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Error analysis learning articles and prepositions among secondary
Error analysis learning articles and prepositions among secondary
Error analysis learning articles and prepositions among secondary
Error analysis learning articles and prepositions among secondary
Error analysis learning articles and prepositions among secondary
Error analysis learning articles and prepositions among secondary
Error analysis learning articles and prepositions among secondary
Error analysis learning articles and prepositions among secondary
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Error analysis learning articles and prepositions among secondary

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  • 1. ijcrb.webs.com APRIL 2011 INTERDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF CONTEMPORARY RESEARCH IN BUSINESS VOL 2, N O 12Peteraf, M.A. (1993), The cornerstone of competitive advantage: a resource-based view , Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 14 No. 3, pp. 57-83.Porter, M. (1985), Competitive Advantage, The Free Press, New York.Reed, R., & DeFilippi, R. J. (1990),. Causal ambiguity, barriers to imitation, and sustainable competitive advantage , Academy of Management Review, Vol.15, pp. 88-117.Ring, P.S.and Van de Ven, A.H. (1994), "Developmental processes of cooperative inter organizational relationships", Academy of Management Review, Vol. 19, pp.90-118.Rumelt, R. P. (1984), Toward a Strategic Theory of the Firm: In Competitive Strategic Management. Robert Lamb. ed. Prentice Hall. Englewood Cliffs. NJ.Sanchez, R., Heene, A. and Thomas, H. (1996), Dynamics of Competence-based Competition: Theory and Practice in the New Strategic Management, Elsevier Science Ltd, Oxford. ols ToSegev, Eli (1987), "Strategy, strategy making, and performance - an empirical investigation," Management Science, Vol.33, pp. 258-269. d an erSCOw, C. C. and Donald C. H. (1980), "Measuring organizational strategies: some theoretical rit and methodological problems," Academy of Management Review, Vol. 5, pp. 527-538. W eeTeece, D.J., Pisano, G. and Shuen, A. (1997), Dynamic capabilities and strategic management , Fr Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 18 No. 7, pp. 509-533. ith rwUddin, A. M. (2001), Globalisation and Competitiveness of Bangladesh s Small scale ito EdZahra, S. A. (1987), "Corporate strategic types, environmental perceptions, managerial philosophies, and goals: an empirical study," Akron Business and Economic Review, Vol. 18, DF pp. 64-77. ll P FiZajac, E.J. (1993), From transactional cost to transactional value analysis: implications for the PD study of inter organizational strategies , Journal of Management Studies, Vol. 30, pp.131-45. Error Analysis: Learning Articles and Prepositions among Secondary School Students in Pakistan Nasir Ahmad Ph.D (Scholar). Ph.D Scholar, Foundation University IslamabadCOPY RIGHT © 2011 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research 385
  • 2. ijcrb.webs.com APRIL 2011 INTERDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF CONTEMPORARY RESEARCH IN BUSINESS VOL 2, N O 12 Dr.Maqsud Alam Bukhari Principal Foundation University Islamabad Shafqat Hussain Ph.D Scholar, Foundation University IslamabadAbstractThe present study was conducted to investigate the errors of Pakistani school students inprepositions and articles. The main focus of the study was to analyse the errors of students inarticles and prepositions. The sample of the study was comprised of 100 randomly selectedstudents from government secondary schools of Khyber Pukhtunkhwa. The instrument used inthe study was the essays written by 8th class students in their annual examination. The annualexamination papers in the subject of English of the sample population were collected from theschool record. The errors committed by the students in the use of preposition and articles wereidentified and counted in frequencies while writing essays on different topics. The main findingsof the study were; Secondary school students faced more difficulties in learning prepositions as lscompare to articles; Secondary school students faced more difficulties in learning prepositions of o Totime; Secondary school students were confused while using preposition in their writings;Secondary school students faced more difficulties in learning indefinite articles and omit articles d anin their writings.Key words: Error Analysis, Articles, Prepositions er rit WINTRODUCTION ee Fr Learning a second is a challenging experience for learners. In the process of learning a ithsecond learning students makes errors or mistakes. Hendrickson (1980) observed that it is rwvirtually impossible to avoid errors when learning any new skills, particularly when leaning a itoforeign language. It means errors are natural for learners and it is important for second language Edlearners as cadling (2001) claims that learner s errors are potentially important for understanding DFof how the second language is acquired. Olasehide (2002) also maintains that learner s errors are ll Punavoidable and necessary for learning. So errors are not bad but it is a proof that learning is Fitaking place as Broughton (1994) argued that the errors he make are to be seen as a sign that PDlearning is taking place. Error analysis is significant for learners and teachers as Hasyin (2002) observed that errors are advantageous for both learners and teachers. It provides information to the teacherson student s errors. This helps the teachers in three ways, firstly to correct their errors, secondlyto improve their teaching and thirdly to focus on those area that need reinforcement. Coder(1967) described that analysis of learner s errors provide insight into the innate nature oflearner s learning system and process of language teaching.___________________________________________________________*The authors are a PhD scholar (Education) at Foundation University Islamabad **The writer is Dean/Chairman, Foundation University Islamabad English is a popular language in Pakistan and a gateway to success and better careeroption. It is the second compulsory language in Pakistan and it is taught as a compulsory subjectfrom class 1 to graduate level. Teaching English as a second language is a difficult task asWilkins (1972) pointed out that teaching English to the students from different background arealmost universally difficult for learners.COPY RIGHT © 2011 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research 386
  • 3. ijcrb.webs.com APRIL 2011 INTERDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF CONTEMPORARY RESEARCH IN BUSINESS VOL 2, N O 12 The students in Pakistan commit errors while learning English. As Rahman (1999)pointed that Pakistan is perhaps the most backward country of south Asia in the field oflinguistics. Hence there is a need to analyse the errors of students to provide help to those wholearn and teach English as second language. This study was designed to investigate the errors of Pakistani school students inprepositions and articles. This will provide an insight and means to second language teachers andlearners to recognize the importance of error analysis in English as a second language.METHOD The sample of the study was comprised of 100 randomly selected students fromgovernment secondary schools of Khyber Pukhtunkhwa. The instrument used in the study wasthe essays written by 8th class students in their annual examination. The annual examinationpapers in the subject of English of the sample population were collected from the school record.The errors committed by the students in the use of preposition and articles were identified andcounted in frequencies while writing essays on different topics.RESULTS lsTable 1 oTotal number and percentage (%) of errors among secondary school students on the measure of Toprepositions and articles d anVariables No. of Errors percentage (%) er ritPrepositions 201 56.94 W eeArticles 153 43.06 Fr ith Total 353 100 rw ito Ed DF ll PTable 1 show that the total no. of errors made by secondary school students was 353. Out of Fiwhich (201) 56.94 % was observed in prepositions and (152) 43.06 % was observed in articles. PDThis shows that secondary school students faced more difficulties in learning prepositions ascompare to articles.Table 2 Percentage (%) of errors among secondary school students on the measure ofprepositionsTypes of prepositions No. of Errors percentage (%)COPY RIGHT © 2011 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research 387
  • 4. ijcrb.webs.com APRIL 2011 INTERDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF CONTEMPORARY RESEARCH IN BUSINESS VOL 2, N O 12Prepositions of time 115 57.21Prepositions of place 41 20.39Prepositions of direction 45 22.39 Total 201 100Table 2 shows that the total no. of errors made by secondary school students on the measure ofprepositions was 201. Out of which (115) 57.21 % was observed in preposition of time, (41)20.39% was observed in preposition of place and (45) 22.39 % was observed in preposition ofdirection. This shows that secondary school students faced more difficulties in learningprepositions of time. o ls ToTable 3: Percentage (%) of types of errors among secondary school students on the measure ofprepositions d anTypes of errors No. of Errors er percentage (%) rit WOmission 43 21.39 ee Fr ithInsertion 17 8.46 rwConfusion 141 71.15 ito Ed Total 201 100 DF ll P FiTable 3 shows that the total no. of errors made by secondary school students on the measure of PDprepositions was 201. It was observed that (43) 21.39 % was omission errors, (17) 8.46 % wasinsertion errors and (141) 71.15 % was confusion errors. This shows that secondary schoolstudents were confused while using preposition in their writings.Table 4: Percentage (%) of errors among secondary school students on the measure of articlesTypes of articles No. of Errors percentage (%)COPY RIGHT © 2011 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research 388
  • 5. ijcrb.webs.com APRIL 2011 INTERDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF CONTEMPORARY RESEARCH IN BUSINESS VOL 2, N O 12Indefinite articles 127 83.56Definite articles 25 16.44 Total 152 100Table 2 shows that the total no. of errors made by secondary school students on the measure ofarticles was 152. Out of which (127) 83.56 % was observes in indefinite articles and (25) 16.44% was observed in definite articles. This shows that secondary school students faced moredifficulties in learning indefinite articles.Table 5: Percentage (%) of types of errors among secondary school students on the measure ofarticles lsTypes of errors No. of Errors percentage (%) o To dOmission 80 52.63 anInsertion 29 er 19.08 rit W eeConfusion 43 28.29 Fr ith Total 152 100 rw ito EdTable 5 shows that the total no. of errors made by secondary school students on the measure of DFarticles was 152. It was observed that (80) 52.63 % was omission errors, (29) 19.08 % wasinsertion errors and (43) 28.29 % was confusion errors. This shows that secondary school ll Pstudents omit articles in their writings. Fi DISCUSSION PDThis study was designed to investigate the errors of Pakistani school students in prepositions andarticles. The main findings of the study were; the secondary school students faced moredifficulties in learning prepositions as compare to articles, the secondary school students facedmore difficulties in learning prepositions of time and were confused while using preposition intheir writings. The secondary school students faced more difficulties in learning indefinite articlesand they omit articles in their writings.The findings of the study that the secondary school students faced more difficulties in learningprepositions and the secondary school students faced more difficulties in learning prepositions oftime and were confused while using preposition in their writings. This shows that prepositionswere not properly taught when they were first introduced and there are no rules to govern theirusage. These finding was supported by Cele-Murcia (2001). She observed that non nativespeakers of English tend to have three types of errors with prepositions: choosing the wrongpreposition, omitting a needed preposition and using an extra preposition where one is notneeded. However, onike(2007) observed that The overall students performance in the use ofpreposition was rated good and this indicates students good knowledge of prepositional rules.COPY RIGHT © 2011 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research 389
  • 6. ijcrb.webs.com APRIL 2011 INTERDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF CONTEMPORARY RESEARCH IN BUSINESS VOL 2, N O 12The finding of the study that secondary school students faced difficulties in learningarticles because their native language lacks the system of articles. This finding was supported byKimizuka (1967). He observed that article usage is one of the greatest problems for the Japaneselearner is vividly revealed in the high frequency of mistakes, the highest of all the structural items. RECOMMENDATIONS In the light of the findings of the study the following recommendation were made: i. All the three types of preposition should be taught systematically. ii. The articles should also be taught systematically. iii. The teacher should improve their teaching technique by preparing systematic material. iv. The learning of prepositions and articles should be sufficiently re-inforced. ols To d an er rit W ee Fr ith rw ito Ed DF ll P Fi PD COPY RIGHT © 2011 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research 390
  • 7. ijcrb.webs.com APRIL 2011 INTERDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF CONTEMPORARY RESEARCH IN BUSINESS VOL 2, N O 12REFERENCESBroughton, Geoffrey. Christopher Brumfit., Roger Flavell., Peter Hill., & Anita Pincas. (1994). Teaching English as foreign language. New York. Routledge Kegan Paul limited.Cadling, R.B. (2001). Vocabulary and Language Teaching. New York. Longman Inc.Corder, S. P. 1967. "The significance of learners errors . International Review of Applied Linguistics 5(4) 161-169Hasyim, sunardi (2002). Error Analysis in the teaching of English. A Biannual Publication on the Study of Language and Literature (4)1, 62-74. Retrieved fromhttp://puslit2.petra.ac.id/ejournal/index.php/ing/article/view/15485Kimizuka, S.(1967).Teaching English to Japanese. Los Angles: Anchor Enterprises. lsOnike, Rahaman..(2007). Analysis of Errors of Preposition In the Learners Use of English In o Second Language Situation. Retrieved from http://searchwarp.com/swa129884.htm To d anOlasehinde M.O. (2002): Error Analysis and Remedial Pedagogy in Babatunde S.T. and D.S er Adeyanju (eds) Language, Meaning and Society: Ilorin, Itaytee Press and Publishing Co. rit (Nigeria) W eeWilkins, D.A.(1972). Linguistics in Linguage Teaching. The MIT press. Massachusetts. Fr ithRehman, Tariq.(2002). Language, Ideology and power: Language learning among the Muslims rw of Pakistan and north India. Karachi. Oxford university press. ito Ed DF ll P Fi PDCOPY RIGHT © 2011 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research 391
  • 8. ijcrb.webs.com APRIL 2011 INTERDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF CONTEMPORARY RESEARCH IN BUSINESS VOL 2, N O 12 Consumer Brand Choice in a No-brand Awareness situation of low involvement Products Mohammad Ismail Soomro Assistant Professor Department of Business Administration, Shah Abdul Latif University, Khairpur, Pakistan Muhammad Masihullah Jatoi Assistant Professor (Corresponding author) Department of Business Administration, Shah Abdul Latif University, Khairpur, Pakistan Dr. Rahman Gul Gilal ls Assistant Professor o To Department of Business Administration, Shah Abdul Latif University, Khairpur, Pakistan d anAbstract er ritThe purpose of this paper was to examine and ranking the dominating factors influencing Wconsumers purchasing decision in an un-awareness situation to buy a low involvement product. ee204 undergraduate students or subjects were selected by convenient sampling procedure; those Fr ithparticipated in experiment on two categories of products (pen, and sun-block) to identify the rwdominant reason to buy any selected brand. Non-parametric tests of Friedman and Kendall.W s itorank tests were applied. The frequency tables and mean ranks of each variable showing the Edpercentage of the respondents who rank the variable as first, second, and third reason to purchase DFa brand. The model identified that among from all of the six variables; the quality of a brand is ll Pthe first and dominant factor to choose a brand, while price and packaging are considered assecond and third reasons to make choice for a brand respectively. Fi PDKey words: Low Involvement, Un-Awareness, Buying Decision, Quality, Price, and Packaging.1. INTRODUCTIONThere are numerous reasons to buy a brand in a given situation, but our objective is only to studythe behavior of the consumer regarding his or her purchasing attitude by examining thesignificant and dominant reasons of buying a particular product in a given situation.A lot of controversies are arising while looking into the literature regarding the consumer choicedecision , whether the decisions are based on some attributes of the product like quality, price,brand credibility, or on the basis of consumer attitude and intention, advertising, groupinfluences, innovations, and brand loyalty, or the decisions are made on the ground of brandawareness.COPY RIGHT © 2011 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research 392

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