WASTE MANAGEMENT WITH IN URBAN AREAS IN UGANDA; A CASE STUDY OF           KYAZANGA TOWN COUNCIL, LWENGO DISTRICT.         ...
ABSTRACTThe study on ‘waste management with in urban areas in Uganda; A case study of KyazangaTown Council, Lwengo Distric...
in the terms of providing finances, time and materials to implement waste management plannedactivities, strengthen the exi...
DECLARATION         I Natamba Shadrack declare that this piece of work is the first of its kind and it’s not         a pho...
DEDICATION:                       I also dedicate this work to my family                       members; dad, mum, and my s...
AKNOWLEDGEMENTI am totally convinced that the success in getting this study done did not come by single effortsof my hands...
KEY ACRONYM AND ABBREVIATIONSPEAP: poverty Eradication Action PlanNEMA: National Environmental Management AuthorityNGO: No...
CHAPTER ONE1.0 Introduction.Uganda like many countries in the world suffers from poor waste management. Poor wastemanageme...
by observation. Data was analyzed in line with the research objectives and questions andrecommendations were made accordin...
These differences from industrialized nations must be recognized both in terms of the additionalproblems they present as w...
In Kampala alone, waste generation estimations have been rated at 0.2 metric tons per personannually on average (Ngategize...
In conclusion, it is important that the right action be carried out at the right level. Thus, actions atthe household leve...
For instance, Studies indicate that each person in Kampala city produces 1 Kg of solid waste perday (Tenywa et al., 2007)....
provided leaders with information relating to how they may address or mitigate factorsresponsible for poor waste managemen...
1.5.2 Study scopeThis study helped identify the causes of poor waste management in Kyazanga T.C, and remedieswere develope...
American cities, little research has been done on the importance of, and potential for, waste re-use in African cities. Th...
1.9 Conceptual framework illustrating the relationship between the causes of     poor waste management and its effects.   ...
It was found out that all these led to a number of Health problems and these include;Infrastructure destruction, Contamina...
CHAPTER TWO2.0 Literature Review2.1 IntroductionIn this chapter, attempts were made to review relevant literature to help ...
discarded. They are movable objects, which have no direct use and or no ‘current’ market valueor no use to the individual ...
These are the waste hierarchy or the 3Rs (reduce, reuse and recycle), the extended producerresponsibility (EPR) and the po...
2.4 Global perspective about waste generation and management.Headley (1998) states that in Barbados, there are no containe...
items set out for collection; although these practices serve to reduce the overall quantity enteringthe waste stream, thes...
• Few incentives for reducing waste;• Industries not required submitting plans for waste disposal when applying to establi...
The percentage of paper that is being recycled in other nations sends a clear message toAmericans: we are not doing enough...
safely and effectively treating and disposing hazardous waste has not even come close to thetechnology for producing the s...
The greatest challenges facing Uganda’s rapidly growing urban centres, is the hazard of urbanwaste, according to the Globe...
Ignorance of the masses about the need to dispose of these wastes well and how to dispose ofthem (the wastes) off. There i...
Lack of recycling facilitates in most parts of the country for instance most of the polythene bagsused are not recycled by...
recent 2002 data indicates over 90% accessing safe water. Even then some pipes pass via solidwaste and sewerage sites and ...
This exacerbates environmental health problems in the urban poor settlements of Kampala metroarea.Increased Presence of Ga...
2.10 Policy context/frameworks for waste management in Uganda,International and regional levels.There are various laws tha...
Protocol. The UNFCCC provides an international framework for mitigating causes of climatechange and its effects at both in...
planning board, a body responsible for hand use planning approval and gazzetting structuralplans. However this law is out ...
this Uganda and the world at large, it should noted with concern that most if not all these studieshave been carried out i...
CHAPTER THREE:3.0 Methodology3.1 IntroductionThis chapter presents the methods and tools that were used to conduct this re...
and practices that exist, beliefs and processes that are ongoing, effects that are being felt ortrends that are developing...
3.4 Sample size estimation.The sample size comprised of 76 respondents (local people- considering a number of issues liker...
gave meaning to numbers. While quantitative methods involved the collection of numerical datain order to explain, predict ...
management in Kyazanga T.C. The researcher went ahead to explain how the potentialrespondents were selected and that the r...
3.8 Procedure for Data Collection.Both open-ended and closed-ended questionnaires were also used for data collection. Most...
3.9.1 Validity.Validity in this case refers to the appropriateness, meangfulness and usefulness of theinferences/deduction...
These tests were carried out to ensure consistency and to find out how easy the final study wouldbe done.3.10 Research For...
identifying areas of emphasis according to themes and the responses summarized in a narrativeform as a presentation of the...
3.13 Dissemination of the results.Once this copy of the research is approved, the researcher will distribute the findings ...
CHAPTER FOUR4.0 DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS4.1 Introduction          In this chapter, the researcher presents the findi...
Figure 1: Distribution of respondents by sex.            Respondents by sex     52%%ges 51%     50%                       ...
residential people and a lot of illegal wastedumping in more observed than any other zonewhile Central zone is known for b...
Figure 2: The pie-chart showing the distribution of the respondents by zone.From above, central zone had the highest numbe...
4.2.3: The income level category.The researcher had interest in the income level category of the people of Kyazanga in ord...
the middle and high income apartments, a lot is also generated by relatively managed andcollected by the Volunteer Youth G...
Figure 4 (a):Distributions of respondents at the residential level in relation toincome levels.                           ...
Figure 4 (b). Respondents from the Business sector.                      Respondents from the Business sector             ...
Table 5: distribution of respondents by positions. Residential level                    No. of respondents     Percentage ...
believed by the researcher that people who have had an opportunity to know the dangers of poorwaste management are better ...
the highest percentage in the area and probably this explains why the issues of wastemanagement are lagging behind in Kyaz...
period of time in the area, it becomes hard for local leaders to enforce the laws/ordinances onwaste management because mo...
Figure 7: Responses on whether waste management was a problem.                  Responses on problem of waste mgt  60%  50...
This poses a great challenge when it comes to waste management. There is no proper means ofcollecting, transporting and di...
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  1. 1. WASTE MANAGEMENT WITH IN URBAN AREAS IN UGANDA; A CASE STUDY OF KYAZANGA TOWN COUNCIL, LWENGO DISTRICT. BY Natamba Shadrack Signature ………………………. Date …………………… RS09M13/503 A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO THE FACULTY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AWARD OF THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN DEVELOPMENT STUDIES OF UGANDA CHRISTIAN UNIVERSITY. SEPTEMBER /2011
  2. 2. ABSTRACTThe study on ‘waste management with in urban areas in Uganda; A case study of KyazangaTown Council, Lwengo District’. The situation of waste management in the emerging TC’s isalarming and it was upon these observations that the researcher was compelled to carry out thestudy. The objective of the study was to establish the underlying causes of poor wastemanagement and to seek opinions from the local people on how the problem would be solved.This research acknowledges the fact that many scholars have written a lot on wastemanagement. Therefore, this research contains literature that has been reviewed from differentscholars that relate to the study. This literature helped the researcher to be in position to relateand verify whether what other scholars have written could be applicable to Kyazanga and thishelped in identifying the gap that these researchers have not been able to identify.An exploratory research design was used to explore all dimensions of poor waste management.A mixed methods approach was used to obtain a variety of information on poor wastemanagement. The primary data which was collected from the field using Questionnaires andinterview guides was recorded, tabulated and analyzed using tables to come up with theinformation about the causes of poor waste management in urban areas in Uganda; A case ofKyazanga TC.The reasons of the persistent poor waste management are beyond the numerous legal andinstitutional frame works in place despite their presence. These include; ignorance, lack ofdumping site, lack of the technical staff, failure to prioritize waste management especially duringbudgeting among others.Recommendations have been made for example, the researcher advised that waste managementbe prioritized in the TC’s action plans and budget allocations, and commitment of stakeholders9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  3. 3. in the terms of providing finances, time and materials to implement waste management plannedactivities, strengthen the existing initiatives on waste management for instance the Volunteeryouth group and this could be done by giving the group an opportunity to collect wastes/garbagefrom the Council and be paid for the services, and finally the researcher advised the Council torevise and strengthen the by-laws and legislation relating to waste management as well as theirenforcement and the need for major generators of waste e.g. markets, schools to manage theirown wastes through developing frame works and self regulation e.g. by-laws for wastemanagement among other many recommendations.9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  4. 4. DECLARATION I Natamba Shadrack declare that this piece of work is the first of its kind and it’s not a photocopy of someone’s work. I am the author of this dissertation and any assistance I received in preparation is fully acknowledged and disclosed. Any sources of data, ideas and words either direct or paraphrased have been cited in this piece of work. I certify that this dissertation was prepared by me with the guidance of my supervisor specifically for the partial fulfillment for the degree of Master of Arts in Development studies of Uganda Christian University. …………………………………… NATAMBA SHADRACK (1ST September, 2011).9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  5. 5. DEDICATION: I also dedicate this work to my family members; dad, mum, and my siblings and my fiancé. I do dedicate this piece of work to Ps. Billy Rutledge from Hetteras island Church, United states and church at large for supporting me throughout my study of this Masters degree. You made it possible for me to accomplish this study.9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  6. 6. AKNOWLEDGEMENTI am totally convinced that the success in getting this study done did not come by single effortsof my hands but the efforts of different players whose contributions were very instrumental tosee me through.First and foremost, I want to thank the Almighty God for the insights, guidance, energy andwisdom to complete this dissertation.My highest gratitude goes to my University supervisor, Mr. Kizito Martin for guiding, collectingand directing me throughout this study.I particularly express my sincere appreciations to the Town clerk of Kyazanga TC, Mr. MayanjaMajwala Badru for the time he spent with me during the research, moving with me and helpingin identifying the key informants who helped me in data collection.Special thanks go to my all respondents, I cannot mention each of you by name but I hold you sodearly. Thanks for the information.9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  7. 7. KEY ACRONYM AND ABBREVIATIONSPEAP: poverty Eradication Action PlanNEMA: National Environmental Management AuthorityNGO: Non-Governmental OrganizationCBO: Community Based OrganizationEIA: Environmental Impact AssessmentUNDP: United Nations Development ProgrammeT.C: Town CouncilMDG: Millennium Development GoalKTC: Kyazanga Town CouncilWHO: World Health OrganizationUNFCCC: United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.CDM: Clean Development Mechanism.GHGs: Greenhouse gasses9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  8. 8. CHAPTER ONE1.0 Introduction.Uganda like many countries in the world suffers from poor waste management. Poor wastemanagement is increasingly becoming a big problem in many cities in sub-sahara Africa andKyazanga is no exception. This study was conducted in Kyazanga Town council, LwengoDistrict where by the researcher sought to explore the underlying causes of poor wastemanagement in the Town Council and at the end of the research, number of possible solutionswere proposed. The study investigated the relationship between waste management and what ismanifested as a result of the phenomenon (effects).It was found that waste management is not an isolated phenomenon that can be easily classifiedand solved with one strategy. The study found out that poor waste management is particularly anurban issue that is closely related, directly or indirectly, to a number of issues such as urbanlifestyles, resource consumption patterns, jobs and income levels, and other socio-economic andcultural issues. All these issues have to be brought together on a common platform in order toensure a long-term solution to urban waste.Talking about methodology, this research being exploratory in nature, it used mixed methodsapproach because of the need to obtain a variety of information on poor waste management. Anon-probability sampling techniques like purposive and quota sampling techniques will beemployed. Questionnaires and interview guides were administered to those sampled toparticipate in the study about the causes of poor waste management and these were supplemented9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  9. 9. by observation. Data was analyzed in line with the research objectives and questions andrecommendations were made accordingly.Therefore, the study was seeking to validate what other scholars have written about poor wastemanagement as a whole and how applicable to the people of Kyazanga Town Council.1.1 Background of the StudyThe management of waste is one of the challenges facing many urban areas in the world. Wherethere is an aggregation of human settlements with the potential to produce a large amount ofsolid waste; the collection, transfer and disposal of that waste has been generally assumed bymunicipal authorities in the developed world. The format varies, however in most urban areas.Wastes are collected either by a government agency or private contractor, and this constitutes abasic and expected government function in the developed world (Zerbock, 2003).Developing countries have solid waste management problems different than those found in fullyindustrialized countries; indeed, the very composition of their waste is different from that of‘developed’ nations. Although low-income countries’ solid waste generation rates average only0.4 to 0.6 kg/person/day, as opposed to 0.7 to 1.8 kg/person/day in fully industrialized countries,Cointreau (1982) and others (Blight and Mbande 1996, Arlosoroff 1982) noted several commondifferences in the composition of solid waste in developing nations: • Waste density 2-3 times greater than industrialized nations, • Moisture content 2-3 times greater, • Large amount of organic waste (vegetable matter, etc.), • Large quantities of dust, dirt (street sweepings, etc) • Smaller particle size on average than in industrialized nations.9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  10. 10. These differences from industrialized nations must be recognized both in terms of the additionalproblems they present as well as the potential opportunities which arise from their wastecomposition.As earlier noted in the introduction, Poor waste management is not an individual country’sproblem but rather it is increasingly becoming a big problem in many cities of the world. Forinstance, according to the 1999 State of the Environment Report for South Africa (DEAT, 1999),the country generates over 42 million m3 of solid waste every year. This is about 0.7 kg perperson per day, which is more typical of developed countries than a developing country (bycomparison the figure in the UK is 0.73 kg, 0.87 kg in Singapore and 0.3 kg in Nepal). Inaddition, 5 million m3 of hazardous waste is generated every year (DEAT, 1999). Every day 2.6million of domestic and commercial waste water is processed at treatment works. The last figuredoes not include agricultural and some industrial waste, which are the largest sources of waste(DEAT, 1999).In Uganda like in many other developing countries, typically one to two thirds of the wastegenerated is not collected (Zerbock, 2003). As a result, the uncollected waste, which is often alsomixed with human and animal excreta, is dumped indiscriminately in the streets/wards and indrains, contributing to flooding, breeding of insect and rodent vectors and the spread of diseasessuch as cholera among others.Most researchers have linked Waste generation directly to the size of population and the variousactivities undertaken by different categories of the population including large scale industries,small-scale industries, trading/businesses, municipal farming, household, schools and hospitalsamong others. Hence, it clearly means that waste generation will increase with increasingpopulation growth (ibid).9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  11. 11. In Kampala alone, waste generation estimations have been rated at 0.2 metric tons per personannually on average (Ngategize et al., 2001). Therefore, considering an urban population of 3.7million people that is; 13.4% of the total population (Uganda Population secretariat, 2007), itmeans that approximately 740,000 metric tons of solid waste are generated in urban areas peryear. Of this, only 41% solid waste generated is disposed off properly (UNDP, 2005). Theremaining 51% is left uncollected thereby ending up dumped in drainage and sanitary drainagechannels, natural water courses, manholes, undeveloped plots and road sides among other unfitplaces (NEMA, 2004).Poverty Eradication Plan (PEAP) recognizes that waste management is almost non-existent inUganda. It denotes that for instance in Kampala, refuse is collected from only 20% of thepopulation and only half of it is disposed in a proper way with the rest being dumpedindiscriminately (PEAP, 2004/2005). Furthermore, little attention has been given to waste waterdisposal and storm drainage. Drainage is poor and limited to major roads and pathways.Most local governments and urban agencies have, time and again, identified solid waste as amajor problem and this has been attributed to poor institutional arrangements, poor technologiesused and lack of the capacity to handle wastes (ibid). This has reached proportions requiringdrastic measures. We can observe three key trends with respect to waste - increase in sheervolume of waste generated by urban residents; change in the quality or make-up of wastegenerated; and the disposal method of waste collected, by land-fill, incineration among others. Inrelation to Kyazanga, the researcher’s efforts to find the related literature were futile. However,as already mentioned, this research established that Kyazanga TC was not be unique from otherurban areas. (See the findings in Chpt 4).9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  12. 12. In conclusion, it is important that the right action be carried out at the right level. Thus, actions atthe household level should be predominantly social, technology and economic in nature.Similarly actions to be taken at the state and nation level should also be predominantlyeconomic, political and administrative in nature.1.2 Problem Statement.Despite several efforts, legal and institutional frame works that are in place to enhance properwaste management, there is still persistent poor waste management in Uganda and Kyazangainclusive. Legal frame works like the constitution of the Republic of Uganda 1995 Article 245(a) provides measures intended-To protect and preserve the environment from abuse, pollutionand degradation,”1 The National Environment (Waste Management) Regulations, S.I. No52/1999;2 The Local Government Act 1997, all have provisions of how all wastes shall beproperly managed among other regulatory frame works likePeople do not care about the way wastes are handled be because of the ignorance about thelikely dangers of poor waste management and the institutions like the Town Council has notplayed its part as well due to both human and financial resources.In addition to the above, there is the lack of proper institutional arrangements, poor technologieslike lack of modern trucks and the lack of the capacity by the council to handle the wastesgenerated and there is no Private-Public partnership or CBOs ready to do the work.1 The constitution also enshrines a constitutional right to a clean and healthy environment in its article 39.Civil society has used article 50 of the constitution to enforce this right using public interest litigation.2The National Environment (Waste Management) Regulations, S.I. No 52/1999. STATUTORY INSTRUMENTS.1999 No. 52. Regulations, 1999. (Under sections 53(2) and 107 of the National Environment Act, Cap 153) [19thOctober 1999]9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  13. 13. For instance, Studies indicate that each person in Kampala city produces 1 Kg of solid waste perday (Tenywa et al., 2007). The waste generated in towns in Uganda, Kyazanga inclusive ishardly collected and even what is collected is not sorted and there is no gazetted area to disposeoff wastes. Additionally, even the government development programs rarely put wastemanagement aspects into consideration for instance the health facilities, public markets, schoolsamong others. Furthermore, there are limited appropriate technologies and practices for wastemanagement and also the limited capacity among stakeholders (technocrats, extension agents,private sector etc) in addressing waste management issues.This state of affairs has far reaching implications on community livelihoods and environmentposing great health risks for instance; solid waste at informal disposal sites produces toxic gases,bad odour and creates air pollution. This has led to increased incidences of diseases like cough,diarrhea, Fever among others, hence increasing public expenditure on drugs. Yet a properlymanaged waste is wealth (Zake et al 2008:6). Wastes have got enormous opportunities forinstance metallic containers can be used to make paraffin candles (tadoba), children toys, simplelocal measuring cans, wrapping paper and envelopes out paper wastes, and waste can be analternative to generate fuel. A case in point is Kasubi community development association whichhas resorted to using banana peelings to come up with charcoal briquettes and this has madehouse hold energy conserved (EA, 2007). This problem of poor waste management requiresinnovative solutions and one of the solutions could be a participatory approach where the localpeople are involved to define the problem and then propose the solutions.Therefore, this study sought to explore the causes of poor waste Management and the localpeople’s opinions on how the problem would be minimized. The data gathered in this study9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  14. 14. provided leaders with information relating to how they may address or mitigate factorsresponsible for poor waste management in the Town council.1.3 The purpose of the studyThe purpose of this study was to establish the underlying causes of poor waste management andto seek the local people’s opinions on how the problem would be handled.1.4.1 Specific objectives  To find out the means used too collect, transport and dispose off wastes.  To establish the underlying causes of poor waste management in Kyazanga Town Council from both the leaders and the local people.  To identify the possible solutions to archive proper waste management.1.4.2 Research Questions.  What mechanisms are in place to collect, transport and dispose off wastes in the town council?  What are the causes of poor waste management in Kyazanga T.C.?  Are there ways that can be employed to deal with poor waste management in the council?1.5 Scope of the Study.1.5.1 Geographical scopeThe study was conducted in Kyazanga Town council one of the Newest Town Councils thatgained status in July 2010, Lwengo district, which is located in the Western wing of centralregion. The town council is bordered by Masaka in the east, Rakai in the south, Lyantonde in thewest and Sembabule in the North. The study covered 100 respondents in the bid to establish theunderlying causes of poor waste management in Kyazanga Town Council and the studyemployed both quantitative and qualitative methods.9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  15. 15. 1.5.2 Study scopeThis study helped identify the causes of poor waste management in Kyazanga T.C, and remedieswere developed. The study confined only on wastes from households, schools and health centresin the selected zones. The study highlighted the effectiveness of the current waste managementpolicies. As a result the necessary remedies were recommended. The studies also drew lessonsfrom best practices elsewhere and suggested ways of adopting them.The researcher reviewed documents, reports and collected data from 2005 to date. The datacollected covered five years before Kyazanga gained a Town Council status and after in order tobe able to illustrate whether with the new status, the problem of poor waste management hasreduced, remained the same or intensified. 1.6 Significance of the StudyIt is hoped that the findings of this study will help raise awareness on issues pertaining to wastemanagement for the community and policy makers especially at the Town council level. And thisawareness will help build initiatives to reduce the problem. A copy of this research shall be sentto the Town Council upon approval by the University authorities.The study will help provoke debate on waste management issues. In the course of this debatebetter options may be developed and these would be helpful to the urban authorities in theirplanning strategies since they will be able to identify the gaps existing in the waste management.Partners in development could use this information by identifying specific income generatingactivities, thus making waste contribute to the poverty eradication programme in KyazangaTown council. In his studies in Kenya, Kim (1998), notes, while there is considerabledocumentation on innovative community-level waste management schemes in Asian and Latin9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  16. 16. American cities, little research has been done on the importance of, and potential for, waste re-use in African cities. This study identified the contribution of waste.(see Chapt.4).This research generated more information to the already existing body of knowledge in the areaof waste management and to Kyazanga, it is the first one of this kind.In addition to the above, the study will also provide future scholars and researchers withinformation regarding the causes of poor waste management especially in Kyazanga Towncouncil.1.7 JustificationIt is highlighted that Africa is littered with non-engineered landfill sites and other inefficientmeans of waste disposal strategies for instance; Incinerators with inappropriate air pollutioncontrol devices. This unpleasant development has led to some untimely human deaths, whichwas estimated to be up to 20,000 in a year (NEMA, 1998).Poor waste management has been found to result into pollution of both surface and ground waterthrough the leachate draining and impairing the permeability of soils as well as blockage ofdrainage systems (NEMA, 1998). Studies in the Kasubi- Kawala area have established that thecount of harmful Coliforms (1980 cfu/ml), Eschelica coli (540 cfu/ml) in protected springs farexceed the World Health Organization (WHO) thresholds (0 cfu/ml).It was against this background that the study on waste management was carried out to explorethe underlying causes to the challenges of waste management in Kyazanga town and indeed thecauses were identified and possible remedies suggested.9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  17. 17. 1.9 Conceptual framework illustrating the relationship between the causes of poor waste management and its effects. The conceptual frame work illustrates the relationship between the presumed causes (independent variables like- lack of awareness, Ignorance by the local people, Weak policies, Lack of enough trained manpower, Inadequate funds etc) of poor waste management and the presumed effects (dependent variables)-what is manifested as a result of the phenomenon.Independent variables Dependent Relationship Interventions variables Causes of poor waste management Effects  Public awareness creation Lack of awareness  Indiscriminative dumping  Strengthening of the legal and Ignorance by the local will lead to Infrastructure institutional framework people destruction like roads  Capacity building/training Lack of enough trained  Un-collected wastes, manpower  Funding inventory of dumping on roadsides this Weak policies leads to Contamination of hazardous waste Inadequate funds water bodies Sanitation Expected output and hygiene  Buildings without  Proper waste management dumping sites  Improved health  Failure to implement the  Save income-that would laws have been spent on drugs  Reduction on expenditure on say fuel From the above illustration, it can be observed that the presumed causes (independent variables) lead to presumed effects (dependent variables). Independent variables like lack of awareness lead to ignorance of the local people about the effects of waste management, and lack of enough trained manpower and weak policies and inadequate funds are presumed to lead to indiscriminative dumping of wastes on roadsides; the residents set structures like buildings without dumping sites because of weak laws among others. 9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  18. 18. It was found out that all these led to a number of Health problems and these include;Infrastructure destruction, Contamination of water bodies and Sanitation and hygiene andenvironmental degradation.However, it is presumed that strengthening the legal and institutional frameworks, capacitybuilding and funding inventory of hazardous waste among others will yield several outputs likeProper waste management, improved health since the cause of illness will have been dealt with,save income-that would have been spent on drugs and also save the environment from beingpolluted among others9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  19. 19. CHAPTER TWO2.0 Literature Review2.1 IntroductionIn this chapter, attempts were made to review relevant literature to help in the understanding ofpoor waste management. The researcher acknowledges the fact that there is some literature onwaste management in Towns of Uganda and in other countries of the world. Most of theliterature reviewed was from the different sources like text books, websites, News papers andjournals. In this section, the main purpose was to review issues related to waste management thathave been investigated by other researchers, in order to gain more insights into the subject underthe study and avoid duplications of efforts in this area.2.2 Definition of terms and concepts.Waste is a man-made substance in a given time and places which in its actual structure and stateis not useful to the owner or is an output without an owner and purpose. In other words, waste isanything that we no longer need. It is also commonly referred to as rubbish, trash, garbage,refuse, effluents and “unwanted or unusable materials”. (Zake J: 2007).Synonymous to solid waste are terms such as “garbage”, “trash”, “refuse” and “rubbish”(Zurbrugg, 2000). Urban dwellers generally consume more resources than rural dwellers, and sogenerate large quantities of solid waste and sewage. For example, solid waste disposal is a majorproblem in urban African centres, where more than half the populationIt is important to note that wastes take two forms that is; solid or liquid wastes; Solid wastes referto particles or materials which are no longer useful to their owners and which require to be
  20. 20. discarded. They are movable objects, which have no direct use and or no ‘current’ market valueor no use to the individual that they require to be disposed off. They are bothorganic/biodegradable for instance the waste generated from animal and plant remains; it may bebroken down by living organisms such as bacteria, protozoa and fungi. This form of wasteoccurs as green plant tissue waste, food remains, paper, animal and waste (faeces and urine), andnon-organic/non bio- degradable wastes, is that form of waste that cannot be broken down byliving organisms. It includes metals, polyethylene, most plastics and rubber. Most nonbiodegradable wastes are produced from manufacturing industries.On the other hand, Liquid wastes refer to waste materials that contain full liquids. These includewaste water from industries, households; sewerage and leachates from land fill or garbage heaps.This is equally harmful to the water sources hence endangering both human beings who dependon such water sources and the aquatic life. It also destroys the land and its level of productivitysince some of these wastes like grease, paints will deepen into the soils hence affecting the soilalkalinity (Environmental Protection Agency, 2008).The term ‘Waste Management’ includes all issues and processes associated with the generation,processing, and disposal of all categories of wastes produced by human activities or related tohuman existence; it includes, therefore, the stages of production and minimization, collection,handling and transportation, reuse and recycling, and treatment and disposal of all such wastes.(Zake J, 2007)Despite the fact that waste handling and transport varies from region to region, country tocountry, there are waste management concepts that are universally accepted and implemented.9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  21. 21. These are the waste hierarchy or the 3Rs (reduce, reuse and recycle), the extended producerresponsibility (EPR) and the polluter pay principle.According to NEMA (2000), Solid waste management encompasses generation, collection,transportation and disposal of wastes. Authorities have the responsibility to ensure safe, reliableand cost effective removal and disposal of solid waste Garbage is collected from both the well todo households and poor ones now lives in urban areas. Northern Africa is the most urbanized,while in Southern and in Western and Central Africa, urbanization levels are still lower (about33-37 percent.) East Africa is the least urbanized sub-region, with 23 percent (United NationsPopulations Division, 1997).2.3 Why undertake waste management?Waste management is undertaken mainly to minimize the effect of wastes on resource loss andconservation, health, environment, costs, and aesthetics. It incurs financial and social and othercosts including ‘external’ costs. The term includes the issue of ‘regulation’ of the various aspectsof management of wastes.Waste management is the process by which products and by-products generated by business andindustry are collected, stored, transported, treated, disposed off, recycled or reused in an effort toreduce their effect on human health. Therefore, a properly managed waste; that is well collectedand sorted recycled, treated, disposed off hygienically will promote a clean and safe environmentto live in. Waste management is practiced by small businesses when they collect and sort theirwastes, recycle their wastes, treat their wastes, dispose of their wastes or implement ways ofreducing their waste (EPA, 2008).9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  22. 22. 2.4 Global perspective about waste generation and management.Headley (1998) states that in Barbados, there are no containers designated by municipalities orcollection companies to “set out” waste for collection; it is up to individual residences todesignate some sort of collection container. Frequently, these are plastic barrels or discarded oildrums, however the majority of households simply place grocery bags full of waste on the streetto await collection. There may be physical dangers to waste workers in dealing with the former;weather, animals, and other disturbances prior to collection threaten the integrity of the latter. Inan examination of current problems in Kenya, Mungai (1998) agreed that the first step in“sanitary and efficient” waste management must be to ensure that all households use some formof corrosion-resistant container with lids in order to facilitate collection. Lidded containerswould exclude most animal pests, reduce the amount of rainfall soaking into garbage and help toreduce trash blowing about on the street.A major problem is that of development at or on top of landfills; many shantytowns are builtfrom disposed-of waste and in some cases entire neighborhoods are sited on top of existinglandfills. For example, the Smoky Mountain dump in Manila, Philippines had as many as 10,000families living in shacks on or adjacent to the dump site (UNEP 1996). Aside from the obvioushealth implications, these concentrations of people further complicate transport and unloadingprocedures and present numerous safety and logistical concerns (Blight and Mbande 1996).UNEP estimates that approximately 100,000 people currently scavenge wastes at dump sites inthe Latin American region alone. Further, many people, not only those residing near landfills,make their living from scavenging on solid waste before it enters the municipal waste stream.Street-level waste picking often removes recyclables and other ‘high-value’ waste items from9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  23. 23. items set out for collection; although these practices serve to reduce the overall quantity enteringthe waste stream, these practices often scatter waste about, compounding problems for pick-upand transfer operators (Pfammatter and Schertenleib 1996). Although it takes only 5-10 secondsto empty a 45-gallon container of waste into a collection truck, but 1-2 minutes to shovel theequivalent amount of waste (Gage 1998). Any potential change to the waste disposal frameworkmust take into account the urban poor, many of whom may be dependent on waste scavengingfor their entire subsistence. In one study at the Bisasar Road landfill in Durban, South Africa,scavenging on waste supported 200 families, “earning” the equivalent of $15,500 per month, or$77 per family per month (Johannessen 1999).According to the 1999 State of the Environment Report for South Africa (DEAT, 1999), thecountry generates over 42 million m3 of solid waste every year. This is about 0.7 kg per personper day, which is more typical of developed countries than a developing country (by comparisonthe figure in the UK is 0.73 kg, 0.87 kg in Singapore and 0.3 kg in Nepal). In addition, 5 millionm3 of hazardous waste is generated every year (DEAT, 1999). Every day 2.6 million of domesticand commercial waste water is processed at treatment works. The last figure does not includeagricultural and some industrial waste, which are the largest sources of waste (DEAT, 1999).2.5 Challenges met in waste Reduction at the Global level.Until recently, the focus in South Africa for example; has been on waste disposal and impactcontrols or "end of the pipe" treatment (DEAT, 2000). However, this focus has faced a numberof challenges and these include:• Lack of waste avoidance, minimization and cleaner production technology initiatives;• Lack of regulatory initiatives to manage waste minimization;9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  24. 24. • Few incentives for reducing waste;• Industries not required submitting plans for waste disposal when applying to establish newenterprises;• Inadequate resource recovery and a general lack of commitment to recycling – no legislation,policy or waste management culture that promotes resource recovery or makes it financiallyviable; and• Lack of appropriate waste management strategies and treatment technologies associated withthese policies also have a negative effect on human health. In addition to lack of a variety ofappropriate waste treatment methods.Some of the consequences of previous waste management policies include; continued air andland pollution, the pollution of fresh and marine waters, resulting in the disruption of ecosystemprocesses, habitat destruction and species loss. The amount of waste produced also placesincreasing pressure on the countrys landfills. Increasing amounts of land set aside for landfillscould lead to habitat destruction and species loss.2.6 Some of interventions globally.A mere 13% of American waste is recycled (Anonymous, 1992). Recycling is a resourcerecovery program, which extends the globes mineral supply by reducing the amount of virginmaterials that need to be removed from the globe to meet the demand. Resource recovery savesenergy, causes minimal pollution and land disruption, cuts waste disposal costs, and extends thelife of landfills by preventing waste from residing there.9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  25. 25. The percentage of paper that is being recycled in other nations sends a clear message toAmericans: we are not doing enough. Americans only recycle 28% of the paper they use,although they lead the world in paper consumption and paper waste. France, Sweden,Switzerland and Finland recycle at least one-third of their paper expenditures. Japan, Mexico,and the Netherlands are at a 44% rate, which is the highest in the world. The American federalgovernment alone uses two percent of all paper products in this country, but half of the trash itthrows away is paper (Miller, 1990).Greatly increased recycling in this country could be reached through several measures. Someanalysts claim that 50% to 80% of the nations natural resources could be recycled or reused bythe year 2012. Some measures to achieve this include enacting a national bottle bill into law,banning disposable plastic items, requiring labels on products made with recyclable materialsand the percentages used, using education and advertisements to discourage the "throwaway"mentality, requiring households to separate wastes for recycling (or offering financial incentivesfor doing so), and decreasing subsidies for virgin-material industries, and providing subsidies forsecondary-material industries and waste reduction programs.Anything that is naturally degradable can be thrown into a compost bin. Food and organic wastecreated by food processing plants, kitchens, galleys, animal feedlots, yard work, and sewagetreatment plants. Paper, leaves, and grass clippings can be decomposed in this process inbackyard compost bins, and the end result can be used in gardens and flower beds.Hazardous waste includes heavy metal contaminants (like lead and mercury), medical andinfectious waste, chemical waste, and nuclear waste. The latter is so dangerous due to theextremely high toxicity, which remains that way for thousands of years. The technology for9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  26. 26. safely and effectively treating and disposing hazardous waste has not even come close to thetechnology for producing the stuff.2.7 Uganda’s perspective on waste managementIn Uganda, the public has not taken any positive steps in solid waste management practices likesource reduction, re-using, recycling or properly disposing of the portion that cannot bereclaimed. Instead the public has for the most part maintained an “I don’t care” attitude ofgenerating as much waste as possible unconscious of the implications for its collection anddisposal (ERL 1990, KCC 1995 and NEMA 1996).In Uganda, the solid waste generated comprises of 73% 0rganic waste; 5.3% paper; 1.7% sawdust; 1.6% plastics; 3.1% metals; 0.9% glass; 8% tree cuttings and 5.5% street debris (Ngategizeet al., 2001). Kampala city gives a good illustration of this problem.Since 1969, there has been a big increase in the volume of solid waste generated due to the risein population. In 1969, 198 metric tonnes were generated everyday and currently 800 tonnes(800,000kgs) is being generated everyday according to the Kampala City Council (KCC report:2008).In addition to the above, waste generation is directly proportional to population increase. Eventhough high/medium income earners are fewer than low income earners, and their per capita,waste generated by low income earners is more than double the quantities generated by highincome earners. However, the daily and annual waste generation for low income earners is morethan double that for high income earners. This could be attributed to accumulation among lowincome earners settlements due to inadequacies in waste collection services among others.9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  27. 27. The greatest challenges facing Uganda’s rapidly growing urban centres, is the hazard of urbanwaste, according to the Globe Clean Services, business manager, Rashid Magezi (cited in TheNew Vision 3rd April 2010). He adds that, “The volume of solid waste generated in urbancentres in Uganda has been increasing mainly as a result of the growing urban population,concentration of industries, consumption habits of residents, inadequate finance and facilities tomanage waste collection and disposal” Many Ugandans perceive waste collection as a luxurybut not a necessity. The concept of collecting garbage is still new to most people, since you haveto tell them a number of times before they can ingest the idea.Magezi insists that garbage disposal in the urban areas is a real challenge compared to ruralUganda where waste is mostly dumped in open places, gardens and open pits. In addition wastein the rural areas is mostly organic.2.8 What are the causes of poor Waste management in Uganda?It is obvious to note that high-income households generate MORE wastes than low incomehouseholds but accumulation is higher in low income areas compared to high income settlementsdue to availability of waste collection services. (ERL, 1990, KCC 1995, and NEMA, 1996).Therefore, there are a number of causes of poor Waste management in Uganda and these includebut not limited to;Lack of dumping sites where to deposit the solid waste. This is because the issue of wastemanagement is new in the country. It wasnt considered to be a problem before. Currently, inKampala, the dumping is done by the K.C.C. at Mpererwe, a landfill made in 1996 after theformer one at Lweza and Lubigi (ERL, 2008).9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  28. 28. Ignorance of the masses about the need to dispose of these wastes well and how to dispose ofthem (the wastes) off. There is lack of enough literacy programs on Waste management whichleaves most of the people backward on waste management. This is because of poor or nosensitization of the masses by the government and other organizations of Uganda.Inefficient collection methods which is mainly due to lack of funds to provide the necessarymachinery. In Uganda, machinery like the trucks that carry the waste from the various areas havepoor covering systems such that even the waste goes on leaking on the road while beingtransported, and even there are few places with proper garbage containers or at times thecontainers are over flooded when there are rain showers.Poor government attitude towards waste management. From a citizens point of view, it isrealized that very little money from the government is directed towards waste management, withmost of it going towards industrialization. This leads to poor purchase of collecting equipment.Another cause is poverty that exists in Uganda. This undoubtedly leads to masses buying cheapnon bio-degradable containers which are not easy to dispose off, and also substitutes like paperbags are not easily available to poor urban dwellers.Also the low price of these solid wastes especially polythene bags which are very cheap ascompared to other containers makes them very common, which makes their proper disposal verydifficult.Lack of trained manpower/personnel to deal with garbage collecting machinery and to ensure theproper disposal of the solid waste for example door to door collectors in most advancedcountries.9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  29. 29. Lack of recycling facilitates in most parts of the country for instance most of the polythene bagsused are not recycled by the manufacturing industries and Misallocation of funds and evenembezzlement of the little funds allocated for such work.2. 9. Some of the human and environmental problems that can attribute topoor waste management.It should be noted that inadequate waste collection by the relevant authorities and theinappropriate methods used by other generators leave a lot of solid waste unattended to. This is asource of pollution and provides breeding ground for rats, fleas, mosquitoes among other. Theconsequences of poor waste management are very complex (KCC; 2000). However, the majorimpacts include but not limited to:Infrastructure destruction; Solid waste haphazardlydumped in manholes for drainage, telephone cables,sewerage system, roadside drainage gutters creates blockagesand leads to floods across roads, streets, parks and otherspaces. The repair of underground telephone and electric cables is hampered as solid wastesblock manholes that would facilitate easy access. This makes repair works expensive and manactivities are disrupted because of constant service failures. The blockage of drainage channelsby mud, polythene and other solid wastes create pools of water, which render transport duringthe rainy seasons messy and eventually potholes develop on the roads. (NEMA 2000/2001).Contamination of water bodies: Most of the solid waste generated in Kampala is dumped inthe wetlands and these are the major sources of domestic water to Kampala’s population. Though50% of Kampala’s populations have running water on the premises (Kampala 1995) and more9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  30. 30. recent 2002 data indicates over 90% accessing safe water. Even then some pipes pass via solidwaste and sewerage sites and water is bound to get contaminated since most of the pipes are veryold. The concern for contamination is due to current accessibility to safe water with 36% of thepopulation drawing their water from “protected” spring, 11% from unprotected springs and 3%from open courses with their waters from the wetlands and underground acquifers. (KCC; 2000).These sources are contaminated through percolating leachates from decomposing garbage,discarded oils from garages and some pit latrines in the low lying areas directly touch the watertable. Direct dumping is also evident on the shores of L. Victoria and its catchment region andyet 3% of the population draws their water directly from open sources (LAVLAC 2005).Generally Nakivubo swamp, which opens in L. Victoria, has a high nutrient load as a result ofrainfall run off from Kampala City (Kansime and Nalubega 1998).Sanitation and Health: Open dumping is the order of the day in Kampala City and this hascreated unsanitary conditions on streets and pathways. Such irresponsible dumping leads tounpleasant smells and are fertile grounds for breeding sites for flies and other vectors. Thescenery of flies, rodents and vectors scrambling for the rotting solid waste is unsightly andunhygienic. All this results in the pollution of both surface and ground water through leachateand impairing the permeability of soils as well as blockage of drainage system (NEMA2000/2001). The public is threatened by communicable diseases such as diarrhoea, cholera,dysentery etc. Cases of cholera outbreak in Kampala are common, the most recent being early2005. In a recent study of pollution load finding indicate high concentration of nitrates nearunofficial dumping grounds in the catchment of Natete River, (Lwasa, Majjaliwa et al. 2006).9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  31. 31. This exacerbates environmental health problems in the urban poor settlements of Kampala metroarea.Increased Presence of Garbage plastic mineral water bottles and Polythene Bags: Most low-income settlements are littered with solid wastes and polythenebags. The communities have been unable or unwilling to payfor garbage collection and sanitation facilities. Some peopleregard garbage collection as the responsibility of KCC usingmoney from taxes. The study has established that there is lackof space to place garbage skips while landowners do not allowplacement of garbage skips on their land. Coupled with lack of skips and inability of the privategarbage collectors to cope with the generation rate, solid waste dumping sites are a commonfeature in Kampala especially in wetland and high-density residential areas. Most conspicuous ofthe waste stream is the plastic wastes in different categories from plastic bottles to polythenebags which are carried downstream in the catchments by storm water and wind. These havebecome a nuisance in the city and metro area.It should be noted that the Government attempted to ban the polythene bags production one yearago however, the government in its own way has failed to control the problem of poor polythenewaste disposal through its failure to enhance strict rules that can help reduce the problem. Theofficials of the various government organs have failed to provide sufficient supervision of thedamping of the wastes as a result, polythene waste are continually poorly damped and this ishazardous to the community and the people living around it.9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  32. 32. 2.10 Policy context/frameworks for waste management in Uganda,International and regional levels.There are various laws that regulate the generation and management of solid wastes in Uganda,and internationally though some are out dated. They include;Agenda 21 - program of action for sustainable developmentAgenda 21 is a comprehensive blue print for global actions for sustainable development into the21st century. Uganda being a member of the United Nations is party and accountable to Agenda21. It commits governments, United Nations organizations, development agencies,nongovernmental organizations and independent sector groups to implement programs andactions which would halt and reverse the negative impact of human behavior on the physicalenvironment and promote and promote environmentally sustainable economic development in allcountries. In the context of waste management, Agenda 21 presents Section 21 onenvironmentally sound management of solid waste, particularly highlighting program areas andassociated strategies to be implemented by all countries to ensure proper waste management(Agenda 21, 1994). How this frame work has been implemented is a question of debate.United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)Biodegradable solid waste decomposition generates green house gases (GHS) such as Methanewhich contributes to depletion of the thin layer (Ozone) that protects the earth from direct heatfrom the sun. Loss of this layer means that sun rays hit directly on the earth resulting intemperature raises which influence climate on the earth and these changes have manifest asglobal warming, prolonged droughts, and unreliable rainfall. However, Uganda is signatory tothe United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) of the Kyoto9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  33. 33. Protocol. The UNFCCC provides an international framework for mitigating causes of climatechange and its effects at both international and national level. For instance, the CleanDevelopment Mechanism (CDM) makes it possible for companies or countries that have toreduce emissions under the Kyoto Protocol to invest in emission reduction projects in developingcountries. There is a need for exploring opportunities in the Clean Development Mechanism toutilize the accumulated solid waste managed under the land fill at Kiteezi for energy productionLinking waste management to the Millennium Development goals (MDGs)Uganda subscribes to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) of the United NationsCharter. The targets under these eight goals respond to the world’s main development challengesand are anticipated to be achieved by 2015. The MDGs are drawn from the actions and targetscontained in the Millennium Declaration that was adopted by 189 nations-and signed by 147heads of state and governments during the UN Millennium Summit in September 2000.Addressing the challenges of waste management and flood mitigation should be linked to theMDGs because they directly and indirectly contribute to achievement of the targets under MDGs1, 3, 6 and 7.5The constitution of the Republic of Uganda 1995 Article 245 (a) provides measures intended-To protect and preserve the environment from abuse, pollution and degradation.” The NationalEnvironment (Waste Management) Regulations, S.I. No 52/1999; Provides that all wastes shallbe properly managed among other regulatory frame works like The Local Government Act 1997.The Town and country planning act 1964 provides a policy legal frame work against whichphysical planning is done on urban settlements. It provides for the creation of Town and country9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  34. 34. planning board, a body responsible for hand use planning approval and gazzetting structuralplans. However this law is out dated and in effective to enforce compliance and discipline andthis has greatly contributed to irresponsible littering of garbage.By the year 2025, it is estimated that Uganda’s population will be about 54 million, with over30% living in urban areas. It is therefore important that policies are designed to address potentialadverse effects. Since population increase is said to be one of the causes of rampant poor wastemanagement.2.11 Opportunities from wastes.It should be noted that though the word "waste" refers to something that is "no longer serving apurpose", something "without value" (as the Concise Oxford Dictionary puts it), Obviously,however, certain people in certain circumstances consider waste materials as a resource for theirfamily, their livelihood, or their enterprise. The so- called waste materials may serve as a crucialresource within households. For example, oily milk packages may be used as fuel; leftover foodmay be fed to pigs and goats; discarded cardboard may serve as walls and roofs of houses. Ifthat is the case, one can expect that household members re-value waste materials and see theirusefulness for different purposes, such as domestic utility, saving on household expenditures,earning money, or other purposes (ERL, 2008). Therefore, this study was seeking to find outwhether the people in Kyazanga have some of these practices that serve to promote a clean andsafe environment.2.12 Gaps identifiedAlthough several researchers have carried out a number of studies on the causes of poor wastemanagement and have provided a number of solutions to waste management in different parts of9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  35. 35. this Uganda and the world at large, it should noted with concern that most if not all these studieshave been carried out in big towns like Kampala, Masaka, jinja, Mbale Mbarara among othersand not in the small emerging towns like Kyazanga. Therefore, the Researcher carried this studyto validate whether such causes of poor waste management and their solutions are applicable toKyazanga Town council and establish Proposals for Change and Improvement in wastemanagement. (See the findings in Chpt 4).2.13 Recommendation.The inadequacies and inconsistencies in the Environmental policies in the context of wastemanagement at both national and local levels call for a comprehensive national policy to guideand streamline waste management in Uganda. These processes should be initiated by the allstakeholder in waste management sector.9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  36. 36. CHAPTER THREE:3.0 Methodology3.1 IntroductionThis chapter presents the methods and tools that were used to conduct this research. It specifiesthe research strategy, sampling procedures, research instruments and data analysis techniquesthat were used to explore the underlying causes of poor waste management and seek the localpeople’s opinions on how the problem would be handled.This chapter describes the methods and the procedures that were used to conduct the research. Italso describes the research design (Triangulation method) that is qualitative and quantitativedesigns this is because there was a need to obtain a variety of information on the same issue, touse the strength of each method to overcome the deficiencies that could come from using onedesign and to achieve a higher degree of validity and reliability. Data was collected from twomain sources, primary and secondary. Primary sources of data comprised mainly interviews, anduse of questionnaires. Secondary data was collected from the already existing documents aboutwaste management at the Town Council.3.2 Research designThe research strategy that the study utilized was the descriptive method. A descriptive researchintended to present facts concerning the nature and the status of the situation, as it exists at a timeof the study and to describe the present conditions, events or systems based on impressions orreactions of the respondents of the research. This study was also concerned with the relationships9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  37. 37. and practices that exist, beliefs and processes that are ongoing, effects that are being felt ortrends that are developing about poor waste management. The researcher used cross-sectionstudy and triangulation methods (i.e. qualitative and quantitative designs). In this study, bothmethods were be utilized for instance the qualitative opinions that were obtained were confirmedby statistical data. Finally, the study used in-depth interviews, observations (qualitative) as wellas survey and statistical records like graphs, pie-charts and tables (Quantitative).3.3 Area and population of Study.The study was conducted in Kyazanga Town council, Lwengo district one of the newly createddistrict formerly part of Masaka district. It is one of town councils that form Lwengo district. It islocated in the approximately 96 miles (154km) and 46 km from Masaka along Masaka –Mbarara Road and 10 km from Lwengo district headquarters. The Town council has a totalpopulation of about 15832 of whom 4625 are female, 4432 are male and 6775 are childrenbetween 0-18 years. The 2002 Uganda national census estimated the population of LwengoDistrict at about 242,300. The exact population of the district as of December 2010 is not known.The Population in Kyazanga is mixed with different tribes ranging from Banyankole-Bakiga,Bafumbira, Banyarwanda and Baganda. The main activity of the people in Kyazanga T.C isbusiness- (small scale business); while other people are peasants who go to the nearby village forfarming since this is the main source of food and livelihood survival. The Town Council housesthe only Health centre IV in the district and most of the educational institutions.The nature and the characteristics of the Population in Kyazanga (mixed) and the nature of theactivities (small scale business) can be attributed to poor waste management in the area, where alot of waste is generated through their retail businesses.9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  38. 38. 3.4 Sample size estimation.The sample size comprised of 76 respondents (local people- considering a number of issues likeresidential, business-small or high etc) from different Wards of Kyazanga T.C, 10 educationinstitutions, 4 health centres/clinics and 10 the Local leaders a total of 100 respondents wasselected from the four zones of Bukyanagandi, Kanakulya Byuma, central and Maida.3.5 Sampling procedure and sampling techniques.The researcher used a non probability sampling procedure where purposive and quota samplingtechniques were employed. This was because, in purposive/judgmental sampling, the researcherpurposively chose respondents who, in his opinion, were thought to be relevant to the researchtopic. In this case the researcher was convinced that his judgment was more important thanobtaining a probability sample because the problem of waste management is not a newphenomena therefore, to obtain relevant data, one must choose relevant respondents. Whereas inquota sampling instead of dividing the population into strata and randomly choosing ofrespondents, the researcher chose to set a ‘quota’ of respondents to be chosen in specificpopulation groups, by defining the basis of choice ( gender, education, status, wealth etc) andthis still was used in determining size.3.6. Data collection techniques.The researcher used both qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection becausequalitative methods involve the use of words rather than numbers; the methods involveddescriptions of the study and this helped the researchers to go beyond conceptions and generateand revise frameworks. This approach helped the researcher to generate quality information that9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  39. 39. gave meaning to numbers. While quantitative methods involved the collection of numerical datain order to explain, predict and control phenomena of interest and the data that was collected ispresented as a table in numbers. The numerical data obtained is used to explain the social life ofthe people of Kyazanga in relation to waste management. These methods included,administering questionnaire, interviewing and observation.3.7. 0 Tools to be used in research3.7.1 QuestionnairesThe questionnaire comprised of sections like; the demography where the respondent’s sex,marital status, income level, type of apartment-rental or owned among others were asked. Theyalso consisted of questions both open and closed in which if answered well, would haveexhausted the research objectives and question. In this method of data collection, the respondentsgot and filled in a formerly well structured questionnaire. These questionnaires were home/officedelivered. The questionnaires were personally delivered to and later picked from the premises ofthe respondent. The respondents were given time to fill in the questionnaires. The researcherbelieves that this method gave the respondents enough time to reflect, concentrate and in someinstances to consult. However, to the semi- literate respondents, the questions were read by theresearcher and then translated into local languages for clear understanding and proper responses.3.7.2 The interview guideThe researcher conducted personal interviews especially to key informants like the Town Clerk,chair person LC III and the Health Inspector. The Researcher also introduced himself to therespondents by presenting an introductory letter from the university. The Interviewer thenprecisely explained the purpose of the carrying out the study on the causes of poor waste9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  40. 40. management in Kyazanga T.C. The researcher went ahead to explain how the potentialrespondents were selected and that the responses were to be confidential and anonymous, whichcould not be used against the respondent. It was made clear to the respondents that the interviewswere not testing knowledge but rather helping the researcher to learn from them. Whileinterviewing, the researcher was guided by a well structured set of questions which worked as ainterview guide.3.7.3 Observation and a camera.This is “a purposive or intentional examination of something, particularly for purposes of datagathering”. (Chaplain 1968). The researcher used observation method where the occurrences ofpoor waste management events were highly recorded. The researcher used tools like a camera totake pictures of wastes littered anyhow in the Town council.3.7.4 Secondary data.This is the use of the already collected data that was not specifically gathered for the researchquestion at hand. This data could be government or non-governmental or private statistics. Theresearcher had anticipated to get information relevant to the study by reviewing documents aboutwaste management; these documents included, the publications, annual reports of the ministry ofhealth, periodicals, journals, magazines and other literature written by different knowledgeablescholar. The researcher hoped that such information would help as the starting point foradditional research. Unfortunately, the T.C has got only a work plan pamphlet which wascompiled in 2009. This is the only working, and guiding document the TC owns which has half apage information on waste management. This partly explains why this study was conducted inorder to provide information for the leaders and the entire community.9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  41. 41. 3.8 Procedure for Data Collection.Both open-ended and closed-ended questionnaires were also used for data collection. Mostlyclosed-ended questionnaires were used to collect easily analyzable data. Interview guides weredesigned and reviewed by the researcher. A set of question were prepared for reference by theresearcher and were approved by the research supervisor. The researcher pre-tested thequestionnaire before he finally put to use.After the approval of the research proposal, the researcher identified two Research Assistants(R.As) with a bias in social research who were oriented on this research and trained ininterviewing; data collection and data coding skills and then pre tested the questionnaires.At this point it was important to prepare a plan for data processing and data analysis based onwhich aspects of data collected was to generate qualitative and quantitative analyzable data.After scheduling the meeting with respondents, the research team started with in-depth personalinterviews each lasted for 10-15 minutes. During all these sessions, the researcher was themoderator while one of the R.As was taking down notes and the whole team carefully listenedand observed the conversations.3.9.0 Data Quality Control.Data safeguarding and ensuring the accuracy and completeness of the same quality controlcomprises of validity of the instrument that used in the study. This was maintained through testsof validity and reliability.9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  42. 42. 3.9.1 Validity.Validity in this case refers to the appropriateness, meangfulness and usefulness of theinferences/deductions a researcher makes (fraenkel & Wallen 1996:153). In order to establishvalidity of the instruments, the draft questionnaire was given to the supervisor and academiccolleagues and experts. They were requested to comment on the question wording and the depthof the questionnaire and its ability to address the research objectives (relevancy). The commentsthat were obtained helped to improve on the research instrument.3.9.2 Reliability.Reliability refers to the consistency of the responses obtained from one administration of aninstrument to another and from one set of items to another (Fraenkel & Wallen 1996:160). Toensure consistence of the research instrument, the researcher used simple language and clearinstructions which were quite appropriate to the respondents. Instructions were made as simpleand clear as possible. Questions were phrased clearly to ensure consistence in responses of theparticipants. The respondents who participated in the study were expected to be knowledgeableto provide reliable information. The selected sample was adequate and representative. After allthat, the instrument were pre-tested in a pilot study and the researcher pre-tested a minimum of10 questionnaires. The researcher did that in instances where he was not sure about the adequacyof the optional response categories that had been devised for one question, for instance questionsthat had options like ‘Others, please specify’, the researcher’s concern was be that the responseset to that question might not be effective; as a result the option ‘Others, please specify’ mightattract a disproportionally large number of responses, a problem the researcher wished to avoid.The results of the pre-testing brought on board very important modifications in the questionnaire.9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  43. 43. These tests were carried out to ensure consistency and to find out how easy the final study wouldbe done.3.10 Research Formalities.The research procedure began by getting introduction letter from the University which waspresented by the researcher to the authorities in Kyazanga to be allowed to access secondarydata, reports and carry out research in the areas. And in return, the Town Clerk replied by writingan acceptance letter to the Researcher.(see Appendix)3.11 Data Analysis and interpretation.It should be noted that, data obtained from the field in raw form is difficult to interpret. Theinitial data collected was subjected to quality checks, to ensure that the recordings were correctlydone with minimal errors. This entailed editing, repeating interviews where necessary, coding,summarizing, categorizing and grouping similar information, analyzing according to the themeof the study. The researcher deemed it important to note quotations and observations madeduring the interviews and their sources or the name of the interviewee. All the questionnaireswere analyzed whether completed or not.Data analysis and processing was on-going and statistical analysis was done manually and wherepossible the researcher used Microsoft Excel Spreadsheets, and frequencies of the emergingissues were then established in a tabular or graphic form like pie-chats, bar graph and frequenciesand percentages were generated. (See Chpt 4).Care was taken to avoid discarding any data, as this could be reverted to in later analysis.Relevant quotations were ear-marked. Analysis was done manually as earlier mentioned by9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  44. 44. identifying areas of emphasis according to themes and the responses summarized in a narrativeform as a presentation of the major findings of the study.At the end of it all, it was from the results of analysis that the researcher was able to make senseof the data in order to give concrete interpretation and discussion of the data obtained in relationto phenomenon of poor waste management.3.12 Limitations of the study and possible way forward.The study was comprehensive and the researcher used considerable finances to execute the studysuccessfully. However, despite the envisaged limitations of logistical and financial difficulties,the researcher endeavored to get the required resources to complete the study within the requiredtime frame.The researcher found some respondents who were not willing to cooperate in giving outinformation concerning poor waste management claiming I was T.C staffs who was disguising tobe a researcher instead looking for information to pin them for poor waste management.However, the researcher tried to build a rapport first which helped in building a strong bond withthe respondents which later enabled him to get the required information.Time factor; this was one of the greatest challenge the researcher faced during the research.There was limited time for the researcher to go the field, make introductions, carry out research,collect data, interpret the findings and then write a scholar report.9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  45. 45. 3.13 Dissemination of the results.Once this copy of the research is approved, the researcher will distribute the findings to the areas/ offices that were helpful during data collection exercise. For instance, Town council offices andthe council Health inspect, to enable them update their information and to discover the gaps inthe policy about waste management. The university will retain a copy of approved dissertationfor academic reference and the researcher will retain a copy.3.14 Ethical consideration  The researcher sought permission from the local council leaders in order to allow him collect data  He deemed it necessary not include the names of the respondents on the questionnaires.  The researcher explained the purpose of research to the respondents3.15 Conclusion.All in all, the chapter shows the methodological framework that guided the researcher in thecollection and analysis of data acquired from the different study respondents.It shows thevarious data collection techniques that were employed to enable the researcher to get all therequired information that was needed for this research. It brouht out the particular category ofpeople that were involved in this research and why they were picked upon.9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  46. 46. CHAPTER FOUR4.0 DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS4.1 Introduction In this chapter, the researcher presents the findings of the study conducted on wastemanagement within urban areas in Uganda; a case study of Kyazanga town council, Lwengodistrict. The findings are presented using tables, bar graphs and pie charts, which are lateranalyzed by percentages under some of the variables. Most of the findings are descriptive innature.4.2. Back ground Characteristics of Respondents4.2.1. Sex of the respondents.The researcher considered the sex of the respondent because he wanted to study the variations inthe views and perceptions and the role played by both men and women regarding wastemanagement.Table 1: Sex of the RespondentsSex Frequency PercentageFemale 51 51%Male 49 49%Total 100 100%9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  47. 47. Figure 1: Distribution of respondents by sex. Respondents by sex 52%%ges 51% 50% Percentage 49% 48% Female Male sexThe findings presented in table 1 above show that, out of the total sample size of 100 respondentscontacted during the study, 51% were females and 49% males. Findings specifically revealedthat the women were more engaged in waste management issues than the men. This was becausemost households that were interviewed, husbands would ask their wives to respond to theresearcher than themselves claiming the wives were more engaged than themselves and that thewomen had more of the domestic responsibilities to handle compared to men. And therefore,women were found to be more engaged in waste management than men and possibly thisexplains the burdens women carry on top of the domestic role they play. It was found out thatsince waste management was a new phenomenon, women (who in this case are the mostresponsible) tend to give waste management the last priority hence poor waste management inthe Town Council.4.2. 2: Distribution of individual respondents by the zone.With the guide of the local leaders we were to identify four zones which include; Bukyanagandi,Kanakulya Byuma, Maida and central zones from the total number of Twelve (12) zones.Bukyanagandi, Kanakulya Byuma and Mayida zones were selected because they have more9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  48. 48. residential people and a lot of illegal wastedumping in more observed than any other zonewhile Central zone is known for being the hub ofbusiness in the Town council.Health centres and schools visited are spreadthroughout different zones that were selected. Itshould be noted that Kyazanga being one of thegrowing Town Councils, a lot is needed especially planning for infrastructure developments ob.It was observed by the researcher that there is no single zone that is said to be residential orbusiness oriented. All zones have people doing small scale business (Retail shops) andResidential. However, zones like Central accommodates more people in business than any otherzone. It was therefore; found out that these zones due to their large numbers alongside poorbuilding plans explain why a lot of waste is choking the Town Council.Table 2: The distribution of respondents by zones. Zone Frequency Percentages Central 32 32% Bukyanagandi 30 30% Kanakulya 24 24% Byuma Maida 14 14% Total 100 100%9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  49. 49. Figure 2: The pie-chart showing the distribution of the respondents by zone.From above, central zone had the highest number of respondents with 32% because it has thehighest number of residents in business sector and an area that generates a lot of garbage that isindiscriminately littered anywhere. The study also selected Bukyanagandi, Kanakulya Byunmaand Maida Zones with 30%, 24% and 14% respectively. These zones were selected because theyhave the highest dilapidated structures and this go hand in hand with waste management. Suchzones can afford of wastes as a challenge to their health. On top of the above, these zones havethe highest open dumping spaces. Approximately, ¾ of the apartments selected were eitherdumping wastes behind the shelter or in any open place. The current situation in conjunctionwith the attitude of the people if not handled carefully and strongly, these zones could be asource of diseases that can be spread to other zones.9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  50. 50. 4.2.3: The income level category.The researcher had interest in the income level category of the people of Kyazanga in order todraw relationship between wealth/income and waste management. There were three categories ofincome that the researcher observed i.e. low income, middle income and high income.Table 3. The distribution of the respondents as per the income category. Income level Frequency Low 50 Middle 30 High 20 Total 100Figure 3: Income levels of Respondents. Income levels of respondents 50 40 Low No. of 30 Middle Respondents 20 High 10 0 FrequencyFrom the graph above, half of the total number of respondents was under low income categoryrepresenting 50%. Majority of these respondents said that because of using cheap non bio-degradable containers which are not easy to dispose off, like ‘Buveera’. The alternatives thatshould have been used like paper bags are not easily available to poor urban dwellers. Evenwhen some of the alternatives are available, the prices of these solid wastes especially polythenebags are low compared to other containers which makes their proper disposal very difficult. To9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  51. 51. the middle and high income apartments, a lot is also generated by relatively managed andcollected by the Volunteer Youth Group. It is important to observe at this point that the roleplayed by the service providers should be cross cutting NOT segregate as it is. It was reportedthat poor households were NOT receiving any service from the Team at all.4.2.4 Category of the premise of collection.This study considered two major categories of apartments/premises. These included basicallyresidential and business sector. The researcher found out that at a household level all sorts ofwastes are generated and so is the case for the business sector. The business sector includespeople engaged in retail and wholesale shops, stalls of green vegetables, and restaurants. Theresearcher included this section of premise of collection for a number of reasons; one was toestablish the source of the wastes that are choking the T.C, are the major generators, if there anymeans used to collect, transport and dispose off.a). The residential premises.The table below shows the number of respondents under Residential premises in relation to theirincome level.Table 4 (a). Premise of collection Residential premise Frequency Percentage ( %) a) Low Income 25 50% b) Middle 15 30% income c) High Income 10 20% Total 50 100%9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  52. 52. Figure 4 (a):Distributions of respondents at the residential level in relation toincome levels. Residental Respondents 60% 50% Respondents Percentage of 40% 30% Percentage ( %) 20% 10% 0% Low Income Middle High Income income Income levelThe findings in table 4 above indicate that a total number of 50 respondents were interviewed.Low income household since they are the majority had 50% representation, 30% for middleincome and 20% for high income.b). The business sector.Table 4 (b). distribution of respondents in the business sector as pertheir income level.BusinessLow Income 25 50%Middle income 15 30%High Income 10 20%Total 50 100%9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  53. 53. Figure 4 (b). Respondents from the Business sector. Respondents from the Business sector 30 60% Respondents in 25 50% Respondents Percentage 20 40% No. of 15 30% 10 20% 5 10% 0 0% Low Income Middle income High Income Income level No. of Respondents PercentageThe findings in table 4 (b) above, it is indicated that still a total number of 50 respondents wereinterviewed in the business sector. The researcher drew respondents from different income levelsin order to study the variations in the opinions about waste management in the TC. Low incomebusiness dealers formed 50% representation, 30% for middle income and 20% for high incomeas it was the case in the residential respondents. It can be observed that in both categories ofrespondents i.e. residential and business, the low income people are the majority. The questionthen is; does the level of income determine the waste management in TC? This question is to beanswered in the following analysis.4.2. 5: Position of the respondents in the apartment.The research chose this demographic characteristic of respondents in order establish who plays abigger role in waste management at both house hold level or at a business establishment.9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  54. 54. Table 5: distribution of respondents by positions. Residential level No. of respondents Percentage (%)Spouse of the Head of 41 40establishment/House wivesOwners /Heads 51 52Employees/ Care takers 8 8Total 100 100Figure 5: Distribution of respondents by positions held in the establishment.The position of each respondent was taken to be a very important demographic variable for thestudy because these position influences one’s ability to engage in an activity that isenvironmental friendly or not. As seen in the table above, 41% of people were Spouses of theHead of establishment/House wives, 51% of the respondents were heads/owners of theapartments compared to 8% of the employees/care takers.4.2.6: Education levelsThe researcher considered education as a very important demographic characteristic duringwhich people not only get to know about themselves but also what happens around them. It was9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  55. 55. believed by the researcher that people who have had an opportunity to know the dangers of poorwaste management are better placed to manage wastes either by having a collection container orhaving an alternative way of managing wastes properly. Respondents were classified into foureducation levels of education including No formal education, primary, secondary, and tertiary(University). Table 6. Education levels of the RespondentsEducation Level Frequency Percentage (%)Non formal 53 53Primary 21 21Secondary 19 19Tertiary (University) 7 7Total 100 100Figure 6. Distribution of respondents according to their levels of Education. Respondents by education level No. of Respondents 60 60% 50 50% Percentage 40 40% Frequency 30 30% 20 20% Percentage 10 10% 0 0% (University) Secondary Primary Non formal Tertiary Education levelFrom table 6, indicates that the majority of the respondents had not attained formal education(53%). Those who had attained primary education were 21%. Respondents with secondaryeducation level were 19% and those with tertiary and university education were only 7%. Thehigher percentage of respondents with Non-Formal education level was expected since they form9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  56. 56. the highest percentage in the area and probably this explains why the issues of wastemanagement are lagging behind in Kyazanga Town Council. The researcher noticed during thisstudy that because of the low levels of education, most of such respondents had no idea about thelegal and institutional frame works in place. In other words lack of information goes hand inhand with the level of education.It should be noted with concern that the level of education forms the basis of waste management.It was found out that low levels of education contributes to poor waste management mechanismswhile high level of education contribute positively towards waste management. Therefore, theresearcher deemed it was necessary to include this demographic characteristic while assessingthe persistent causes of waste management.4.2.7: Time spent in KTC. (How long have you stayed in Kyazanga).Majority of the respondents especially in the residential apartments have stayed in Kyazanga fora period ranging from three years and above. Meaning there are those who have been in the areafor more than forty years and others for the whole of their lives. On the side of those engaged inbusiness, there are those who have just stayed in Kyazanga for a year while others have beentheir for a long period of time and this became very hard for the researcher to generalise sincesome respondents were born in the area and they are now engaged in business. The researcherchose to use the time spent in Kyazanga because it would help to explain whether therespondents knew the stages the area had gone through from a hunting and grazing area totrading centre to Town Board and finally to Town Council. Of course each of these levels have arole to play on waste management.Does such a population structure and settlement pattern explain why waste management is poorin the area? To some extent yes; the researcher found out that because people have spent a long9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  57. 57. period of time in the area, it becomes hard for local leaders to enforce the laws/ordinances onwaste management because most the people are closely related families. It was suggested that tosucceed in executing duties pertaining waste management, a civil servant who is not born in thearea would be better placed.4.3: Is waste management a problem?The researcher included this question in order to know how establish whether the residents ofKyazanga could notice that poor waste management was a problem. The respondents were fromresidential, Business sector, Health centres and schools. In all these apartments, the respondentsadmitted that waste management is a problem and they argued that the problem, was very seriousas the population continues to grow.Table 6: distribution of responses on whether waste management was aproblem. Respondents Frequency Percentage (%) Responses Low Income 50 50% Yes Middle income 30 30% Yes High Income 20 20% Some how Total 100 100%9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  58. 58. Figure 7: Responses on whether waste management was a problem. Responses on problem of waste mgt 60% 50% 40% 30% Percentage (%) 20% 10% 0% Yes Yes Some how Low Income Middle income High Income Income levelFrom the figure (7) above, 50% of the respondents were under low income category said thatwaste management was indeed a threat and their response to the question was yes. This was thesame case with the middle income which was represented by 30%. Unlike the two, the highincome respondents did not look at waste management as a problem because most of their time,they are enclosed in their perimeter block with full water tanks, gas cylinders or charcoal andthey could afford to pay a person to collect their wastes at least three times a week and thesecomprised of 20% .4.8. What form of wastes is commonly generated in the apartments?Most respondents generated wastes that included; organic waste like kitchen waste, vegetables,flowers, leaves, fruits and non organic wastes like plastics, polythene bags, paper, glass, andmetals. It was found out that in a week, the residential respondents approximately generatedbetween 8-10 kg of wastes. While the people engaged in business generate between 10-20kgs.9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010
  59. 59. This poses a great challenge when it comes to waste management. There is no proper means ofcollecting, transporting and disposal of such wastes.4.9. Does your house hold have a container?The respondents were asked whether they had containers where wastes were being collectedfrom and the responses varied as follow.Table 8: distribution of responses on the question whether therespondents had a container. Respondents Frequency Percentage (%) Responses Low Income 50 50% No Middle income 30 30% Yes High Income 20 20% Yes Total 100 100%Figure 8: Distribution of Responses on whether Premises had containers Responses on the availability of the container 20% Yes 50% No Low Income 30% yes Middle income High Income9/5/2011 shadrack Natamba +256(0)782/714/701-843010

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