The first settlers into a given region typically establish a cultural and linguistic area that persists in time , although the original feature will change in a number of ways and other features may take place.
<ul><li>O ne of the most prominent vernacular dialects of English is found in the southern Appalachian mountain range, including West Virginia, western North Carolina and Virginia, eastern Tennessee and Kentucky, and by migratory extension, northwest Arkansas and southern Missouri, where so-called Appalachian English can be found. </li></ul>
The most effective kind of communication is face-to-face, and when a group of speakers does not interact with another, the likelihood of dialect divergence is heightened
<ul><li>Metropolitan Areas v/s Rural Areas </li></ul>
<ul><li>Cultural lag </li></ul><ul><li>Retention of older forms of English, such a-prefix in: </li></ul><ul><li>He was a-hunting and a- fishing </li></ul><ul><li>/h/ </li></ul><ul><li>Hit´s a nice day out today. </li></ul>
The pressure for dialect variation may come from within the system itself Changes can also may originate from contact with other language communities. Changes from within (because they take place independent of outside language influences) Changes from outside
Although we distinguish the two sources of change, they often work hand in hand as the internal structure of the system may dictate what items from outside will be adopted and how.
A prime example of redundant marking in English is the marker for Third person singular in present tense. She likes the story
To omit –s can make differences in form but not necessarily any differences in meaning. <ul><li>She like_ the class. </li></ul><ul><li>The table is four inche_ long. </li></ul><ul><li>John_ hat is on the floor </li></ul><ul><li>The man _ ugly </li></ul>
Dialect diversity also comes from linguistic response to physical and social conditions surrounding language and the need to name new and things .
Processes available for word creation PROCESS DEFINITION EXAMPLES Compouding Two or more existing words are combined to form a new word. Badmouth Derivation Affixes are added to create new forms or change the part of the speech. Badness Borrowing Words from other languages are incorporated Arroyo ( Spanish) Blending Parts of two words are combined to form a new word Sitcom ( Situatio-comedy)
Processes available for word creation PROCESS DEFINITION EXAMPLES Acronyms New words are formed by taking the initial sounds or letters from existing words UN (United Nations) Clipping Word are formed by shortening an existing word Dorm (dormitory) Conversion Words are shifted from one part of speech to another without any change in their form Bottle (as a verb in “she bottled the water”
The information of this presentation was taken from Dialects and American English, Wolfram W (1991) and the pictures were taken from http://www.google.cl/imghp?hl=es&tab=wi