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Why languages have__dialects
Why languages have__dialects
Why languages have__dialects
Why languages have__dialects
Why languages have__dialects
Why languages have__dialects
Why languages have__dialects
Why languages have__dialects
Why languages have__dialects
Why languages have__dialects
Why languages have__dialects
Why languages have__dialects
Why languages have__dialects
Why languages have__dialects
Why languages have__dialects
Why languages have__dialects
Why languages have__dialects
Why languages have__dialects
Why languages have__dialects
Why languages have__dialects
Why languages have__dialects
Why languages have__dialects
Why languages have__dialects
Why languages have__dialects
Why languages have__dialects
Why languages have__dialects
Why languages have__dialects
Why languages have__dialects
Why languages have__dialects
Why languages have__dialects
Why languages have__dialects
Why languages have__dialects
Why languages have__dialects
Why languages have__dialects
Why languages have__dialects
Why languages have__dialects
Why languages have__dialects
Why languages have__dialects
Why languages have__dialects
Why languages have__dialects
Why languages have__dialects
Why languages have__dialects
Why languages have__dialects
Why languages have__dialects
Why languages have__dialects
Why languages have__dialects
Why languages have__dialects
Why languages have__dialects
Why languages have__dialects
Why languages have__dialects
Why languages have__dialects
Why languages have__dialects
Why languages have__dialects
Why languages have__dialects
Why languages have__dialects
Why languages have__dialects
Why languages have__dialects
Why languages have__dialects
Why languages have__dialects
Why languages have__dialects
Why languages have__dialects
Why languages have__dialects
Why languages have__dialects
Why languages have__dialects
Why languages have__dialects
Why languages have__dialects
Why languages have__dialects
Why languages have__dialects
Why languages have__dialects
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Why languages have__dialects

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  • 1. Why Languages have dialects? Natalia Ramirez Salas
  • 2. ¿ Why is there air?
  • 3.  
  • 4. Why are there dialects?
  • 5. Sociohistorical explanation
  • 6. What are the processes that make dialects so natural and inevitable? Social and Linguistic factors
  • 7. From the eastern part of central and southern England From Scotch-Irish parts NEW YERSEY AND DELAWARE AREA NEW ENGLAND, UPPER NEW YORK AND PARTS OF APPALACHIA
  • 8.  
  • 9. Settlement
  • 10.  
  • 11.  
  • 12. The major dialects of America English to this day reflect the original sites of settlement with cultural hearths such as Boston, Tidewater Virginia, Charleston, south Carolina.
  • 13. Settlement patterns generally take place in several distinct phases:
  • 14. First Phase.
  • 15. Second Phase
  • 16. Third Phase
  • 17. The first settlers into a given region typically establish a cultural and linguistic area that persists in time , although the original feature will change in a number of ways and other features may take place.
  • 18. Migration routes
  • 19. Eg. Pennsylvania There is a line dividing NORTH DIALECT MIDLAND DIALECT horse  /hɔ:rs/  hoarse  /hɔ:rs / witch  /wɪtʃ/ which 1  /hwɪtʃ / 
  • 20. Physical Factors
  • 21.  
  • 22.
    • O ne of the most prominent vernacular dialects of English is found in the southern Appalachian mountain range, including West Virginia, western North Carolina and Virginia, eastern Tennessee and Kentucky, and by migratory extension, northwest Arkansas and southern Missouri, where so-called Appalachian English can be found.
  • 23. The most effective kind of communication is face-to-face, and when a group of speakers does not interact with another, the likelihood of dialect divergence is heightened
  • 24. Language Contact
  • 25. In the XVII century there was primary influence from American Indian groups .
    • Moccasin ['mɒkəsɪn]  Raccoon /ræ'ku:n /
  • 26. In the XVIII century there was primary influence from French .
    • Bureau  /'bjʊrəʊ / Prarie /'preri /
  • 27. German also gave English words .
    • Kindergarten  /'kɪndərˌgɑ:rtn̩ / Hambuger /'hæmbɜ:rgər /
  • 28. From Spanish we can find :
    • Canyon   /'kænjən/ Patio /'pætiəʊ/ 
  • 29. Suffixes taken from German: -est Songfest Slugfest Gabfest Suffixes taken from French -ee Draftee Enlistee
  • 30. Economic Ecology
  • 31.
    • Fishing Mining Farming
  • 32.
    • Metropolitan Areas v/s Rural Areas
  • 33.
    • Cultural lag
    • Retention of older forms of English, such a-prefix in:
    • He was a-hunting and a- fishing
    • /h/
    • Hit´s a nice day out today.
  • 34. Social Stratification
  • 35.
    • Some markers of social status differences
    • Double Negation :
    • She ain´t been nowhere( she hasn´t been anywhere)
    • /
  • 36.
    • Some markers of social status differences
    • Irregular verbs forms :
    • She done it (She did it)
  • 37.
    • Some markers of social status differences
    • Comparative forms :
    • More bigger (bigger)
    • /
  • 38. Communication Networks
  • 39.  
  • 40. In other level the particular social network govern people´s day to day conversation.
  • 41. Group Reference
  • 42. Teenagers Slang Eg. Just let grab a bite to eat = Have a quick snack
  • 43. Do not confuse it with Ethnic variety such Vernacular Black English They have: A complex array of grammatical, phonological and lexical structures in its limitation.
  • 44. Character attributes
  • 45. Ronald Reagan “ Ain´t gonna back down to nobody”
  • 46. Linguistic explanation
  • 47. There are higher-order principles of language structure that guide the ways in which the dialects of language will differ from each other.
  • 48. English from Elizabethian period .
  • 49. The pressure for dialect variation may come from within the system itself Changes can also may originate from contact with other language communities. Changes from within (because they take place independent of outside language influences) Changes from outside
  • 50. Although we distinguish the two sources of change, they often work hand in hand as the internal structure of the system may dictate what items from outside will be adopted and how.
  • 51. Generalization
  • 52. Let´s consider the rule of Negation in English in its more restricted (standard) and its more expanded, generalize (vernacular)version.
  • 53. Negative making pattern . The negative is typically restricted to one element in the sentence (often within the verb phrase) The Students were not reading the assignments.
  • 54. If we want add “nobody”, there must be an adjustment to the rule. The indefinite is placed before the verb Nobody was reading the assignments .
  • 55. If the indefinite comes after the verb , the negative may be placed in the verb phrase. The Students weren´t reading anything . The Students were reading nothing.
  • 56. Analogy
  • 57. This notion is extended to refer to existing patterns of language that are used as the basis for bringing other forms into conformity with these patterns.
  • 58. Oxes instead of Oxen
  • 59. Shifts which eliminate exceptions, or irregular forms, are referred to as REGULARIZATION 1-She knowed the woman 2-The oxes pulled the cart 3- Mines is here. 4- That is badder that this.
  • 60. Redundancy reduction
  • 61. A prime example of redundant marking in English is the marker for Third person singular in present tense. She likes the story
  • 62. To omit –s can make differences in form but not necessarily any differences in meaning.
    • She like_ the class.
    • The table is four inche_ long.
    • John_ hat is on the floor
    • The man _ ugly
  • 63. Naturalness
  • 64. For example: The th / θ / think  / θ ɪŋk/ bath 1  /bæ θ / nothing /'nʌ θ ɪŋ/  Tink or Sink
  • 65. Innovation
  • 66. Dialect diversity also comes from linguistic response to physical and social conditions surrounding language and the need to name new and things .
  • 67. Processes available for word creation PROCESS DEFINITION EXAMPLES Compouding Two or more existing words are combined to form a new word. Badmouth Derivation Affixes are added to create new forms or change the part of the speech. Badness Borrowing Words from other languages are incorporated Arroyo ( Spanish) Blending Parts of two words are combined to form a new word Sitcom ( Situatio-comedy)
  • 68. Processes available for word creation PROCESS DEFINITION EXAMPLES Acronyms New words are formed by taking the initial sounds or letters from existing words UN (United Nations) Clipping Word are formed by shortening an existing word Dorm (dormitory) Conversion Words are shifted from one part of speech to another without any change in their form Bottle (as a verb in “she bottled the water”
  • 69. The information of this presentation was taken from Dialects and American English, Wolfram W (1991) and the pictures were taken from http://www.google.cl/imghp?hl=es&tab=wi

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