Objective of this course... To understand the effects of the impacts of the modern human society upon the environment we live in Issues that effect the managers involving Networking or Politics Business itself, the projects, or the programs Resources like natural resources, facilities, money etc To explore ways to reduce our environmental footprint in day to day activities
What is Environmental Management It is the management of All the components of biological, physical and chemical in both biotic (living) and abiotic (non- living) The interaction of social, cultural, and economic environment with the bio-physical environment.
Why do we need to study thiscourse? We have just one planet which can sustain life and not 9 The resources are limited Space on earth Non-renewable energy Natural resources The environment is depreciating in life sustaining capabilities at an ever increasing pace. At this rate, the day is not far when we reach a point of no return and face the wrath of global climatic change We need to understand our responsibility towards the environment and adopt an environment friendly system of working
Crowded World population in Year 1800 – 1 billion Year 1922 – 2 billion Year 2000 – 6 billion Year 2050 – 9 billion (estimated) The population has & will increase due to Health care Disease Eradication Economic development World population today is around 6.7 billion and will increase by 2.5 billion in 43 years – UN Population report dated 13 May 2007
Crowded The maximum growth will happen in the lesser developed countries as their economies grow from 5.4 billion in 2007 to 7.9 billion in 2050 Developed countries population will remain more or less stable and shall hover around 1.2 billion Some facts Year 1800 – London was the largest city with pop. 1 million Year 1900 – 111 cities with pop. 1 million Year 1995 – 300 cities with pop. 1 million 5 cities with pop. over 10 million in 1975 14 cities with pop. over 10 million in 1995 26 cities with pop. over 10 million in 2015 (estimated) – UN pop. Fund statistics Mumbai has a pop. of over 19 million
What are the effects of Crowding Loss of arable land Over fishing Water shortage Air & water pollution Stress on cities infrastructure Per capita decrease in facilities like health care By 2030 number of cities dwellers expected to rise to 5 billion – Associated Press 27/06/2007 These increases will happen more in smaller cities than in the larger ones around 45% growth in pop. Terrorism will no longer be a problem, demographics will
Flat Personal computer invented in around 1975. By 1977 PC were being mass produced PC enabled users to become authors of their own content Then came the Internet, WWW & Web browser Software and transmission protocols started flattening the world by enabling outsourcing Geopolitical flatteners are the fall of Berlin Wall on Oct 03, 1990 & collapse of communist Soviet Union These factors made the world seamless making the world entirely flat.
Flat 200 million people improved their economic conditions in 1980’s and 1990’s in China and India, raising them from poverty 10 of millions added to the middle class This created more demand for products like cell phones, computers, gas stoves, refrigerators etc These products created demand for raw materials and led to increase of green houses gases (GHG) either during production, usage or upon discarding
Light Bulb Example In the next 12 years we shall have another 1 billion people Now, if we give each of these people a 60 W incandescent light bulb The weight of individual light bulb is negligible, but 1 billion light bulbs will weigh around 20000 metric tonnes If we were to turn these light bulbs ON, all at one time for 4 hours a day, we would need 10000 MW of electricity which would need 20, 500 MW power plants. If these power plants are coal fired, imagine the amount of GHG emitted
Hot The global average temperatures have increased by 0.8C vis-à-vis 1750s It all started with the industrial revolution in late 1700s when we went from manual or horse power to machine power, from agricultural to manufacturing societies Industrial revolution was the revolution of energy Steam engine –converted the chemical energy of coal/wood to mechanical energy of industrial machinery Eventually coal was started being preferred for wood as it generated twice as much energy as the same weight of food. This slowed down deforestation
Hot Coal was used for Industrial process Metallurgy Heating building Power steam engines Crude oil was commercially exploited in 1800s where is first replaced whale oil used for lighting lamps and then for heating, manufacturing and fuel for engines. In short, man needed these sources of energy for Light Heat Motive power, or Electricity
Transportation Revolution Early 20th century saw a “Transportation Revolution” - from the internal combustion engine The first gasoline powered automobile was made in 1885 First mass produced automobile was the Old’s Mobile in 1902 by Ransom E. Olds. It was Henry Ford in 1896 who started working on an assembly line. The Ford’s T-Mobile which first rolled out in 1908 and by 1927 when it stopped production 18 millions cars had rolled out of the assembly line
Hot These cars, produced a lot of CO2 and required a lot of crude, iron steel & rubber which further emitted more GHG during their production. This triggered industrialisation and which resulted in urbanisation and suburbanisation We had now been sucked into a vicious cycle of energy dependency which produced lot of emissions and caused a lot of harm to the environment “We build an inefficient system with great efficiency” Soon the entire world copied America and Europe and followed the path of self destruction
Fuels Fuels from Hell Coal Oil Natural gas Fuels from Heaven Wind Hydro Solar Tidal Biomass
The Green House Effect Without GHG the earth’s average temperature is estimated to be 15C cooler. A 5-6 C drop in temperature brings in an Ice-age Composition of Earth’s atmosphere has remained more or less constant for over 20 million years But in the last 100-200 years, things have changed Concentration of CO2 for 10000 years have been 280 ppm as evident from polar ice core samples Since, 1950’s this has increased 2007 CO2 concentration was 384ppm and climbing 2 ppm per year Average global temperatures have increased 0.8 C
Green House Gases Global green house gases emissions due to human activities have grown since pre-industrial time, with an increase of 70% between 1970 & 2004
CO2 & CH4 CO2 sources Fossil fuels, deforestation, forest fires, agriculture, large scale cattle grazing CH4 sources Solid waste land fills, animal defecation, coal minng, rice farming, cattle belching CH4 is 21 times more potent in trapping heat than CO2
When Hot meets Flat and Crowded Convergence of Global Warming, Over population and Global Flattening
Convergence of Hot, Flat andCrowded Energy demand and supply Petro-dictatorship Climate change Energy poverty Biodiversity loss
Energy Demand and Supply Fuels from Hell are expensive, dirty, and not really abundant The demand for fossil fuels grew by 5% per year between 1951-1970 in the developed nations Developing nations, the demand is growing almost close to their rate of economic growth Global consumption of energy will double between now and 2050 In 2004 – the first demand let energy shortage occurred, causing price hikes Price increase in 1973, 1980 & 1990 were mainly due to the wars and revolution in the east But by 2004, with countries like China & India creating surplus demands for oil, ahead of supply, pushed demand to 3 million barrels per day from the estimated 1.5 million barrels per day
Petro-dictatorship “As price of oil goes up, pace of freedom goes down” Hence, you will observe cash rich/oil rich countries mostly have dictators ruling In 2006, Russian President (now Prime Minister) Vladimir Putin, turned off gas supply to Ukraine, because the newly elected Ukrainian President was pro-western Petro-dictatorship is best seen in the Middle- East, Saudi Arabia, Venezuela
Climate Change Anthropogenic GHG like CO2 are long lived and stay in the atmosphere for over 1000 years Average global temperatures have risen by 0.8C than in 1750s 11 of the last 12 warmest years (1995-2006) since 1850s A 2C rise in temperature may kill 10 million people 5C rise in temperature may kill 100 million people Frequent hurricanes in the US like Katrina, floods in Bihar, droughts in sub-Saharan Africa are few examples
Energy Poverty The lack of the access to the basic energy, like electricity, requirements in certain parts of the world especially in the less developed nations Between 2003 and 2007 South Africa’s grid started to deteriorate and the early 2007 saw frequent blackouts SA imported 44590 generators in 2007 vis-`a-vis 790 in 2003 Businesses suffered Energy poverty is one of the main factors of over- crowding of urban areas in LDCs
Biodiversity Loss Disrupting ecosystems Half of the world’s tropical & temperate forests are gone Rate of deforestation is about an acre/second in tropics Half of wetlands are gone 1/3rd of Mangroves are gone 90% of predator fish are gone 20% of coral are gone & 20% are threatened Species are disappearing 1000 times faster than before In 2006, we lost a close relative, the Yangtze River freshwater dolphin It is not the loss of a species but the loss of a genus
“We are running an uncontrolledexperiment on the only home wehave”All these problems were increasing till we reached atipping point after the year 2000
The Kyoto Protocol International agreement linked to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Binding targets for 37 industrialised nations and EU for reducing GHGs Protocol has 3 mechanisms Emissions trading Clean development mechanism Joint Implementation
A particular slide catching your eye?
Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.