Supervisors: Prof. Claire FirthDr. Jaroslav MillerStudent: Narine Hakobyan
Muslims in Europe: Clash of Civilizations?Samuel Huntington (1993) Foreign Affairs Magazine´The great divisions among humankind and the dominating source of conflict will be cultural.Clashes between Cultures define geopolitical conflicts or political/ideological wars replacedby cultureFrancis VS Samuel The End VS Clash ofFukuyama Huntington of History CivilizationsThesis argument: Whether Huntington’s theory is correct within the specific context of Muslimimmigration to Europe.
Huntington´s assumptionsDecline of Christianity vs Rise of IslamIslam-threat for the WestImmigration change demographicsIslam´s bloody bordersEuropean antipathy towards Muslims- a clash ofcivilizations ?
Critique of ´´Clash of Civilizations´´Incompatability of islamic and western civilizations isnot about democracy,but sexAli Mazrui three fault linesFactual fallacy, Temporal fallacy, conceptualPaul Berman criticismAmartya Sen
Alternative approaches Francis Fukuyama -Liberal demoracy ideologyDialogue among civilizations -Giandomenicco PiccoWestern and Islamic civilizations are not in conflictAlliance of Civilizations-Jose Zapatero, Recep TayyipErdogan
Historical Interaction between the European and MuslimCivilizations within EuropeReconquista 8-13Crusades 11-13Principal Nature of conflicts-ReligiousBenign interaction:cultural,scientific, geo-political spherestrade and cultural exchangespolitical alliancesmillet-religious concept
Immigration Identities and Value ConflictsThe modeate Muslim-Tariq Ramadan Euro-Islam-Islam compatible in EU if adapted in its context One can be both a Muslim and a European Islam nothing to do with its culture of origin- culture and religion different There is no ´´Us´´ versus ´´Them´´Propagator of Euro-Islam- Bassam Tibi Islam should not be reformed, but WesternisedAyaan Hirsi Ali-an apostate of Islam Advocate of total assimilation through rejecting Islam
Muslims in GermanyImmigre 1950-60ss2010 -3.5 Million MuslimsIslam second largest religionAnti-Immigration partiesGerman Republican party(RED)German People´s Union(DVV)National Democaratic party (NPD)
Thilo Sarrazin anti-Muslim Ideology ´´Germany abolishes itself´´(2010) Muslims - economic and cultural threat to Germany Western Assimilation, not Integration, Language and host culture adaptation Islam incompatible in Europe-´´Little-headscarf girls´´ Muslim resisstance to intermarriages-fear of assimilation? Contra -Muslim women clothing and headdress Muslim-inferior and lacking intellectThere exists a clash between civilizations.
Angela Merkel-Islam a part of Europe?German identity-Judeo-Christian memoryMulti-culti failure in GermanyImmigrants to obey the local lawsImmigrants to be integrated , not accomodatedIntegration not to be limited to cultural assimilationGermany´s integration is not forced assimilation
Cem Ozdemir-Euro-TurkPro-Integration, pro-EuropeanSpirit of linguistic and cultural adaptabilitiesAcculturation-respect of differencesAssimilation through relinquishment of foreign identityRightous interpretation of Islam in accordance with EU values
Muslims in Netherlands Muslim Immigre 1980-1990 Dutch -more socially conservative Social inclusion and acculturation -part of Multicultural Europe Linguistic adaptability of immigrants in the host populationDutch anti-Muslim Parties Centre Democrats –either repatriation or assimilation LPF (‘Pim Fortuyn List) –closing borders for Muslim immigration Party for Freedom(PVV)Geert Wilders- either assimilation or deportation
Applicability of the Clash of Civilizations Paradigm Do civilizations differ?e.g. christians, atheists and secularists share Western Civilization (ancient Greeceand Rome, the Middle Ages,the Enlightenment) and Sunni and Shi’a, Sufi, Druze,Alawite-Islamic civilization (the Abbassids, the Ottoman Empire) Are they in conflict?EU value upon free speech versus Islamic Lese majeste concerning MohammedWestern Monogamy vs Islamic PolygamyFree style clothing vs Women headdressGreatest inapplicability- Sharia law conflict
Integration of Muslim ImmigrantsIntegration-Muslim immigrants are not required to totally relinquish theiroriginal identities but rather to adapt and blend those identities with the newidentity and culture of the European country to which they immigrate.Assimilation, by contrast, requires abandonment of the original Identity andthe adoption of the new identity. This entails little or no compromise by thehost population and places culture as a requirement for citizenship.
Contrasting points?Serbia, Greece and Austria-Christian identityHostility towards Muslim immigrants and Islam derives more directly from historical and recentmemories of wars with Muslims (e.g. – Austrian opposition to Turkish EU membership and the‘gates of Vienna’ dictum).Islam contradicts the Christian faith?Geert Wilders-agnostic, Ayaan Hirsi Ali -atheist, Thilo Sarrazin’s religious beliefs – unknown,whereas Marine le Pen-- Roman Catholic.Yet all believe that Muslim immigrants should be required to conform to ‘Western’culture.
Assimilation of immigrants EU lifestyle contradicts the Islamic values and culture total abandonment of the Islamic identity in favour of European identity E.g forbids Muslim men from marrying non-Muslim women and Muslim women from marrying men who were not bornMuslims. Apostates condemned to hell and Muslims are said to have a duty to kill apostates (e.g. – the Khomeini fatwa against SalmanRushdie or the case of Abdul Rahman, an Afghan convert to Christianity, who was disowned by his parents and reported by hisown family to the police and sentenced to death for apostasy in 2006 but later granted asylum by Italy. Inter-marriage, as noted by Sarrazin, is one of the key hallmarks of assimilation and is one which Muslims have particulardifficulty accepting. anti-Muslim prejudice, Muslim poverty, Muslim failures to learn the host language and culture and generally the ghettoisationof Muslim immigrant communities (e.g. – the banlieues in France or the Turkish ghettos in Germany). Ayaan Hirsi Ali apostate This reinforces the sense of Muslims being under pressure or siege, which makes them less willing to even integrate – let alone assimilate. This leads to a vicious cycle in which the host population perceives Muslims more negatively for their demands for accommodation. Muslims tend to seek a physical presence in Europe but no accommodation with European society. Tibi argues that racism is a European invention, and that Europeans must overcome what he calls "Euro-arrogance" andxenophobia to integrate immigrants. it requires Muslims to renounce all of their original identity that is based upon Islam. Someone who wears the hijab, goes to pray in a mosque, pays the zakat or keeps a Qu’ran has clearly not assimilated. Muslims who refuse to inter-marry with non-Muslims cannot be ‘Europeans’. In short, Muslims who remain Muslims culturally cannot be Europeans.