Mental health


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Mental health

  1. 1. Mental Health By Dr. M.Nasar Sayeed Khan Associate Professor of Psychiatry & Head Department of Psychiatry SIMS & Services Hospital, Lahore E-mail: phone: 5883382-7847696, 7845521
  2. 2.    Questions: What in your opinion are mental disorders, diseases, illnesses??
  3. 3.    Questions: Do you think only mad people go to see psychiatrists and psychologists??
  4. 4.  Are “mental” diseases brain diseases?  Where in the brain might mental disorders originate?  What in the brain might be at fault?  When might such abnormalities begin?  Why do the brain dysfunction(s) occur?
  5. 5. Anatomy of the mind Cognition ( Perception and memory) Affect ( feeling and expression) Conation (Thinking and action) Neocortex and hippocampus Amygdala-hippocampus and cingulate Prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia
  6. 6. Neurochemical systems  Norepinephrine  Dopamine  Serotonin  Acetylcholine  GABA  Glutamate • Flight/Fight/Fright • Pleasure seeking/executive • Appetitive functions • Memory, arousal • Inhibitory • Excitatory
  7. 7. Locus Coeruleus NE Local circuit neurones GABA Palpitation Dilated pupils Tremors Anxiety Neuroanatomy of anxiety: Too much Noradrenaline, or too little GABA?
  8. 8. Stages of brain development PostnatalPrenatal 1st se. 2nd se. 3rd se. Neurogenesis Neural differentiation Neural migration Synaptogenesis Synaptic pruning Myelination
  9. 9. A unified model of mental disease  Etiology  Brain structure/  physiology  Brain chemistry  Symptoms  Disease  Genes, Environment  e.g. altered association cortex circuits/hypofrontality  Altered Dopamine regulation  Altered cognition/ perception/thinking  Schizophrenia
  10. 10. Behind every crooked thought must be a crooked neural circuit. Eminent neuroscientist.
  11. 11.    Questions: What is the nature and nurture in your opinion???
  12. 12. Emotion  Adaptive value  Signaling aggression is safer than acting it out.  James-Lange Theory  Physiological reactions are interpreted, producing emotional response.  Cannon-Bard Theory  Interpretation and physiological reactions occur in parallel.
  13. 13. Fear  The amygdala plays an important role in conditioned fear.  AmygdaledectomyAmygdaledectomy reduces violence in humans, but it also comes with some side effects (e.g., blunt emotions).
  14. 14.    Question: What is Psychiatry ?
  15. 15. The functions of brain  Parallel those of Psych. They can be defined as:  Human soul  The intellect  Psychiatry  The mind considered as a subjectively perceived, functional entity, based ultimately upon physical process but with complex processes of its own.  It governs the total organism and its interaction with the environment.
  16. 16.   Environment Cognition Emotion Physiology Behaviour
  17. 17. Intervention strategies  Formulation  Normalisation  Working with metacognitive beliefs  Generating possibilities for intrusions  Safety behaviours  Selective attention  Activity scheduling  Relapse prevention
  18. 18. intrusion from low level processing units (cognitive, body state, emotional or external information) interpretation of intrusion (culturally unacceptable) faulty self & social knowledge (procedural and declarative beliefs) experience cognitive and behavioural responses mood & physiology (including safety behaviours, selective attention and thought control strategies)
  19. 19.  
  20. 20. 1. EMOTIONAL BLOCKS  Guilt, depression, anger.  Worry, anxiety.  Comfort with status quo.  Boredom.  Excess energy: “my mind is too busy.”  Intolerance of ambiguity.  Fear of success. Fear of failure.  Need for perfection.  Excessive zeal, ego involvement.  Disinterest.  Impatience, frustration.  Seriousness.  Not invented here.
  21. 21. 2. SOCIAL BLOCKS  Fear of rejection.  Need to please others (friends, social groups, management).  Unwillingness to collaborate  Fear of confrontation.  Lack of confidence in personal creativity – “others are more creative.”
  22. 22. 3. PERSONAL PERCEPTIONS  Leader/victim. (Do you have control?)  Confidence & Trust. (How you see the world.)  Talent/Contribution. (Do you have impact on world around you?)  Strength of Expectations. (Must everything turn out exactly as you expect?)  Personal value. (Do you feel you have to constantly earn esteem of others?)  Skills and Specialization. (Sometimes you “know too much.”)
  23. 23. REMOVING BLOCKS:  Envision yourself feeling differently.  Use that vision to become bigger than the blocking emotions.  Encourage your feelings to emerge.  Nurture positive thoughts – give yourself positive encouragement.
  24. 24. Psychologically healthy people  Feel good about themselves  Feel comfortable with other people  Control tension and anxiety  Able to meet the demands of life  Curb hate and guilt  Maintain a positive outlook  Enrich lives of others  Appreciate nature  Cherish the things that make them happy
  25. 25.    Question: Do you think, the behavior abnormalities, the emotional disturbance, anxiety and depression are illnesses and to be treated like an illness??
  26. 26. MOMENTS IN LIFE   There are moments in life when you miss someone so much that you just want to pick them from your dreams and hug them for real!
  27. 27.   When the door of happiness closes, another opens; But often times we look so long at the Closed door that we don't see the one, Which has been opened for us  
  28. 28. Don't go for looks; they can deceive. Don't go for wealth; even that fades away. Go for someone who makes you smile, Because it takes only a smile to Make a dark day seem bright. Find the one that makes your heart smile.  
  29. 29.   Dream what you want to dream; Go where you want to go; Be what you want to be, Because you have only one life And one chance to do all the things You want to do.
  30. 30. May you have enough happiness to make you sweet Enough trials to make you strong, Enough sorrow to keep you human and Enough hope to make you happy.
  31. 31. The happiest of people don't necessarily Have the best of everything; They just make the most of Everything that comes along their way.
  32. 32.   The brightest future will always Be based on a forgotten past; You can't go forward in life until You let go of your past failures and heartaches.
  33. 33. When you were born, you were crying And everyone around you was smiling. Live your life so at the end, You’re the one who is smiling and everyone Around you is crying.
  34. 34.   Please give this message to those people Who mean something to you (I JUST DID); To those who have touched your life in one way or another; To those who make you smile when you really need it; To those who make you see the Brighter side of things when you are really down; To those whose friendship you appreciate; To those who are so meaningful in your life.
  35. 35. Don't count the years - count the memories!
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