Why Languages have dialects? Natalia Ramirez Salas
¿ Why is there air?
 
Why are there dialects?
Sociohistorical explanation
What   are the  processes that make  dialects so natural and inevitable? Social   and  Linguistic factors
From the eastern part of central  and southern England From  Scotch-Irish parts  NEW YERSEY AND DELAWARE AREA NEW ENGLAND,...
 
Settlement
 
 
The major dialects of America  English to this day reflect the original sites of settlement with cultural hearths such as ...
Settlement patterns generally take place in several distinct phases:
First Phase.
Second Phase
Third Phase
The first settlers into a given region typically establish a cultural and linguistic area that  persists in time , althoug...
Migration routes
Eg. Pennsylvania There is a line dividing  NORTH DIALECT MIDLAND DIALECT horse  /hɔ:rs/   hoarse  /hɔ:rs / witch  /wɪtʃ/  ...
Physical Factors
 
<ul><li>O ne of the most prominent vernacular dialects of English is found in the southern Appalachian  mountain range, in...
The most effective kind of communication is face-to-face, and when  a group  of speakers does not interact  with another, ...
Language Contact
In the XVII century there was primary influence from American Indian groups  . <ul><li>Moccasin ['mɒkəsɪn]   Raccoon /ræ'k...
In the XVIII century there was primary influence from French  . <ul><li>Bureau  /'bjʊrəʊ /  Prarie  /'preri / </li></ul>
German also gave English words . <ul><li>Kindergarten  /'kɪndərˌgɑ:rtn̩ /  Hambuger /'hæmbɜ:rgər / </li></ul>
From Spanish we can find : <ul><li>Canyon    /'kænjən/  Patio  /'pætiəʊ/  </li></ul>
Suffixes taken from German: -est Songfest Slugfest Gabfest Suffixes taken from French -ee Draftee Enlistee
Economic Ecology
<ul><li>Fishing  Mining  Farming </li></ul>
<ul><li>Metropolitan Areas v/s Rural Areas </li></ul>
<ul><li>Cultural lag </li></ul><ul><li>Retention of older forms of English, such   a-prefix in: </li></ul><ul><li>He was a...
Social Stratification
<ul><li>Some markers of social status differences  </li></ul><ul><li>Double Negation :  </li></ul><ul><li>She ain´t been n...
<ul><li>Some markers of social status differences  </li></ul><ul><li>Irregular verbs forms :  </li></ul><ul><li>She done i...
<ul><li>Some markers of social status differences  </li></ul><ul><li>Comparative forms :  </li></ul><ul><li>More bigger (b...
Communication Networks
 
In other level the particular social network govern people´s day to day conversation.
Group Reference
Teenagers Slang Eg. Just let grab a bite to eat  = Have a quick snack
Do not confuse it with  Ethnic variety such Vernacular Black English They have: A complex array  of grammatical, phonologi...
Character attributes
Ronald Reagan “  Ain´t gonna back down to nobody”
Linguistic explanation
There are higher-order principles of language structure that guide the ways in which the dialects of language will differ ...
English from Elizabethian period  .
The pressure for dialect variation may come from within the system itself Changes can also may originate from contact with...
Although we distinguish the two sources of change, they often work hand in hand as the internal structure of the system ma...
Generalization
Let´s consider the rule of Negation in English in  its more restricted (standard) and its more expanded, generalize (verna...
Negative making pattern .  The negative is typically restricted to one element in the sentence (often within the verb phra...
If we want add “nobody”, there must be an adjustment to the rule. The indefinite is placed before the verb Nobody was read...
If the indefinite comes after the verb , the negative may be  placed in the verb phrase.  The Students weren´t reading any...
Analogy
This notion is extended to refer to existing patterns of language that are used as the basis for bringing other forms into...
Oxes instead of Oxen
Shifts which eliminate exceptions, or irregular forms, are referred to as REGULARIZATION 1-She knowed the woman 2-The oxes...
Redundancy reduction
A prime example of redundant marking in English is the marker for Third person singular in present tense. She likes the st...
To omit –s can make differences in form but not necessarily any differences in meaning. <ul><li>She like_ the class. </li>...
Naturalness
For example:  The  th  / θ / think  / θ ɪŋk/  bath 1  /bæ θ / nothing /'nʌ θ ɪŋ/  Tink or Sink
Innovation
Dialect diversity also comes from linguistic response to physical and social conditions surrounding language and the need ...
Processes available for word creation  PROCESS DEFINITION EXAMPLES Compouding Two or more existing words are combined to f...
Processes available for word creation  PROCESS DEFINITION EXAMPLES Acronyms  New words are formed by taking the initial so...
The information of this presentation was taken from Dialects and American  English, Wolfram W (1991)  and the pictures wer...
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Why languages have__dialects

  1. 1. Why Languages have dialects? Natalia Ramirez Salas
  2. 2. ¿ Why is there air?
  3. 4. Why are there dialects?
  4. 5. Sociohistorical explanation
  5. 6. What are the processes that make dialects so natural and inevitable? Social and Linguistic factors
  6. 7. From the eastern part of central and southern England From Scotch-Irish parts NEW YERSEY AND DELAWARE AREA NEW ENGLAND, UPPER NEW YORK AND PARTS OF APPALACHIA
  7. 9. Settlement
  8. 12. The major dialects of America English to this day reflect the original sites of settlement with cultural hearths such as Boston, Tidewater Virginia, Charleston, south Carolina.
  9. 13. Settlement patterns generally take place in several distinct phases:
  10. 14. First Phase.
  11. 15. Second Phase
  12. 16. Third Phase
  13. 17. The first settlers into a given region typically establish a cultural and linguistic area that persists in time , although the original feature will change in a number of ways and other features may take place.
  14. 18. Migration routes
  15. 19. Eg. Pennsylvania There is a line dividing NORTH DIALECT MIDLAND DIALECT horse  /hɔ:rs/  hoarse  /hɔ:rs / witch  /wɪtʃ/ which 1  /hwɪtʃ / 
  16. 20. Physical Factors
  17. 22. <ul><li>O ne of the most prominent vernacular dialects of English is found in the southern Appalachian mountain range, including West Virginia, western North Carolina and Virginia, eastern Tennessee and Kentucky, and by migratory extension, northwest Arkansas and southern Missouri, where so-called Appalachian English can be found. </li></ul>
  18. 23. The most effective kind of communication is face-to-face, and when a group of speakers does not interact with another, the likelihood of dialect divergence is heightened
  19. 24. Language Contact
  20. 25. In the XVII century there was primary influence from American Indian groups . <ul><li>Moccasin ['mɒkəsɪn]  Raccoon /ræ'ku:n / </li></ul>
  21. 26. In the XVIII century there was primary influence from French . <ul><li>Bureau  /'bjʊrəʊ / Prarie /'preri / </li></ul>
  22. 27. German also gave English words . <ul><li>Kindergarten  /'kɪndərˌgɑ:rtn̩ / Hambuger /'hæmbɜ:rgər / </li></ul>
  23. 28. From Spanish we can find : <ul><li>Canyon   /'kænjən/ Patio /'pætiəʊ/  </li></ul>
  24. 29. Suffixes taken from German: -est Songfest Slugfest Gabfest Suffixes taken from French -ee Draftee Enlistee
  25. 30. Economic Ecology
  26. 31. <ul><li>Fishing Mining Farming </li></ul>
  27. 32. <ul><li>Metropolitan Areas v/s Rural Areas </li></ul>
  28. 33. <ul><li>Cultural lag </li></ul><ul><li>Retention of older forms of English, such a-prefix in: </li></ul><ul><li>He was a-hunting and a- fishing </li></ul><ul><li>/h/ </li></ul><ul><li>Hit´s a nice day out today. </li></ul>
  29. 34. Social Stratification
  30. 35. <ul><li>Some markers of social status differences </li></ul><ul><li>Double Negation : </li></ul><ul><li>She ain´t been nowhere( she hasn´t been anywhere) </li></ul><ul><li>/ </li></ul>
  31. 36. <ul><li>Some markers of social status differences </li></ul><ul><li>Irregular verbs forms : </li></ul><ul><li>She done it (She did it) </li></ul>
  32. 37. <ul><li>Some markers of social status differences </li></ul><ul><li>Comparative forms : </li></ul><ul><li>More bigger (bigger) </li></ul><ul><li>/ </li></ul>
  33. 38. Communication Networks
  34. 40. In other level the particular social network govern people´s day to day conversation.
  35. 41. Group Reference
  36. 42. Teenagers Slang Eg. Just let grab a bite to eat = Have a quick snack
  37. 43. Do not confuse it with Ethnic variety such Vernacular Black English They have: A complex array of grammatical, phonological and lexical structures in its limitation.
  38. 44. Character attributes
  39. 45. Ronald Reagan “ Ain´t gonna back down to nobody”
  40. 46. Linguistic explanation
  41. 47. There are higher-order principles of language structure that guide the ways in which the dialects of language will differ from each other.
  42. 48. English from Elizabethian period .
  43. 49. The pressure for dialect variation may come from within the system itself Changes can also may originate from contact with other language communities. Changes from within (because they take place independent of outside language influences) Changes from outside
  44. 50. Although we distinguish the two sources of change, they often work hand in hand as the internal structure of the system may dictate what items from outside will be adopted and how.
  45. 51. Generalization
  46. 52. Let´s consider the rule of Negation in English in its more restricted (standard) and its more expanded, generalize (vernacular)version.
  47. 53. Negative making pattern . The negative is typically restricted to one element in the sentence (often within the verb phrase) The Students were not reading the assignments.
  48. 54. If we want add “nobody”, there must be an adjustment to the rule. The indefinite is placed before the verb Nobody was reading the assignments .
  49. 55. If the indefinite comes after the verb , the negative may be placed in the verb phrase. The Students weren´t reading anything . The Students were reading nothing.
  50. 56. Analogy
  51. 57. This notion is extended to refer to existing patterns of language that are used as the basis for bringing other forms into conformity with these patterns.
  52. 58. Oxes instead of Oxen
  53. 59. Shifts which eliminate exceptions, or irregular forms, are referred to as REGULARIZATION 1-She knowed the woman 2-The oxes pulled the cart 3- Mines is here. 4- That is badder that this.
  54. 60. Redundancy reduction
  55. 61. A prime example of redundant marking in English is the marker for Third person singular in present tense. She likes the story
  56. 62. To omit –s can make differences in form but not necessarily any differences in meaning. <ul><li>She like_ the class. </li></ul><ul><li>The table is four inche_ long. </li></ul><ul><li>John_ hat is on the floor </li></ul><ul><li>The man _ ugly </li></ul>
  57. 63. Naturalness
  58. 64. For example: The th / θ / think  / θ ɪŋk/ bath 1  /bæ θ / nothing /'nʌ θ ɪŋ/  Tink or Sink
  59. 65. Innovation
  60. 66. Dialect diversity also comes from linguistic response to physical and social conditions surrounding language and the need to name new and things .
  61. 67. Processes available for word creation PROCESS DEFINITION EXAMPLES Compouding Two or more existing words are combined to form a new word. Badmouth Derivation Affixes are added to create new forms or change the part of the speech. Badness Borrowing Words from other languages are incorporated Arroyo ( Spanish) Blending Parts of two words are combined to form a new word Sitcom ( Situatio-comedy)
  62. 68. Processes available for word creation PROCESS DEFINITION EXAMPLES Acronyms New words are formed by taking the initial sounds or letters from existing words UN (United Nations) Clipping Word are formed by shortening an existing word Dorm (dormitory) Conversion Words are shifted from one part of speech to another without any change in their form Bottle (as a verb in “she bottled the water”
  63. 69. The information of this presentation was taken from Dialects and American English, Wolfram W (1991) and the pictures were taken from http://www.google.cl/imghp?hl=es&tab=wi

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