Born 1896 in Orsha,
Admitted to Moscow State
University through “Jewish
Studied law, medicine,
history, philosophy, and
graduated in 1917.
Begin his career as a
Psychological Institute in
Moscow in 1924
completing his dissertation
From 1925 to 1934, he
wrote 6 books on
Tragically he died of
tuberculosis at the age of
Lev Vygotsky Major Works
The Psychology of Art, 1925
Consciousness as a problem in the Psychology of
Educational Psychology, 1926
Historical meaning of the crisis in Psychology, 1927
The Socialist altercation of Man, 1930
Primitive Man and his Behavior, c. 1930
Mind and Society, 1930
Karl Marx & Russian Revolution
Russian Revolution & Marxism
Political Views of Marx and Lenin
stressed society over the individual
Emphasis of learning in social settings
Shared ownership and responsibilities
from both the learner and teacher.
As a result, it was forbidden to discuss,
reprint, or distribute any of Vygotsky’s
Evald Ilyenkov (Marxist Theorist)
Alexander Luria (founder of the
A group of psychologists, education
researchers, medical specialists,
This group contributed to intergrating
science of mind, brain, and behavior
in their cultural development.
Heavily influenced through cultural
changes in Russia and Germany.
View of Knowledge
• Children will construct their own
• Language plays a central role in
Vygotsky’s Quotes on Child’s
“In play, a child is always above his
average age, above his daily behavior, in
play, its as though he were a head taller
Vygotsky’s Quotes on
“ The child begins to perceive the world
not only through his [or her] eyes but
also through his [or her] speech.”
Vygotsky’s Body of Work
o Has a relatively short career
focused on three subject areas:
o Child Development
o Developmental Psychology
o Educational Philosophy
Vygotsky’s Quotes on Learning
“ What a child can do in co-operation
today he can do alone tomorrow.”
View of Learner
Vygotsky`s beliefs in social learning are the coat-
tails that a great deal of his theories ride upon.
Vygostky`s investigations have shown that thought
and speech,”are, on the contrary, delicate,
changeable relations between processes, which
arise during the development of verbal thought.”
Thus, our thinking and speaking are not static.
Instead, they are active interactions that constantly
change and develop, when coupled with socio-
Role of the Teacher
Works as a guide or coach when assisting the
Creates small and large group activities or
Does not provide the correct answers
The teacher helps and supports learner as
they struggle with tasks.
How does Learning Occurs?
Suggested that learning takes place through
the interactions students have with their peers,
teachers, and other experts.
Learning emerges from social interaction not
from independent study.
The use of play assists in learning.
Debrief # 2
Do you think we apply Vygostky`s
theory in the lesson? How?
Which technique was effective
during the lesson?
Vygotsky, L.S. (1978) Mind in Society: The development of higher psychological
processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University
Vygotsky, L.S. (1962) Thought and Language. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press (Original
work published in 1934)
Neff, Linda S. "Lev Vygotsky and Social Learning Theories." Educational Technology
547 Learning Theories Website. Linda S. Neff, n.d. Web. 09 Apr. 2014.
Hannum, Wallace. "Lev Vygotsky's Theory."
Www.theoryfundamentals.com/vygotsky.htm. Wallace Hannum,
n.d. Web. 16 Apr. 2014.
Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934). (2013, September 17). Retrieved April 15, 2014,
Moll, Luis C. (2013). L.S. Vygotsky and Education. Retrieved from http://
McLeod, S. (2007). Lev Vygotsky. Retrieved April 14, 2014, from
McLeod, S. (2010). Zone of Proximal Development. Retrieved April 14, 2014, from