecially in the central and Bukyanagandi zones. The situation worsens when it is a rainyseason. The major cause of this is that, all the culverts, and water channels are blocked by theaccumulated wastes are not properly disposed off.Presence of Household waste all over; from the survey conducted, it was revealed that most ofthe households in the area do not have proper facilities for managing their waste water; insteadthey dispose it on roads, access lanes, drainage channels and backyards of their houses. And allthis is an indication of poor waste management.9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  • 74. 4.15. What do you consider the most urgent effects related to the poor wastemanagement in your neighbourhood?The residents who are near the dumping site said that such a site is highly associated withdiseases like cholera, the site produces odor and frequent fires (in some cases).Additionally, the high moisture content and organic composition of wastes may lead to problemsof increased decomposition rates in areas with high average daily temperatures; high seasonal oryear-round rainfall would only compound these problems, presenting additional challenges withinsect populations like mosquitoes, rats among other rodents and this can be create a conducivecondition to diseases.Human fecal matter is present in most solid wastes; the Town Council has a problem ofinadequate sanitary disposal systems such as the sewerage or on-site septic systems, Pit latrinesand toilets among others. It was found out that on average 15 rental rooms (Mizigo) with anaverage of 4 people have got one pit latrine stance where people have to line up. This hasincreased the amount of human fecal matter present in the solid waste dumping places, along theroads, on the streets and this is likely to be higher if the leaders do not come out strong to opposethe practice. This presents a potential health problem not only to waste workers, but also toscavengers, chicken and other domestic animals that tend to graize there, and even small childrenwho like to play in or around waste dumping sites. The usual disease pathways include placingcontaminated hands in the mouth or eating food, through vector insects such as cockroaches ormosquitoes, or by directly inhaling airborne dust particles contaminated with pollutants.9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  • 75. From this picture you can see cows in the far middle background and 3 chickens in a sitedirectly feeding.Source: Field data.In one study conducted in Indian landfills, roundworms (Ascaris spp.) and whipworm (Trichurisspp.) were commonly found, especially in those landfills located near lower-incomeneighborhoods and slums (Cointreau 1982).Most of the respondents agreed that poor waste management had serious effects on theenvironment. The decomposition of waste into constituent chemicals and this is a commonsource of local environmental pollution. This problem is very acute in Kyazanga; the only oneexisting landfill does not meet environmental standards accepted in a number of legislations likethe NEMA Act and the National Environment Statute CAP 153 among others. The problem isagain compounded by the issues associated with rapid urbanization. As land becomes scarce,human settlements build closer and closer to the landfill space.9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  • 76. In relation to the above, Non-biodegradable wastes especially polythene bags cannot be absorbedby the soils and clogs water ways causing flooding in low laying areas like Bukyanagandi andCentral zones.The study that was conducted revealed that only 7% of the respondents who had attainedTertiary Education could tell that poor waste management is hazardous to the environment. Amajor environmental concern is the gas that is released by decomposing garbage called methane.Methane is a byproduct of the anaerobic respiration of bacteria, and these bacteria thrive inlandfills with high amounts of moisture. The problem with these gasses is their contribution tothe so-called greenhouse gasses (GHGs) which are blamed for global warming.Kyazanga Town Council does not have a clear and defined source of water apart from the wellsor ponds and 7% of the educated respondents expressed their worries that unless propermechanisms have been put in place to reduce the illegal dumping of wastes, the Town Council isprone to water pollution. The uncollected wastes give rise to Liquid leachate and this poses athreat to local surface and ground water systems.4.16 Are you aware of any legal or institutional frame work that is there toaddress some of the poor waste management issues in your area? If so pleaselist them.The researcher included this question in order to establish how the Legal aspects address theboundary conditions in which the waste management system exists: setting goals and priorities;determination of roles and jurisdiction; the existing or planned legal and regulatory framework;and the basic decision making processes. On the other hand, the also wanted to investigate howthe Institutional aspects relate to the political and social structures which control and implement9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  • 77. waste management: the distribution of functions and responsibilities; the organizationalstructures, procedures and methods implicated; the available institutional capacities; and theactors such as the private sector who could become involved. Planning is often considered theprincipal activity in relation with institutional and organizational aspects.The researcher further wanted to establish whether the local people had any idea about the legaland institutional frame works in the place.Table 12: Distribution of responses on whether the people are aware ofthe legal and institutional frame works in place.Responses Frequencies Percentages.No idea at all 98 98%Yes 02 2%Total 100 100%Figure 12: Percentages of responses on whether the people are aware of thelegal and institutional frame works in place.9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  • 78. The investigations revealed that 98% (98 respondents) had NO idea about any legal orinstitutional frame works in operation as regards to waste management. This indicated lack ofinformation on the side of the local people. And only 2% were aware of the legal andinstitutional frame works in place. Not surprisingly, it was only the Town Clerk, and HealthInspector who listed a number of such frame works that were yet to be implemented. Theseframe works included;The public health Act CAP 296 (13); this act specifies the rules and regulations regardingpublic health issues such as drainage and sanitation. The Act specifies details of the buildingstandards under section 269, which applies to municipalities and TCs as planning areas declaredunder the Town and planning Act. Public buildings, stores, schools, health centres and marketsare all provided for in this Act. It should be noted that with this Act, all developers are by thislaw required to erect a building in compliance with the requirements of the building rules.The National Environmental Statute CAP 153; according to this statue, part 6 sections 34-55,all the relevant environmental management issues are vested in NEMA in collaboration with thegovernment and local governments.4.17: What are some of the interventions you would propose to help in improving thesituation of waste management in your neighbourhood?The respondents proposed the interventions that can be of help in reducing and improving wastemanagement in the Town Council. These are as follows:Intensive sensitization and awareness campaign is a prerequisite for urban solid wastemanagement. The Town Council authorities need to appreciate that lack of awareness on thenegative effects of poor waste management and the potential benefits associated with proper9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  • 79. waste disposal is partly responsible for the apparent problem of poor waste managementpractices in the Council.The people also proposed that, the TC should procure a piece of land which can act as a dumpingsite. During the study, it was found out that the TC had no Dumping site. What is being used as adumping site now is some one’s land and in the middle of the Town amidst households. Severaltimes this land caused chaos and fights amongst the people. Once land is obtained, then peoplewould find means of dumping their wastes in the gazetted area than dumping anywhere.The leadership of the Town Council must wake up if the problem of the poor waste managementis to be solved. All these problems can be solved if there is a political will. There are severallaws that if implemented well the TC could be free from wastes. For instance, if a law is passedthat every household should have a waste collection container and whoever defies that can becharged in court for polluting the environment.The TC could also introduce garbage skips (Communal waste containers) in every zone so thatpeople carry their wastes to the communal collection container. This would reduce on randomlittering of wastes and dumping on road sides and in open places.Respondents also suggested that the TC through the Town Engineer should to make sure that nobuilding should be raised without a gazzetted area for waste management. This should addressboth human waste and solid wastes. Most buildings in the Town Council do not have pit latrinesand has on several occasions threatened people’s health and on top of that every tenant shouldfind his/her way of disposing off wastes.4.18: Do you think waste can be of value? Explain.9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  • 80. The term ‘waste’ has a different meaning for different people. In general one can say that wasteis ‘unwanted’ for the person who discards it; a product or material that does not have a valueanymore for the first user and is therefore thrown away. But ‘unwanted’ is subjective and thewaste could have value for another person in a different circumstance, or even in a differentculture.Some members admitted that people tend to refer to waste as something of no value yet wastecan be wealth/ a resource which can be used to generate thermal power, recycle into paper andbottles, and create employment opportunities and environmental protection. Leaders andresidents need information on how to exploit the benefits through many ways, for examplepromotion of rural urban interaction where farmers and the urban leaders meet and discussmechanisms on ways and means of using waste generated in urban areas as organic manure inplantations and conducting community dialogues.Most respondents did not any value for wastes like polythene bags, apart from a few who havegot gardens and they can use food leftovers and other bio gradable materials.The Town Council administration believes that it lack of conventional method for managementof wastes that people have resorted mainly to open dumping in open spaces.4.19: ConclusionIn conclusion, the data analyzed in this particular chapter of the study set out to understandgenerally the study themes. The gaps included households not being aware of what to as far aswaste management is concerned because proper waste management is a new phenomenon intheir midst. The reasons of the persistent poor waste management are beyond the numerous legaland institutional frame works in place despite their presence. These include; ignorance, lack ofdumping site, the technical staff, budgetary constraints among other.9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  • 81. CHAPTER FIVE:5.0 IMPLICATIONS, RECCOMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION OF THESTUDY5.1: SummaryHaving established in chapter four the means used to collect, transport and dispose off wastes,the underlying causes of poor waste management and the possible solutions to achieve properwaste management as proposed by the local people, chapter (5) proposes furtherrecommendations for improving waste management in the Town council. This chapter also callsfor the Local leaders both civil servants and Political leaders to revise their strategies on how toproperly manage wastes.This study was more qualitative in nature although the researcher employed some quantitativetechniques waste management. The study was exploratory and descriptive employing bothqualitative and quantitative methods of research. The study was conducted in four zonesincluding Central, Bukyanagandi, Kanakulya Byuma and Maida all in Kyazanga Town Council.This chapter presents summary of conclusions and recommendations for further studies.5.2: Conclusions and recommendationsThe conclusions and recommendations are categorized and presented in this chapter under thedifferent objectives and themes that the study set out to investigate and achieve again from thestudy, a number of evidence-based conclusions and recommendations have been generatedwhich the researcher deemed appropriate to address.9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  • 82. Leaders and residents need information on how to exploit the benefits through many ways, forexample Kyazanga TC and her neighbour are purely agriculturalists and therefore, the promotionof rural urban interaction where farmers and the urban leaders meet and discuss mechanisms onways and means of using waste generated as organic manure in plantations would partly reduceon the illegal dumping of wastes haphazardly this can be done through conducting communitydialogues.The Local leaders/authorities need to embrace waste recycling as a best practice. The cost ofrecycling waste is quite high and needs huge capital investment and experience shows that thisbest practice has not been fully embraced by Town council. Urban managers therefore need tofocus on important indirect benefits associated with waste recycling like Environmental: Nonorganic wastes like polythelene bags which affect the ecology and soil fertility. Through propersorting these can be separated from organic waste and recycled to protect the environment.Kyazanga T.C authorities need to embrace the concept of twinning among Town councils; this isthe method whereby different local authorities meet and agree to cooperate on establishingcontact on areas of common interest. Knowledge is power, and twinning can help Kyazangaauthorities to share success stories from her neighbouring T.Cs like Lyantonde T.C andoutsource funding for capital investment to start on recycling waste.To mitigate the problem of littering wastes everywhere in the Town, a much more frequentcollection is needed in both hot and humid seasons in order to remove organic wastes before theyare able to decompose. Although daily collection has proven unreliable or unworkable in manyneighboring Town councils, perhaps a twice-weekly collection of organic material would besufficient to reduce decomposition in every corner of the Town.9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  • 83. A leaf can be borrowed from developed nations on how leachate has been managed. A case inpoint is the use of dense clay deposits at the bottom of waste pits, coupled with plastic sheeting-type liners to prevent infiltration into the surrounding soil. This is generally regarded as the mostfavorable strategy to contain excess liquid. In this way, waste is encouraged to evaporate ratherthan infiltrate into the water table. This will help to reduce on water pollution and automaticallythis will reduce on the diseases that come as a result of water contamination.While recycling and reclaiming materials goes a long way toward reducing pollution, the bestway to help the environment is by reducing the resources you use. The EPA recommends thatyou buy items in bulk packaging, and choose open-air fruit instead of fruit in bags. Instead ofbuying one-time use items, buy reusable items like cloth napkins instead of paper ones.Minimize your garbage by using recyclable products or non-disposable products. For exampleuse a carry-all made of heavy mesh to carry groceries from the store. Fold these and keep themin your car or shopping cart and save by not having shopping bags.From the results of the study that was conducted, if Kyazanga TC is to improve on the sanitationconditions, then, the following specific interventions are critical and must be put intoconsideration:  Create awareness programmes to develop interest and commitments among the local people and stakeholders to support interventions indentified for addressing the waste management problem in the Town council.  There is a need to increase community, NGO, CBO enrollment in the implementation of the waste management ordinances.9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  • 84.  Public-private partnership between Kyazanga TC. And the District on the development of sewage lagoons, dumping sites, abortour among other developments that would promote a free waste Town Council.  The TC should conduct EIA for the proposed landfills, arbotour, the sewage lagoon, the mushrooming buildings and any other development in order to minimize on the sources wastes in the Town.  The researcher would also advice that waste management be prioritized in the TC’s action plans and budget allocations, and commitment of stakeholders in the terms of providing finances, time and materials to implement waste management planned activities.  Strengthen the existing initiatives on waste management for instance the Volunteer youth group. This group can be given an opportunity to collect wastes/garbage for the Council and be paid for the services  The Council needs to revise and strengthen the by-laws and legislation relating to waste management as well as their enforcement.  There is a need for major generators of waste e.g. markets, schools to manage their own wastes through developing frame works and self regulation e.g. by-laws for waste management.5.3: Suggestions for further researchFurther research is needed in the area of waste especially for the small emerging towns likeKyazanga. This is because there is an assumption that all towns have similar problems as regards9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  • 85. to waste management which is not true. For instance, before conducting this study, the researcherassumed that because of little funding, the Town Council could not fully manage the wastes yetin actual sense, there wasn’t any money/funds budgeted for waste management, there was also asecond assumption that the technical staff were not doing enough in encouraging/sensitizing thepeople about proper waste management but it was revealed during the study that the Towncouncil had no Health inspector but instead the Town Clerk was doubling also as a Healthinspector and during the study, that is when the Town Council hired the Council Engineer.Therefore, a lot of research is needed in these emerging Towns so as to establish the exact causesof poor waste management in these areas rather than assuming that all towns face similarproblems and that there is nothing new o find out.9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  • 86. 6.0 Appendices6.1 ReferencesDEAT and DWAF (1999). National Waste Management Strategies and Action Plans for SouthAfrica. Strategy Formulation Phase. PMG 130. DEAT and DWAF, Pretoria.Environmental Monitoring Association Limited, Kampala Uganda.Environmental Resource Limited (ERL), (2008); Solid Waste Disposal–KampalaMunicipal Solid Waste Management. UNEP Technical Publication 6, Nov. 1996.National Environment Management Authority, 2000NEMA,(1998). Caring for our Environment A Handbook for Local leaders, NEMA inconjunction with Friedrich Ebert stiftung (FES).Ntategize P, et al, (2000). Draft Strategic Plan for Solid Waste Management for Mpigi District,Nyakaana et al. 2006), population, urban development and environment in Uganda; the case ofKampala city and its environs. Makerere University, Kampala UgandaNtategize et al., (2001), solid waste management strategic plan for Mpigi district, UgandaThe National Environment (Waste Management) Regulations, 1999.The National Environment Act (NEA) (1999); The Republic of UgandaThe constitution of the Republic of Uganda 1995Uganda http://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/upload/uganda/uganda%20HDR%202005.pdf9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  • 87. UNDP, (2005), Uganda Human Development report, United Nations Development Program,Kampala, Uganda,UNEP. (1996). International Source Book on Environmentally Sound Technologies forZake J, Yawe A, Lutalo R and Kaweesa M (2007), A Base line survey Report for SustainableNeighbours if focus cities project. Environmental Alert, Kampala, UgandaZerbock O. ( 2003).Urban Solid Waste Management, Waste Reduction in Developing Countries.Available on http://www.cee.mtu.educ/peacecorps/documents-july03.wastereduction andincineration FINAL. PDF.9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  • 88. 6.2 Appendix ii: Time frame TASK Weeks 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th 12thMake collections inproposals.Finalize the researchtoolsTraining of R.AsPre-test the research toolsReview secondary data atthe T.C.Collect raw dataAnalyze secondary andprimary dataEvaluate dataDraft findingsComplete remainingchaptersSubmit to Supervisor andawait feedbackRevise draft and formatfor submissionPrint, bind and submit9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  • 89. 6.3 Appendix 3. QUESTIONNAIRESMy name is Natamba Shadrack Reg.No (RS09M13/503); a student of Uganda ChristianUniversity. I am doing this study as a partial fulfillment for the Award of a Master of ArtsDegree in Development Studies. This questionnaire was drafted by the researcher in exploringthe causes of Poor waste management in Kyazanga Town council, Lwengo district. Pleaseanswer all the questions with honest. The information you will give is purely academic and itwill be treated with a lot of confidentiality. I am requesting you to kindly participate in this studyby responding to the following questions.Section A: Background CharacteristicsArea …………………………………………………………………Name of Respondent (Optional)……………………………………………………………………………Circle the income level category. A) High B) middle C) low incomeCategory of the premise of collection (tick the applicable option).Residential………….schools………… health centres………. Business…………..Bio-data 1) Position of Respondent (circle the right option) (a) Health Inspector (b) Head of household (c) Head of school/Teacher (d) Head of the Health centre (e) Owner of the business (f) Spouse of head of the establishment (g) Other, please specify……………………………………………………………………… 2) What is your level of education? (Circle the right option) (a) none (b) Primary school (c) Secondary/high school (d) Tertiary/institution of higher learning (e) Others (please specify)………………………………………………………………………………… …… 3) Occupation of the respondent (Circle the applicable option). i) Peasant farmer ii) Business person. iii) Professional iv) Others specify………………………………………………………….. 4) How long have you been a resident in Kyazanga? (a) Less than a year (b) More than a year but less than three years (c) More than three years but less than ten years9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  • 90. (d) More than ten years (e) Any other, please state …………………………………………………………………….. 5) Is waste management a problem Yes No in this area? 6) In your opinion, how serious is (a) Very serious the problem of waste management (b) Somewhat serious (c) Not serious (d) Don’t know 7) What forms of wastes are (a) Plastic wastes like Polythene commonly generated in your apartments? bags and other plastics. (Circle the most applicable opinion). (b) Food stuff wastes (c) Metal wastes (d) Paper wastes (e) Others specify…………… Choose the most applicable response 8) Approximately, estimate the …………………………………………… quantity of waste produced in your household per week in Kilograms? 9) Does your house hold or a) Yes apartment have a waste container? b) No 10) If yes what type of container? ……………………………………………… ……………….. 11) Who provided the container that a) Self is used on your premise? b) Town Council c) Private company. d) Others……………………… 12) If No, how to do you collect your ………………………………………………. wastes 13) How often do you empty you a) Several times each day container b) Daily c) Three times a week d) Twice a week e) Once a week f) Less frequently g) Don’t know……………… 14) Where do you empty your (a) Within the same apartment container from? (b) Just outside the apartment (c) In the open space (d) Onto the collection vehicle 15) Does your household receive a (a) Yes collection service of any type? (b) No (c) Don’t know 16) If yes, who collects garbage from (a) Self/private arrangement your neighborhood or household? (b) Town Council9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  • 91. (c) Private company. (d) Others specify………….. 17) If No how do you dispose off ……………………………………………… your wastes? …………… 18) How are the collected wastes a) Use wheel barrow transported? b) The company’s /the T.C s vehicle c) Any other specify………………………… 19) Do you think the acquisition of the Town Council status made any improvement in waste management? ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 20) What do you think is the cause of poor waste management in your neighborhood…………….………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……… 21) What are the indictors of poor waste management in this area? ………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………… 22) What do you consider the most urgent effects related to the poor waste management in your neighborhood? ………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………..……………………………………………… 23) Are you aware of any legal or institutional frame work that is there to address some of the poor waste management issues in your area? If so please list them. ………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………… 24) To what extent do you think the issues of enforcement to ensure compliance with the waste ordinance/law are taken seriously? Give your reason. ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 25) What are some of the interventions you would propose to help in improving the situation of waste management in your neighborhood ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… 26) Do you think waste can be of value? Explain …………………………………………………………………. I wish to thank you for the opinions given.9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  • 92. 6.4. Appendix 4: The map of Lwengo district with its neighbors. Map of Uganda 2010 This page was exported from Ministry of Local Government [ http://molg.go.ug ] Exported date:Fri May 6 15:28:27 2011/+0000 GTM9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  • 93. 6.5. Appendix 5: Acceptance letter from the Town Clerk of Kyazanga9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  • 94. TABLE OF CONTENTS…………………………………………………………………..…PAGESAbstract.................................................................................................................................................................................. 2Declaration............................................................................................................................................................................. 4Dedication:............................................................................................................................................................................. 5Aknowledgement................................................................................................................................................................... 6Key acronym and abbreviations........................................................................................................................................... 7CHAPTER ONE………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 11.0 INTRODUCTION. ..............................................................................................................8 1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY..............................................................................................9 1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT. .....................................................................................................12 1.3 THE PURPOSE OF THE STUDY..............................................................................................14 1.4.1 Specific objectives .....................................................................................................14 1.4.2 Research Questions. ..................................................................................................14 1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY........................................................................................................14 1.5.1 Geographical scope...................................................................................................14 1.5.2 Study scope ...............................................................................................................15 1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY ............................................................................................15 1.7 JUSTIFICATION ..................................................................................................................16 1.9 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK ILLUSTRATING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE CAUSES OF POOR WASTE MANAGEMENT AND ITS EFFECTS..........................................................................17CHAPTER TWO ....................................................................................................................192.0 LITERATURE REVIEW .................................................................................................19 2.1 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................19 2.2 DEFINITION OF TERMS AND CONCEPTS. ..............................................................................19 2.3 WHY UNDERTAKE WASTE MANAGEMENT? .........................................................................21 2.4 GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE ABOUT WASTE GENERATION AND MANAGEMENT. .............................22 2.5 CHALLENGES MET IN WASTE REDUCTION AT THE GLOBAL LEVEL. ......................................23 2.6 SOME OF INTERVENTIONS GLOBALLY.................................................................................24 2.7 UGANDA’S PERSPECTIVE ON WASTE MANAGEMENT ............................................................26 2.8 WHAT ARE THE CAUSES OF POOR WASTE MANAGEMENT IN UGANDA? ................................279/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  • 95. 2. 9. SOME OF THE HUMAN AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS THAT CAN ATTRIBUTE TO POOR WASTE MANAGEMENT.............................................................................................................29 2.10 POLICY CONTEXT/FRAMEWORKS FOR WASTE MANAGEMENT IN UGANDA, INTERNATIONAL AND REGIONAL LEVELS. ..........................................................................................................32 2.11 OPPORTUNITIES FROM WASTES. .......................................................................................34 2.12 GAPS IDENTIFIED ............................................................................................................34 2.13 RECOMMENDATION.........................................................................................................35CHAPTER THREE: ...............................................................................................................363.0 METHODOLOGY............................................................................................................36 3.1 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................36 3.2 RESEARCH DESIGN ............................................................................................................36 3.3 AREA AND POPULATION OF STUDY. ...................................................................................37 3.4 SAMPLE SIZE ESTIMATION. ................................................................................................38 3.5 SAMPLING PROCEDURE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUES. .........................................................38 3.6. DATA COLLECTION TECHNIQUES.......................................................................................38 3.7. 0 TOOLS TO BE USED IN RESEARCH....................................................................................39 3.7.1 Questionnaires ..........................................................................................................39 3.7.2 The interview guide ...................................................................................................39 3.7.3 Observation and a camera.........................................................................................40 3.7.4 Secondary data..........................................................................................................40 3.8 PROCEDURE FOR DATA COLLECTION. ................................................................................41 3.9.0 DATA QUALITY CONTROL. .............................................................................................41 3.9.1 Validity......................................................................................................................42 3.9.2 Reliability..................................................................................................................42 3.10 RESEARCH FORMALITIES.................................................................................................43 3.11 DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION. ..........................................................................43 3.12 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY AND POSSIBLE WAY FORWARD..............................................44 3.13 DISSEMINATION OF THE RESULTS.....................................................................................45 3.14 ETHICAL CONSIDERATION ...............................................................................................45 3.15 CONCLUSION. .................................................................................................................459/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  • 96. CHAPTER FOUR...................................................................................................................464.0 DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS....................................................................46 4.1 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................46 4.2. BACK GROUND CHARACTERISTICS OF RESPONDENTS ........................................................46 4.2.1. Sex of the respondents. .............................................................................................46 4.2. 2: Distribution of individual respondents by the zone. .................................................47 4.2.3: The income level category. .......................................................................................50 4.2.4 Category of the premise of collection.........................................................................51 4.2. 5: Position of the respondents in the apartment. ..........................................................53 4.2.6: Education levels .......................................................................................................54 4.2.7: Time spent in KTC. (How long have you stayed in Kyazanga). .................................56 4.3: IS WASTE MANAGEMENT A PROBLEM?...............................................................................57 4.8. WHAT FORM OF WASTES IS COMMONLY GENERATED IN THE APARTMENTS?........................58 4.9. DOES YOUR HOUSE HOLD HAVE A CONTAINER? .................................................................59 4.10. WHO PROVIDED THE CONTAINER THAT WAS USED ON YOUR PREMISES?............................61 4.11: DOES YOUR HOUSE HOLD RECEIVE ANY A COLLECTION SERVICE OF ANY TYPE? ................64 4.12: DO YOU THINK THE ACQUISITION OF THE TOWN COUNCIL STATUS MADE ANY IMPROVEMENTS IN WASTE MANAGEMENT? ..............................................................................66 4.13: WHAT DO YOU THINK IS THE CAUSE OF POOR WASTE MANAGEMENT IN YOUR NEIGHBORHOOD?....................................................................................................................67 4.14: WHAT ARE THE INDICTORS OF POOR WASTE MANAGEMENT IN THIS AREA? ......................72 4.15. WHAT DO YOU CONSIDER THE MOST URGENT EFFECTS RELATED TO THE POOR WASTE MANAGEMENT IN YOUR NEIGHBOURHOOD? .............................................................................74 4.16 ARE YOU AWARE OF ANY LEGAL OR INSTITUTIONAL FRAME WORK THAT IS THERE TO ADDRESS SOME OF THE POOR WASTE MANAGEMENT ISSUES IN YOUR AREA? IF SO PLEASE LIST THEM. ....................................................................................................................................76 4.18: DO YOU THINK WASTE CAN BE OF VALUE? EXPLAIN ........................................................79 4.19: CONCLUSION ................................................................................................................80CHAPTER FIVE: ...................................................................................................................815.0 IMPLICATIONS, RECCOMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION OF THE STUDY...819/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  • 97. 5.1: SUMMARY .......................................................................................................................81 5.2: CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ..........................................................................81 5.3: SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH ............................................................................846.0 APPENDICES ...................................................................................................................86 6.1 REFERENCES ....................................................................................................................86 6.2 APPENDIX II: TIME FRAME.........................................................................................88 6.3 APPENDIX 3. QUESTIONNAIRES ..................................................................................89 6.4. APPENDIX 4: THE MAP OF LWENGO DISTRICT WITH ITS NEIGHBORS....................................92 6.5. APPENDIX 5: ACCEPTANCE LETTER FROM THE TOWN CLERK OF KYAZANGA......................93LIST OF TABLES………...…………………………………………………………….….PAGES TABLE 1: SEX OF THE RESPONDENTS………………………………………………….. 46 TABLE 2: THE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY ZONES………………………………… 48 TABLE 3. THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE RESPONDENTS AS PER THE INCOME CATEGORY…… … 50 TABLE 4 (A).PREMISE OF COLLECTION…………………………………………………... .. 51 TABLE 4 (B). DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS IN THE BUSINESS SECTOR AS PER THEIR INCOME LEVEL…………………………………………………………………………………….. 52 TABLE 5: DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY POSITIONS………………………………… . 54 TABLE 6. EDUCATION LEVELS OF THE RESPONDENTS ……………………………… 55 TABLE 6: DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONSES ON WHETHER WASTE MANAGEMENT WAS A PROBLEM. ………………………………………………………………………………………. 57 TABLE 8: DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONSES ON THE QUESTION WHETHER THE RESPONDENTS HAD A CONTAINER. ……………………………………………………………………………….. 59 TABLE 9: DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONSES ON WHO PROVIDED THE CONTAINER ……….. 61 TABLE 10: DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONSES ON SERVICES RECEIVED ……………………….. 64 TABLE11: IMPACT OF THE TC STATUS……………………………………………………. 66 TABLE 12: DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONSES ON WHETHER THE PEOPLE ARE AWARE OF THE LEGAL AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAME WORKS IN PLACE……………………………………………. 779/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  • 98. LIST OF FIGURES ………………………………………………………………………..….PAGES FIGURE 1: DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY SEX..................................................................47 FIGURE 2: THE PIE-CHART SHOWING THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE RESPONDENTS BY ZONE. ..........49 FIGURE 3: INCOME LEVELS OF RESPONDENTS. .........................................................................50 FIGURE 4 (A):DISTRIBUTIONS OF RESPONDENTS AT THE RESIDENTIAL LEVEL IN RELATION TO INCOME LEVELS. .....................................................................................................................52 FIGURE 4 (B). RESPONDENTS FROM THE BUSINESS SECTOR.......................................................53 FIGURE 5: DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY POSITIONS HELD IN THE ESTABLISHMENT...........54 FIGURE 6. DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS ACCORDING TO THEIR LEVELS OF EDUCATION. ......55 FIGURE 7: RESPONSES ON WHETHER WASTE MANAGEMENT WAS A PROBLEM. ...........................58 FIGURE 8: DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONSES ON WHETHER PREMISES HAD CONTAINERS .................59 FIGURE 9: DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONSES ON WHO PROVIDED THE CONTAINER............................61 FIGURE 10: RESPONSES ON SERVICES RECEIVED ......................................................................65 FIGURE 11: DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONSES ON THE IMPACT OF THE TC STATUS...........................66 FIGURE 12: PERCENTAGES OF RESPONSES ON WHETHER THE PEOPLE ARE AWARE OF THE LEGAL AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAME WORKS IN PLACE ..........................................................................779/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010