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  • 7417762577 9917433016
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  • Instructor Note:
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  • The Measure phase is also when the project team leader prepares for data collection.
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  • Instructor note: Remind the class of the qualifier in the beginning - that it is difficult to explain all the tools. The problem resolution is more statistical and we will only mention the tools that will be taught later. Also, tell about when the DOE is useful - When all data on Xs and corresponding Ys are not available or when data generation is prohibitive.
  • Instructor note: Although the Pareto is shown here, it can be useful in earlier or later part of the project also.
  • Instructor note: Talk about how this deliverable means identifying “quantitatively” the sources of variation. It could be a Y=F(X) relationship or just the results of the ANOVA which says 80% of the Y variation is caused by X1, X2 and their interaction etc.
  • Instructor: Encourage participants to come up with their own interpretations of each of the deliverable in their projects
  • There are three levels of competencies of Six Sigma. The Green Belt or GB should be able to use DMAIC process with basic Six Sigma tools for project execution. This person Leads Six Sigma projects in their functions. The Black Belt or BB should be able to use advanced tools in projects and mentor GBs on Six Sigma techniques and tools. This person should Define Six Sigma projects and lead project teams and are process experts in their functions. Master Black Belt or MBB should be able to train Black Belts as well as Green Belts and Mentor Black Belt projects. They are the drivers of cultural change and should be able to mentor BBs across functions. They should be able to develop new tools. Champions are Business leaders who provide resources and champion the Six Sigma implementation in a business unit
  • Transcript

    • 1. SIX SIGMA YELLOW BELT TRAINING HS18
    • 2. Content2  Origin & meaning of Six Sigma  Need of Six Sigma  DMAIC Methodology  Some vital tools used during Six Sigma  Overview of:  Green Belt project  Lean Six Sigma    Quality Management System  TQM
    • 3. Before We Start…4 Quality is a state in which value entitlement is realized for the customer and provider in every aspect of the business relationship. Business Quality is highest when the costs are at the absolute lowest for both the producer & consumer. Six Sigma provides maximum value to companies in the forms of increased profits and maximum value to consumers with high-quality products and services at the lowest possible cost. Defect is any process output that does not meet customer specifications, or that could lead to creating an output that does not meet customer specifications. Cost of Poor Quality (COPQ) is the cost that would disappear if systems, processes, and products were perfect.
    • 4. Process & Process Capability5  Process is a unique combination of tools, materials, methods, and people engaged in producing a measurable output; for example a manufacturing line for machine parts. All processes have inherent stastical variability which can be evaluated by statistical methods.  The Process Capability is a measurable property of a process to the specification, expressed as a process capability index (e.g., Cpk or Cpm) or as a process performance index (e.g., Ppk or Ppm). The output of this measurement is usually illustrated by a histogram and calculations that predict how many parts will be produced out of specification (OOS).  Process capability is also defined as the capability of a process to meet its purpose as managed by an organizations management and process definition structures ISO 15504.  Two parts of process capability are: 1) Measure the variability of the output of a process, and 2) Compare that variability with a proposed specification or product tolerance.
    • 5. Six Sigma Six Sigma is a disciplined, data-driven approach and methodology for eliminating defects in any process -- from manufacturing to transactional and from product to service. To achieve Six Sigma, a process must not produce more than 3.4 defects per million opportunities (DPMO). A Six Sigma opportunity is then the total quantity of chances for a defect.  Customer focused business improvement process.  Defect reduction in a process or product.  Common measurement scale called the Sigma capability or Z.  Six Sigma capability corresponds to an efficiency of 99.9996%.  Six Sigma seeks to improve the quality of process outputs by identifying and removing the causes of defects (errors) and minimizing variability in manufacturing and business processes.  It uses a set of quality management methods, including statistical methods, and creates a special infrastructure of people within the organization ("Black Belts", "Green Belts", etc.) who are experts in these methods. Six Sigma is a Business Philosophy Six Sigma is a Business Philosophy
    • 6. Six Sigma Table7 Sigma DPMO Percent Percentage Cpk level defective yield 1 691,462 69% 31% 0.33 2 308,538 31% 69% 0.67 3 66,807 6.7% 93.3% 1.00 4 6,210 0.62% 99.38% 1.33 5 233 0.023% 99.977% 1.67 6 3.4 0.00034% 99.99966% 2.00
    • 7. History Six Sigma was developed by Bill Smith, QM at Motorola It’s implementation began at Motorola in 1987 It allowed Motorola to win the first Baldrige Award in 1988 Several major companies in the world have adopted Six Sigma since then . …and applied to Manufacturing processes to improve product quality Texas Instruments, Asea Brown Boveri, AlliedSignal, General Electric, Bombardier, Nokia Mobile Phones, Lockheed Martin, Sony, Polaroid, Dupont, American Express, Ford Motor,……. GE applied the Six Sigma methodology to improve all business processes and it became a way of running the business. Six Sigma is a Competitive Tool Six Sigma is a Competitive Tool
    • 8. What is Sigma9  Sigma (upper case Σ, lower case σ ) is the eighteenth letter of the Greek alphabet.  In the system of Greek numerals it has a value of 200.  Sigma is used to show standard variation.  In probability theory and statistics, the standard deviation of a statistical population, a data set, or a probability distribution is the square root of its variance.  It shows how much variation there is from the "average" (mean).  A low standard deviation indicates that the data points tend to be very close to the mean, whereas high standard deviation indicates that the data are spread out over a large range of values.
    • 9. The Standard Deviation µ Σ (X – X)2 1 Sigma - 68% σ= n-1 2 Sigma - 95% 3 Sigma - 99.73 %Upper Specification Limit (USL)Target Specification (T)Lower Specification Limit (LSL)Mean of the distribution (µ)Standard Deviation of the distribution (σ) 1σ T USL 3σ
    • 10. What Is Six Sigma A 3σ process because 3 standard deviations fit between target and specBefore Target Customer Specification3σ 1σ 0.27% Defects up-to 6.6 % 2σ 3σ Customer Target Specification After 1σ 2σ 6σ ! 3σ No Defects! 4σ 5σ 6σ Reducing Variability Is The Key To Six Sigma
    • 11. Six Sigma -Tools12  5 Whys  Analysis of variance  ANOVA Gauge R&R  Business Process Mapping  Cause & effects diagram (also known as fishbone or Ishikawa diagram)  Chi-square test of independence and fits  Control chart  Correlation  Cost-benefit analysis  CTQ tree  Quantitative marketing research through use of Enterprise Feedback Management (EFM) systems  Design of experiments  Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA)  General linear model  Histograms  Quality Function Deployment (QFD)  Pareto chart  Process capability  Regression analysis  Root cause analysis  Run charts  SIPOC analysis (Suppliers, Inputs, Process, Outputs, Customers)  Stratification  Many More...
    • 12. The Focus of Six Sigma Y f (X) X1 . . . XN • Dependent • Independent • Output • Input-Process • Effect • Cause • Symptom • Problem • Monitor • Control Would you control target or the shooter to get the Gold Medal?
    • 13. The Need for Six SigmaHow are we viewed by our customers? • Reactionary, not preventative • Adequately responsive to customer needs • Problems not permanently solved • Hard perennial problems not solved. • Inconsistent • Flawed Startups Customers look for our competitors
    • 14. The Need for Six SigmaHow do we want to be viewed by ourcustomers? • Proactive • Quick, agile • Having robust products • System experts • Flawless during startups • Continuously improving through an Enterprise-wide problem prevention/problem solving culture Our Customers’ Best Supplier
    • 15. Six Sigma - Methodologies17 There are two Six Sigma sub-methodologies:  DMAIC and DMADV.  The Six Sigma DMAIC process (define, measure, analyze, improve, control) is an improvement system for existing processes falling below specification and looking for incremental improvement.  The Six Sigma DMADV process (define, measure, analyze, design, verify) is an improvement system used to develop new processes or products at Six Sigma quality levels.  Both Six Sigma processes are executed by Six Sigma Green Belts and Six Sigma Black Belts, and are overseen by Six Sigma Master Black Belts.
    • 16. Six Sigma - DMAIC Vs DMADV18 DMAIC DMADV  Define the project goals and customer  Define the project goals and customer (internal and external) deliverables (internal and external) deliverables  Measure the process to determine current  Measure and determine customer needs and specifications performance  Analyze the process options to meet the  Analyze and determine the root cause(s) customer needs of the defects  Design (detailed) the process to meet the  Improve the process by eliminating customer needs defects  Verify the design performance and ability to  Control future process performance meet customer needs  W  When To Use DMADV hen To Use DMAIC  A product or process is not in existence at  The DMAIC methodology should be used your company and one needs to be when a product or process is in existence developed at your company but is not meeting  The existing product or process exists and customer specification or is not performing has been optimized (using either DMAIC or adequately. not) and still doesnt meet the level of customer specification or six sigma level
    • 17. Six Sigma DMAIC Roadmap 6σ DMAIC Process 19 Develop Charter and Institutionalize Improvement Business Case Control Deployment Map Existing Process Quantify Financial Results Collect Voice of the Present Final Project Results Customer and Lessons Learned Specify CTQs / Close Project Requirements Control Define Measure CTQs / Select Solution (Including Improve Measure Requirements Trade Studies, Determine Process Stability Cost/Benefit Analysis) Analyze Determine Process Design Solution Capability Pilot Solution Calculate Baseline Sigma Implement Solution Refine Problem Statement Identify Root Causes Quantify Root Causes Verify Root Causes DMAIC = Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve and Control
    • 18. The DMAIC Methodology INPUT STEP OUTPUT You have a problem Identify Project, People and Define definition and a Process thorough execution plan Ensure you have output You ensure reliable measures for process and Measure analyses and decisions reliable ways of measuring it Find the gaps between current You understand the and final states Analyze problem now You have the solution Find root causes and develop Improve to the problem solution Communicate, standardize and You have ensured sustained document the improvement Control improvement
    • 19. Six Sigma COPIS Model21 Outputs Process Inputs Customers Suppliers Steps How does Six Sigma Work? The Voice of the Customer (VOC) is aggressively sought and rigorously evaluated and used to determine needed outputs and hence the optimalprocess configuration needed to yield those outputs and their necessary inputs for which the best suppliers are identified and allied with. From Concept to Market: The Voice of the Customer
    • 20. 22 Voice of the Customer Measure Analyze Improve Define Control Institutionalization The DMAIC Model
    • 21. ExerciseEXERCISE # 1CREATE A COPIS DIAGRAMFOR HS18 (SALE)
    • 22. Where to apply….. Marketing EngineeringHR Purchasing 6 Sigma Methods Finance Manufacturing Software
    • 23. Example - Pizza Delivery Service XYZ a fast food company, owned by Mr. ABC, runs a pizzadelivery service in and around Delhi. XYZ which was doing very well over the last four years,notices a drop in sales over the past five months. Customercomplaints about deliveries have been gradually on the rise. Several complaints from customers regarding irregulardeliveries were bothering ABC. He had increased the number of delivery personnel toimprove delivery performance. But his customers were stillleaving him. Pizza Hut, a multinational fast food chain, had set up shopin downtown and was becoming more popular with thecustomers. XYZ neither had the financial muscle to match Pizza Hut’s
    • 24. The Define Phase GrowDivisional directive revenues 1. How does the customer view XYZ Quality?Improve Sales Plant objectives 2. Who are the stakeholders - Customer and Process Get more Improvement Team? Functional goals orders 3. Which of his processes So what’s Employees should he try to improve in new order to improve Sales?
    • 25. The Define Phase - Step AA. IDENTIFY PROJECT CTQs:A requirement of the customer is that the Pizza should bedelivered on time. Thus for the customer, Delivery is Critical to theQuality of XYZ service (CTQ). Voice of Customer (VOC) Affinity Diagram CTQ Tree.
    • 26. The Define Phase - CTQ
    • 27. The Define Phase - ExerciseEXERCISE # 2CREATE A CTQ TREE FORHIGH CUSTOMERSATISFACTION @ ANYRESTAURANT
    • 28. The Define Phase - Step BB. DEVELOP PROJECT CHARTER: The Business Case Why should the project be done Problem and Goal Statement Description of the problem/opportunity Roles and Responsibilities The team, expectations and responsibilities Milestones The team, expectations and responsibilities Stakeholder Analysis, TMAP, Gantt Chart
    • 29. The Define Phase – Cheat Codes
    • 30. The Define Phase - ExerciseEXERCISE # 3CREATE A PROJECT CHARTERFOR HIGH ATTRITION RATE
    • 31. The Define Phase - Step CC. DEFINE PROJECT SCOPE:Identify the high level process to be improvedDefine boundaries of project SIPOC Stratification Analysis Contract Sheet
    • 32. The 7 Basic Tools - 1 STRATIFICATION ANALYSIS: Stratification analysis (Is / Is Not Matrix) is helpful in defining the conditions surrounding the problem - bounding or scoping Is Is Not Distinctions West and North South, East and West and NorthGeography Delhi are sub- Central Delhi Delhi contracted Mixups, Hygiene,Output Delivery time Temperature Premium service Lower and MiddleCustomer Higher Income for higher Income income group IncreasedTime After Aug 09 Before Aug 09 employees in Aug 09
    • 33. The Define Phase - SummaryThe Define phase is Growowned by the Project Divisional directive revenuesSponsor. The three stepsof the Define phase are: Widen Customer Base Plant objectives1. Identify Project CTQ2. Develop Project Charter Improve3. Define Project Scope Delivery Functional goals processVOC, Affinity Diagram, ReduceCTQ Tree, Gantt Chart, variation in EmployeesSIPOC, Stakeholder delivery timeAnalysis, TMAP,Stratification Analysis
    • 34. The Measure Phase - Step AA. IDENTIFY CTQ CHARACTERISTICSTranslate the CTQ to a measurable output of the deliveryprocessDelivery time can be measured in many ways:1. No. of times the delivery person delivered during theshipping window (Discrete measure)2. Time taken to travel from XYZ location to customerlocation (Continuous measure)3. Actual delivery time as seen by customer (Continuousmeasure)Delivery time is the Project Y.
    • 35. The Measure Phase - Step BB. DEFINE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS:What are the customer’s requirements on Delivery time?What is the definition of a defect?1. Capture the Target (mean) delivery time - On time2. Get the allowable variation on Y - +/- 30 minutes Loss α (Deviation)2 LossVOCCompetitive Benchmarking Target Y
    • 36. The Measure Phase - Step B The LSL USL customer tolerance window is 30 minutes on either Customer side Customer does not does not This is thewant earlier want later target than this than this delivery time 45 30 15 0 15 30 45 EARLY DELIVERY (MINUTES) LATE DELIVERY Visualize customer requirements Visualize customer requirements
    • 37. The Measure Phase - Step BPreparation for data collection:1. The Y or the Delivery Process Output2. The Xs or the Inputs to the Delivery ProcessGenerate a list of Xs Brainstorming Process Map (PMAP) Failure Modes Effects Analysis (FMEA) Cause & Effect Diagram or Fishbone Quality Function Deployment (QFD) Prioritization Matrix Check-sheet
    • 38. The 7 Basic Tools - 2CHECK-SHEET (DATA COLLECTION FORM)Check-sheet is a data collection sheet used to record occurrencesof an event to look for patterns in the data in order to quantify theproblem and to facilitate understanding. NO. OF LATE DELIVERIES Categories Jan 6 Jan 7 Jan 8 Jan 9 Total Misinterpreted llll llll llll llll llll l llll llll llll lll 47 Label llll Traffic llll lll llll llll llll ll 24 Parking lll llll ll ll llll l 18 Large Order llll lll llll ll 15 Locating home ll l l lll 7 Others l ll l 4 Prepare to collect data on the Xs also !! Prepare to collect data on the Xs also
    • 39. The Measure Phase - Step CC. EVALUATE MEASUREMENT SYSTEM: Measurement system may introduce variation into data Actual process variation + measurement variation = data Identify and remove contribution to variation from CAUTION: Objects in mirror measurement system are closer than they appear Ensure reliable data AAA, Gage R&R, Test – Re- test, Kappa Method, Intra- Class Correlation
    • 40. The Measure Phase - SummaryA data collection plan is done in the Measure phase. It sets theexpectations for the project. This phase is owned by the ProjectLeader. The three steps of the Measure phase are:1. Identify CTQ characteristic2. Define Performance Standards3. Evaluate Measurement SystemThe list of tools available for the Measure phase are: Brainstorming, PMAP, FMEA, MSE, GR&R, C&E Diagram or Fishbone, Quality Function Deployment or QFD, Prioritization Matrix,Learn more about the PMAP, FMEA and MSE in the Six SigmaGreen Belt Training.
    • 41. The Analyze Phase - Step AA. ESTABLISH PROCESS CAPABILITY•What are the chances of your process creating defects?•Baseline the current process: •Measure variation in current process output •Evaluate against Performance Standards•Understand variation in your data with the help of: Histogram Dot box Standard Deviation Variance
    • 42. The 7 Basic Tools - 3 HISTOGRAM The Histogram is a graphical data summary tool which groups observed data into pre-defined bins in order to analyze the data values and distribution.Target time Delivery time Target time Delivery time Target time Delivery time hrs hrs hrs hrs hrs hrs 12:30 12:18 13:00 12:38 13:30 13:45 12:30 12:26 13:00 13:09 13:30 13:21 13:30 13:34 13:00 12:49 12:00 12:17 13:30 13:42 13:00 13:05 12:00 11:58 13:00 13:07 13:30 13:31 12:00 12:17 13:00 13:06 12:00 12:04 12:00 11:46 13:30 13:23 12:00 12:08 12:00 11:53 13:30 13:41 12:00 12:10 12:30 12:33 12:30 12:26 13:00 13:18 12:30 12:30 12:30 12:37 13:00 13:01 13:30 13:28
    • 43. The 7 Basic Tools - 3CREATING A HISTOGRAM:Using the concept of the late and early deliveries, take the targettime as the reference, and find the number of minutes by whicheach delivery is late or early.1. Subtract Target time for eachdata point from the Delivery time2. Define 5 predetermined bins(class intervals) of size equal to10 minutes, from -25 to 25 on ahorizontal line3. Place each data point verticallyin a bin according to its value4. Draw a bar equal to the height -25 -15 -5 5 15 25of stacked up points
    • 44. The Analyze Phase - Step A µ XYZ has an average delivery time (µ) 2 minutes late and a σ standard deviation (σ) of 10 minutes45 30 15 0 15 30 45 EARLY DELIVERY (MINUTES) LATE DELIVERY Measure the process output Measure the process output
    • 45. The Analyze Phase - Step A Customer toleranceZ= Process standard deviation µ LSL USL 30 minutes Z= 10 minutes σ Z=3 45 30 15 0 15 30 45 EARLY DELIVERY (MINUTES) LATE DELIVERY Measure the Process Output Measure the Process Output
    • 46. The Analyze Phase - Step A Defects per It is cost Process Million effective to Capability Opportunities 2 308,537 Inspect in Quality 3 66,807 4 6,210 Manufacture in Quality 5 233 Design in Quality 6 3.4Higher Z implies lower defectsHigher Z implies lower defects
    • 47. Industry BenchmarksDo you know the Sigma capabilities of the following processes? Sigma capability, Z U.S. Manufacturing industry average 4.0 Japanese manufacturing industry average 5.5 Flight fatality in airline industry 6.4 Airline Baggage handling 3.2 Doctor prescription writing 2.8 Tax advice by Internal Revenue Service in U.S. 2.5 Six Sigma is a Metric Six Sigma is a Metric
    • 48. The Analyze Phase - Step B B. DEFINE PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES Process Off Target Excessive Variation in Process Target Target LSL USL LSL USLCenter Reduce TargetProcess Spread Hypothesis testing LSL USL Understand your Problem Understand your Problem
    • 49. Quiz - CharacterizeSix Sigma is a What is the Y?A. Statistical Quality Tool A. Measurable Process OutputB. Business Philosophy B. Voice of the CustomerC. U.S. Management style C. Process InputThe goal of Six Sigma is to Who gives the USL and LSL?A. Reduce defects to 3.4 per million A. ManagementB. Improve products B. CustomerC. Reduce variation C. Derived from the process dataIn the Pizza Delivery Service example, In the example, the Voice of thewhat is the CTQ? Customer is characterized byA. Lunch A. Delivery timeB. Time B. No. of deliveries madeC. Delivery C. Tolerance around the TargetIf a process is Six Sigma (Z=6), it implies In the example, the delivery service isA. Process is 99.99% good characterized byB. Products are 99.99% defect free A. Mean delivery timeC. There are only 3.4 defects in a million B. Tolerance around the Targetopportunities C. Mean & variation of the delivery time
    • 50. The Analyze Phase - Step CC. IDENTIFY SOURCES OF VARIATIONTo find root causes or Xs Fishbone or C&E Diagram (Ishikawa) FMEA QFD PMAPFishbone (Ishikawa) is another of the 7 basic tools. It is also knownas the Cause & Effect Diagram. It is a hierarchy of causes that startswith the primary cause and then steps several layers in detail to drivetowards possible root causes.
    • 51. The 7 Basic Tools - 4 MACHINE MOTHER NATURE MATERIALS Too much traffic Sacks Run out of storage FISHBONE too small Unreliable bikes Weather space on vehicles Bus service Large items unreliable in difficult to carry Too few delivery No money for peak hours in bus /bikes persons repairs Parking space Too many Too many orders Delivery persons own junk per person problem sacks Delivery Delivery person Don’t know routes Cant locate Time does not show up employees homes High turnover Poor handling of large orders Not on std routesNo training Too few Delivery person gets lost delivery Did not Poor persons No understand dispatching Uneven distribution teamwork labels of delivery loads Get wrong information Did not understand METHODS MAN MEASUREMENT labels Develop a list of Xs that possibly affect Y Develop a list of Xs that possibly affect Y
    • 52. The Improve Phase - Step AA. SCREEN POTENTIAL CAUSESTo find the Vital Few Xs and separate it from the Trivial Many Pareto ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) Regression Chi-Square testsSystematic data generation (if historical data is not sufficient) Design of Experiments (DOE) Statistical Analysis to identify Vital Few Xs Statistical Analysis to identify Vital Few Xs
    • 53. The 7 Basic Tools -5PARETOThis is also called the Pareto Principle or the 80/20 rule and is usedto identify the Vital Few Xs. Others Location Order Size Parking Traffic LabelCut-off level to be decided by team consensus based onProcess knowledgeResource availability
    • 54. The Improve Phase - Step B8. DISCOVER CAUSAL RELATIONSHIPSTo find out effect of Xs on the Y Y Regression Scatter Diagram X2 X1
    • 55. The 7 Basic Tools - 6SCATTER DIAGRAMA Scatter Diagram is a graph thatshows the relationship between DELIVERY TIME SPANtwo numerical variables, X and YIt is used to look for a causeand effect relationshipbetween the two Numericalvariables. NO. OF PIZZAS / DELIVERY PERSONIn this example, the Scatter Diagram shows that the Delivery time isless if the number of lunches per delivery person is less.
    • 56. The Improve Phase - Step C C. ESTABLISH OPERATING TOLERANCES y y = f ( x) USLDELIVERY TIME LSL x xL xT xU NO. OF PIZZAS PER DELIVERY PERSON
    • 57. The Control Phase - Step AA. VALIDATE MEASUREMENT SYSTEM ON XEnsure noise from LSL USmeasurement system Lon X is small σ processcompared to processvariation σ MeasureMSE, G R&R σ measurementTest - Retest,Kappa Method,Intra Class Correlation Tolerance
    • 58. The Control Phase - Step BB. ESTABLISH NEW PROCESS CAPABILITY LSL USL Z = 4.5 45 30 15 0 15 30 45 EARLY DELIVERY (MINUTES) LATE DELIVERY
    • 59. The Control Phase - Step CC. IMPLEMENT PROCESS CONTROLA good Control Plan should be put in place to ensure sustainedimprovement. This may include:1. Use of Control Charts to monitor Xs2. Documentation of Control Plan3. Update of process documents such as PFMEA4. Error Proofing5. Standardization
    • 60. The 7 Basic Tools - 7RUN CHARTA Run Chart is a time series plot of data that allows a team to studyobserved data for trends or patterns over a specific period of time. Itcaptures instances when the process is changing more thanstatistically expected 30 No. lunches/person 20 10 0
    • 61. The DMAIC Steps and DeliverablesSTEP DELIVERABLESA. Identify project CTQs Identify customers, customer CTQs and Business CaseB. Develop Team Charter Problem statement, Project Scope,Team, MilestonesC. Define Project Scope High Level Process Map connecting customers to process1. Select CTQ characteristic Identify measurable characteristic of CTQ (Y)2. Define performance standards Confirm specification limits (requirements) for Y3. Evaluate Measurement System Ensure measurement system is capable4. Establish process capability Baseline the current process5. Define performance objectives Understand statistical objective - reduce variation or shiftmeans?6. Identify sources of variation List significant causes (Xs) or factors7. Screen potential causes Determine vital few Xs, which will be controlled8.Discover variable relationship Find causal relationship and optimal solution9. Establish operating tolerances Validate the relation and determine specs on Xs10. Measurement System Evaluation on Xs Ensure X measurement is capable11. Establish process capability Establish improved capability12. Implement process control Document control plan It’s a common sense approach It’s a common sense approach
    • 62. Attributes of a Six Sigma GB project1. Customer Focused: A Six Sigma GB project should address acustomer CTQ2. Data Driven: In a Six Sigma GB project, decisions should bemade using data analysis and not on gut feelings or intuitions3. Variation reduction: Six Sigma GB projects address the issueof variation in process outputs and is aimed at reducing variation
    • 63. SECTION B SIX SIGMAROLES & RESPONSIBILITIES
    • 64. Roles and ResponsibilitiesExecutive ChampionResponsible for providing resources to BB/GBsHelp in team selectionTrack progress of projectGenerally is supervisor of BB/GB. May help in selection of the projectSponsorCall for need of project (Project identification)Beneficiary of the projectValidate current status and status after completion of projectAllocates resources for the projectEnsure compliance to controls established as a result of the projectProject Leader (Black Belt / Green Belt)Lead the projectAsk for resources requiredCall meeting of stakeholders and seek help from EC when stakeholders are not respondingEnsure team involvement and sponsor’s buy in for solutionPublish weekly progress report & call for help when required
    • 65. Roles and ResponsibilitiesDeployment ChampionMentor and guide BBs/GBsProvide technical help when BBs/GBs reach a roadblockPublish Summary report of all projectsRaise alarm when things are not movingMBBTrain BB/GBAssess the skills of BB/GBCertification of GBs and BBs after completion of projectsDeployment of Global policies and proceduresCFO/FinanceAssess the saving potential at start of projectValidate savings against the targets achieved at completion of project
    • 66. Roles and ResponsibilitiesYellow Belt (YB): Should understand the DMAIC process anduse the Six Sigma philosophy (Stakeholder involvement).Green Belt (GB): Should be able to use DMAIC process withbasic Six Sigma tools for project execution. Lead Six Sigmaprojects in their functions.Black Belt (BB): Should be able to use advanced tools inprojects and teach Green Belt level techniques / tools.Identifies Six Sigma projects and leads project teams.Mentors Green Belts. Process experts in their functions.Master Black Belt (MBB): Should be able to train BlackBelts and Green Belts. Mentors Black Belt projects. Driversof cultural change. Process experts in any function. Candevelop new tools.