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  • 1. Chicano English
  • 2. Description
    • It is a dialect of American English used by Mexican-
    • Americans or Chicanos.
    • It is a variety of English that is influenced by Spanish and it
    • has low prestige in most circles.
    • “ An ethnic dialect that children acquire as they acquire
    • English in their ethnic social setting during their language
    • acquisition period” (Santa Ana 1993).
    • Differences from other varieties of English are due to:
    • interference from Spanish, learning errors that have become
    • established, contact with other dialects of English and
    • independent developments.
  • 3. Phonological Features
    • Consonant Variations
    • The devoicing of  [z]  in all environments
    • Examples:  [isi]  for  easy  and  [wʌs]  for  was .
    • The devoicing of  [v]  in word-final position
    • Examples:  [lʌf]  for  love ,  [hɛf]  for  have ,
    • and  [waɪfs]  for  wives .
    • Chicano speakers may pronounce  /b/  instead of  /v/ :
    • Examples:  very   [ˈbɛɹi] ,  invite   [iˈbaɪt] .
  • 4.
    • Absence of dental fricatives so that  think  may be pronounced  [ˈtiŋk] ,  [ˈfiŋk]  or  [ˈsiŋk] .
    • Poor distinction between  /j/  and  /dʒ/  so that  job  may sound like  yob  and  yes  may sound like  jes .
    • Poor distinction of nasals in the syllable coda so that  seen  and  seem  are pronounced alike.
    • /tʃ/  merges with  /ʃ/  so  sheep  and  cheap  are pronounced alike. A inversion may also happen, causing  sheep  to sound like /tʃip/ and  cheap  to sound like /ʃip/.
  • 5. Vowels Variations
    • Chicano English speakers may
    • merge  [æ]  and  [e] , or invert those, causing bed
    • to sound like bad and bad to sound like bed, or
    • causing both to sound the same.
    • e.g. /ɪŋ/ sounds like /iŋ/: sink sounds like seenk,
    • sing sounds like see.
  • 6. Stress Patterns In Chicano English, stress is often placed on one syllable prefixes as well as roots. The stress on one syllable prefixes and roots is elongated. Examples: AmE CE Today 'today decide 'decide refuse 'refuse Repeat 'repeat resist 'resist 1
  • 7. Final Consonant Deletion
    • Only certain consonants occur at the end of
    • words. All other single consonants in English
    • would thus be unfamiliar to Chicano English
    • speakers in this environment.
    • e.g. Most  becomes [moʊs];  Felt  becomes
    • [fɛl],  Start  becomes [stɑr].
  • 8. Pluralization The plural marker /s/ is dropped when forming a separate syllable. Ex: five cent -> five cents different food -> different foods kiss-ditch -> kiss-ditches
  • 9. Past Tense Marker In Chicano English the /-ed/ suffix which forms the past tense marker is not produced due to the phonological rules that prohibit the clustering of consonants at the end of words. Ex: Yesterday, he start selling newspapers.
  • 10. Morphological Features
    • Chicano English has many features related to morphology that show the influence of
    • Spanish.
    • Vocabulary includes words like  simon  meaning
    • "yes",  firme  meaning "good",  flika meaning
    • "picture",  vato  meaning "guy", and  feria  meaning
    • "money".
  • 11. Substitution of the negative element “not” with “until” “ Not” is omitted and “ until” can stand in as the negative element. ex: He’ll be home until seven o’clock
  • 12. Verb To Be In Chicano English the verb to be is often not present. AmE CE And they are too old And they… too old. This is a school. This… a school. She is carrying her. She… carrying her. He is sleeping with a bear. He… sleeping with a bear.
  • 13. Multiple Negation
    • In Chicano English d ouble and multiple negatives are evident.
    • Ex:
    • I didn’t have no birthday party or nothing.
    • I don’t know no stories.
    • The little kid don’t have no shoes of his own.
  • 14. Embedded Question Inversion
    • Ex:
    • I ask myself what I would do?
    • Where is the bank could you please tell me?
    • Where did Carlos go last night can you tell me?