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South africa

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  • 1.  
  • 2. SOUTH AFRICAN LANGUAGES 2001 Language Number of speakers* % of total Afrikaans 5 983 420 13.35% English 3 673 206 8.2% IsiNdebele 711 825 1.59% IsiXhosa 7 907 149 17.64% IsiZulu 10 677 315 23.82% Sesotho sa Leboa 4 208 974 9.39% Sesotho 3 555 192 7.93% Setswana 3 677 010 8.2% SiSwati 1 194 433 2.66% Tshivenda 1 021 761 2.28% Xitsonga 1 992 201 4.44% Other 217 291 0.48% TOTAL 44 819 777 100%
  • 3.  
  • 4.
    • Nonrhotic.
    • They may have final postvocalic /r/ and a medial /r/ as trill or tap. It has observed an initial obstruent (fricative) /r/, in such phrases as
    •   red ,  red rose
  • 5.
    • Variations in  ACCENT  depend usually on education, social class, domicile (rural or urban), and accommodation to speakers of varieties 
    • the vowel /ɪ/  as in bit or   pin   becomes in  SCHWA / ə/
  • 6.
    • Sentence initiators such as affirmative  no :
    • e.g.
    • How are you?—No ,  I'm fine
    • (it comes probably from Dutch/Afrikaans)
  • 7.
    •   The suffixed phrase  and them .
    • e.g.
    •   We saw Billy and them in town  (‘Billy and the others’)
  • 8.
    • Extensive use of Afrikaans ‘ modal adverbs
    • E.g.
    •   sommer  (‘just’) in
    •   We were sommer standing around .
  • 9.
    • The source for distinctively South African words are: Dutch/Afrikaans 50%, English 30%, African languages 10%, other languages 10%. The most recent years show an increasing proportion of items of Afrikaner :  boer ,  trek , and  veld ,
  • 10.  

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