Министерство образования Республики Марий Эл Муниципальное общеобразовательное учреждение «Средняя общеобразовательная школа №29 г. Йошкар-Олы»Обычаи и традиции Великобритании.Церемония дня рождения Шекспира. Выполнили: Самсонова Д. 9В Толмачева И. 9В Учитель: Леханова М.А. 2010г.
СОДЕРЖАНИЕ Часть 1. Биография Шекспира: Его жизнь, семья, деятельность, театр.Часть 2. Церемония дня рождения Шекспира.
Часть 1. William Shakespeare (1564-1616)William Shakespeare, the greatest English poet and dramatist, was born on April 23, 1564 in Stratford-(up) on-Avon, Warwickshire, in England. William Shakespeare
Not much is known of Shakespeare’s father, John Shakespeare. He was a man of some importance in Stratford. He was one of the town officers and a dealer in corn, meat, leather, and other products of the farm.The poet’s mother, Mary Arden, was one of the eight daughters of Robert Arden, a rich farmer in the village of Wilmcote, John Shakespeare where the Arden farmstead may still be seen.
John Shakespeare and his wife lived in a well-built house of rough stone which was two storeys high with small windows cut in the roof. The house is standing. It is now a museum.William Shakespeare was born here in a small room. He was the eldest son and third child of the marriage. Very little is known about the life of William, especially about his early years. At the age of seven William was sent to Stratford Grammar School where he studied for six years. Shakespeare’s house
In 1577 a change came over his father’s fortunes. John Shakespeare fell into debt and had to sell the larger part of his property. William was taken from the school and for some time had to help his father in the trade. He never went to school again. Just what he did between his fourteenth and eighteenth year is not known. We know nothing about these five years of his life.
Actors of that timeWhen still at Stratford, Shakespeare became well acquainted with theatrical performances. Stratford was often visited by traveling companies of players. Shakespeare may have also seen miracle plays in the neighbouring town of Coventry.
In 1582, when little more than eighteen, William married Anne Hathaway, a daughter of Richard Hathaway who belonged to a well-respected yeoman family. Ann was eight years older than her husband and it is said that the marriage was not a happy one. In 1583 their daughter Susanna was born and in 1585 their twinsHouse Anne Hathaway named Hamnet and Judith were born.
When William was abort twenty-one, He left for London, where he had to go through manydifficulties. Probably the first work he did there was at one of the two theatres that there were in London atthat time. Then he became an actor and soon began to write plays for the company of actors to which he belonged. Very many of his plays were acted in a London theatre called “The Globe”. “The Globe”
There is a story that when Shakespeare reached London he went straight to the theatre, determined to get work of some sort there; and that finding nothing better to do, he began by holding the horses of the fine gentlemen who came to see the plays. It is said that a little later he was employed to call out the names of the actors and pieces, and after a time was given a small part to act. But the soon showed that he could make himself mast useful in changing old plays which the actors themselves could not do. Every old play that Shakespeare took in hand, he made into something different and far better. Then he began to write plays himself. Shakespeare wrote 37 plays altogether. He is also known as the author of two poems and 154 sonnets.
Часть 2. SHAKESPEARES BIRTHDAY CEREMONYBy an odd chance, Englands greatest writer,William Shakespeare, was born on St. GeorgesDay, 1564, in Stratford-on-Avon, Warwickshire,and also died on the saints day in 1616. Every23rd April is now a day of special pageantry in Stratford.
The birthday always begins early in the morning with the ringing of the bells of Holy Trinity Church where Shakespeare is buried. Flags from many nations are unfurled, they are on all the shops and houses. Along the main street about 100 tall poles have been put up. Soon bugles are blown and then one after another a flag appears at the top of each pole. Each flag is of a different country. Flag of England on Holy Trinity Church.
In the afternoon a band playing music and followed by many people marches up the street. The Mayor leads a distinguished procession to lay flowers on Shakespeares grave at Holy Trinity Church. After seeing this ceremony many people go to see the house where Shakespeare was born. The house is still the same as it was when he lived in it. Holy Trinity Church where Shakespeare is buried.
At night people go to the beautiful theatre by the side of the RiverAvon. Here they see one of his plays acted by some of the greatest actorsin the country. And every night from April till October every seat in this theatre is filled by people from all parts of the world.
There is a very old hotel in Stratford that was probably there in Shakespeares time. It hassome Tudor beautiful tables and chairs; and the rooms have no numbers on the doors as mosthotels have. Instead every room has the name of a Shakespeares play on it - the Hamlet room, the Romeo and Juliet room and so on.
Shakespeare was probably proud to celebrate his birthday on the feast of great St. George. In one of his plays he shows how ordinary English people were stirred by their brave patron saint. Just before his soldiers go into battle, their King, Henry V, tells them to shout: "God for Harry, England and Saint George!" St. George King Henry V