Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
Chapter 6: Managers as Decision Makers
Chapter 6: Managers as Decision Makers
Chapter 6: Managers as Decision Makers
Chapter 6: Managers as Decision Makers
Chapter 6: Managers as Decision Makers
Chapter 6: Managers as Decision Makers
Chapter 6: Managers as Decision Makers
Chapter 6: Managers as Decision Makers
Chapter 6: Managers as Decision Makers
Chapter 6: Managers as Decision Makers
Chapter 6: Managers as Decision Makers
Chapter 6: Managers as Decision Makers
Chapter 6: Managers as Decision Makers
Chapter 6: Managers as Decision Makers
Chapter 6: Managers as Decision Makers
Chapter 6: Managers as Decision Makers
Chapter 6: Managers as Decision Makers
Chapter 6: Managers as Decision Makers
Chapter 6: Managers as Decision Makers
Chapter 6: Managers as Decision Makers
Chapter 6: Managers as Decision Makers
Chapter 6: Managers as Decision Makers
Chapter 6: Managers as Decision Makers
Chapter 6: Managers as Decision Makers
Chapter 6: Managers as Decision Makers
Chapter 6: Managers as Decision Makers
Chapter 6: Managers as Decision Makers
Chapter 6: Managers as Decision Makers
Chapter 6: Managers as Decision Makers
Chapter 6: Managers as Decision Makers
Chapter 6: Managers as Decision Makers
Chapter 6: Managers as Decision Makers
Chapter 6: Managers as Decision Makers
Chapter 6: Managers as Decision Makers
Chapter 6: Managers as Decision Makers
Chapter 6: Managers as Decision Makers
Chapter 6: Managers as Decision Makers
Chapter 6: Managers as Decision Makers
Chapter 6: Managers as Decision Makers
Chapter 6: Managers as Decision Makers
Chapter 6: Managers as Decision Makers
Chapter 6: Managers as Decision Makers
Chapter 6: Managers as Decision Makers
Chapter 6: Managers as Decision Makers
Chapter 6: Managers as Decision Makers
Chapter 6: Managers as Decision Makers
Chapter 6: Managers as Decision Makers
Chapter 6: Managers as Decision Makers
Chapter 6: Managers as Decision Makers
Chapter 6: Managers as Decision Makers
Chapter 6: Managers as Decision Makers
Chapter 6: Managers as Decision Makers
Chapter 6: Managers as Decision Makers
Chapter 6: Managers as Decision Makers
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Chapter 6: Managers as Decision Makers

10,377

Published on

Published in: Business, Education, Technology
0 Comments
14 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
10,377
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
585
Comments
0
Likes
14
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Management: Arab World Edition Robbins, Coulter, Sidani, Jamali Chapter 6: Managers as Decision Makers Lecturer: [Insert your name here]
  • 2. 6-3 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education Learning Outcomes Follow this Learning Outline as you read and study this chapter. 6.1 The Decision-Making Process • Define decision. • Describe the eight steps in the decision-making process. 6.2 Managers Making Decisions • Discuss the assumptions of rational decision making. • Describe the concepts of bounded rationality, satisficing, and escalation of commitment. • Explain intuitive decision making.
  • 3. 6-4 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education Learning Outcomes 6.3 Types Of Decisions and Decision-Making Conditions • Explain the two types of problems and decisions. • Contrast the three decision-making conditions. • Explain maximax, maximin, and minimax decision choice approaches. 6.4 Decision-Making Styles • Describe two decision-making styles. • Discuss the twelve decision-making biases. • Explain the managerial decision-making model. • Describe decision-making practices in the Arab context.
  • 4. 6-5 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education Learning Outcomes 6.5 Effective Decision Making In Today’s World • Explain how managers can make effective decisions in today’s world. • List the six characteristics of an effective decision-making process. • List the five habits of highly reliable organizations.
  • 5. 6-6 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education The Decision-Making Process 1. Define decision. 2. Describe the eight steps in the decision-making process.
  • 6. 6-7 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education Decision Making Decision • Making a choice from two or more alternatives. The Decision-Making Process • Identifying a problem and decision criteria and allocating weights to the criteria. • Developing, analyzing, and selecting an alternative that can resolve the problem. • Implementing the selected alternative. • Evaluating the decision’s effectiveness.
  • 7. 6-8 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education The Situation • Sarah is a sales manager whose reps need new laptops because their old ones are outdated and inadequate for doing their job. To make it simple, assume that it is not economical to add memory to the old computers and it is the company’s policy to purchase, not lease.
  • 8. 6-9 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education Exhibit 6–1 The Decision- Making Process
  • 9. 6-10 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education Problem • A discrepancy between an existing and desired state of affairs. Characteristics of Problems • A problem becomes a problem when a manager becomes aware of it. • There is pressure to solve the problem. • The manager must have the authority, information, or resources needed to solve the problem. Step 1: Identifying the Problem
  • 10. 6-11 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education Decision criteria are factors that are important (relevant) to resolving the problem such as: • Costs that will be incurred (investments required) • Risks likely to be encountered (chance of failure) • Outcomes that are desired (growth of the firm) Step 2: Identifying Decision Criteria
  • 11. 6-12 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education Decision criteria are not of equal importance: • Assigning a weight to each item places the items in the correct priority order of their importance in the decision- making process. Step 3: Allocating Weights to the Criteria
  • 12. 6-13 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education Criterion Weight Memory and Storage 10 Battery life 8 Carrying Weight 6 Warranty 4 Display Quality 3 Exhibit 6–2 Criteria and Weights for Computer Replacement Decision
  • 13. 6-14 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education Identifying viable alternatives • Alternatives are listed (without evaluation) that can resolve the problem. Step 4: Developing Alternatives
  • 14. 6-15 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education Appraising each alternative’s strengths and weaknesses • An alternative’s appraisal is based on its ability to resolve the issues identified in steps 2 and 3. Step 5: Analyzing Alternatives
  • 15. 6-16 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education Exhibit 6–3 Assessed Values of Laptop Computers Using Decision Criteria
  • 16. 6-17 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education Choosing the best alternative • The alternative with the highest total weight is chosen. Step 6: Selecting an Alternative
  • 17. 6-18 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education Putting the chosen alternative into action • Conveying the decision to and gaining commitment from those who will carry out the decision Step 7: Implementing the Alternative
  • 18. 6-19 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education Exhibit 6–4 Evaluation of Laptop Alternatives Against Weighted Criteria
  • 19. 6-20 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education The soundness of the decision is judged by its outcomes • How effectively was the problem resolved by outcomes resulting from the chosen alternatives? • If the problem was not resolved, what went wrong? Step 8: Evaluating the Decision’s Effectiveness
  • 20. 6-21 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education Managers Making Decisions 1. Discuss the assumptions of rational decision making. 2. Describe the concepts of bounded rationality, satisficing, and escalation of commitment. 3. Explain intuitive decision making.
  • 21. 6-22 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education Managers Making Decisions • Decision making is part of all four managerial functions (next slide). In fact, that is why we say that decision making is the essence of management. • And that is why managers when they plan, organize, lead, and‒ control are called‒ decision makers.
  • 22. 6-23 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education Exhibit 6–5 Decisions in the Management Functions
  • 23. 6-24 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education Making Decisions Rationality • Managers make consistent, value-maximizing choices with specified constraints. • Assumptions are that decision makers:  Are perfectly rational, fully objective, and logical.  Have carefully defined the problem and identified all viable alternatives.  Have a clear and specific goal.  Will select the alternative that maximizes outcomes in the organization’s interests rather than in their personal interests.
  • 24. 6-25 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education Making Decisions (cont’d) Bounded Rationality • Managers make decisions rationally, but are limited (bounded) by their ability to process information. • Assumptions are that decision makers:  Will not seek out or have knowledge of all alternatives.  Will satisfice choose the first alternative encountered that‒ satisfactorily solves the problem rather than maximize the outcome‒ of their decision by considering all alternatives and choosing the best. • Influence on decision making  Escalation of commitment: an increased commitment to a previous decision despite evidence that it may have been wrong.
  • 25. 6-26 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education The Role of Intuition Intuitive decision making • Making decisions on the basis of experience, feelings, and accumulated judgment.
  • 26. 6-27 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education Exhibit 6–6 What Is Intuition? Source: Based on L. A. Burke and M. K. Miller, “Taking the Mystery Out of Intuitive Decision Making,” Academy of Management Executive, October 1999, pp. 91–99.
  • 27. 6-28 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education Types Of Decisions and Decision-Making Conditions 1. Explain the two types of problems and decisions. 2. Contrast the three decision-making conditions. 3. Explain maximax, maximin, and minimax decision choice approaches.
  • 28. 6-29 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education Types of Problems and Decisions Structured Problems • Involve goals that are clear • Are familiar (have occurred before) • Are easily and completely defined information about the problem‒ is available and complete Programmed Decision • A repetitive decision that can be handled by a routine approach.
  • 29. 6-30 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education Types of Programmed Decisions Procedure • A series of interrelated steps that a manager can use to respond (applying a policy) to a structured problem. Rule • An explicit statement that limits what a manager or employee can or cannot do. Policy • A general guideline for making a decision about a structured problem.
  • 30. 6-31 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education Policy, Procedure, and Rule Examples Policy • Accept all customer-returned merchandise. Procedure • Follow all steps for completing merchandise return documentation. Rules • Managers must approve all refunds over $50.00. • No credit purchases are refunded for cash.
  • 31. 6-32 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education Problems and Decisions Unstructured Problems • Problems that are new or unusual and for which information is ambiguous or incomplete. • Problems that will require custom-made solutions. Nonprogrammed Decisions • Decisions that are unique and nonrecurring. • Decisions that generate unique responses.
  • 32. 6-33 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education Exhibit 6–7 Programmed Versus Nonprogrammed Decisions
  • 33. 6-34 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education Decision-Making Conditions Certainty • A situation in which a manager can make an accurate decision because the outcome of every alternative choice is known. Risk • A situation in which the manager is able to estimate the likelihood (probability) of outcomes that result from the choice of particular alternatives.
  • 34. 6-35 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education Exhibit 6–8 Expected Value for Revenues from the Addition of One Ski Lift
  • 35. 6-36 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education Decision Making Conditions Uncertainty • Limited information prevents estimation of outcome probabilities for alternatives associated with the problem and may force managers to rely on intuition, hunches, and “gut feelings”.  Maximax: the optimistic manager’s choice to maximize the maximum payoff  Maximin: the pessimistic manager’s choice to maximize the minimum payoff  Minimax: the manager’s choice to minimize maximum regret
  • 36. 6-37 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education Exhibit 6–9 Payoff Matrix
  • 37. 6-38 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education Exhibit 6–10 Regret Matrix
  • 38. 6-39 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education Decision-Making Styles 1. Describe two decision-making styles. 2. Discuss the twelve decision-making biases. 3. Explain the managerial decision-making model. 4. Describe decision-making practices in the Arab context.
  • 39. 6-40 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education Decision-Making Styles Linear thinking style • A person’s preference for using external data and facts and processing this information through rational, logical thinking. Nonlinear thinking style • A person’s preference for internal sources of information and processing this information with internal insights, feelings and hunches.
  • 40. 6-41 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education Exhibit 6–11 Common Decision-Making Errors and Biases
  • 41. 6-42 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education Decision-Making Biases and Errors Heuristics • Using “rules of thumb” to simplify decision making. Overconfidence Bias • Holding unrealistically positive views of oneself and one’s performance. Immediate Gratification Bias • Choosing alternatives that offer immediate rewards and avoid immediate costs.
  • 42. 6-43 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education Decision-Making Biases and Errors (cont’d) Anchoring Effect • Fixating on initial information and ignoring subsequent information. Selective Perception Bias • Selecting, organizing and interpreting events based on the decision maker’s biased perceptions. Confirmation Bias • Seeking out information that reaffirms past choices and discounting contradictory information.
  • 43. 6-44 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education Decision-Making Biases and Errors (cont’d) Framing Bias • Selecting and highlighting certain aspects of a situation while ignoring other aspects. Availability Bias • Losing decision-making objectivity by focusing on the most recent events. Representation Bias • Drawing analogies and seeing identical situations when none exist. Randomness Bias • Creating unfounded meaning out of random events.
  • 44. 6-45 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education Decision-Making Biases and Errors (cont’d) Sunk Costs Errors • Forgetting that current actions cannot influence past events and relate only to future consequences. Self-Serving Bias • Taking quick credit for successes and blaming outside factors for failures. Hindsight Bias • Mistakenly believing that an event could have been predicted once the actual outcome is known (after-the-fact).
  • 45. 6-46 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education Exhibit 6–12 Overview of Managerial Decision Making
  • 46. 6-47 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education Practices Of Decision Making In The Arab World The traditional Arab decision-making process has been impacted by several factors. •A system of networking and collective decision making where the leader/manager consults with other group members to arrive at a decision that has the backing of the community. •The concept of Shura is important. It is not restricted to the political arena; it has its manifestations in different social institutions, including the family and business organizations. • The consultative style seems to be widespread in Arab organizations.
  • 47. 6-48 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education Effective Decision Making In Today’s World 1. Explain how managers can make effective decisions in today’s world. 2. List the six characteristics of an effective decision-making process. 3. List the five habits of highly reliable organizations.
  • 48. 6-49 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education Decision Making for Today’s World Guidelines for making effective decisions: 1. Understand cultural differences.  In some cases, there is no best way to make decisions. The best way may depend on the values, attitudes, and beliefs that prevail in a specific culture. 2. Know when it’s time to stop.  Good decision makers are not afraid to change their minds. They do not become attached to one course of thinking.
  • 49. 6-50 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education Decision Making for Today’s World (cont’d) 3.Use an effective decision-making process. This process has six characteristics:  It focuses on what is important.  It is logical and consistent.  It acknowledges both subjective and objective thinking and blends analytical with intuitive thinking.  It requires only as much information and analysis as is necessary to resolve a particular dilemma.  It encourages and guides the gathering of relevant information and informed opinion.  It is straightforward, reliable, easy to use, and flexible.
  • 50. 6-51 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education Decision Making for Today’s World (cont’d) 4.Build an organization that can spot the unexpected and quickly adapt to the changed environment. Karl Weick calls such organizations highly reliable organizations (HROs) and says they share five habits:  Are not tricked by their success.  Defer to the experts on the front line.  Let unexpected circumstances provide the solution.  Embrace complexity.  Anticipate, but also recognize their limits.
  • 51. 6-52 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education Terms to Know decision decision-making process problem decision criteria rational decision making bounded rationality satisficing escalation of commitment intuitive decision making structured problems programmed decision procedure rule policy unstructured problems nonprogrammed decisions certainty risk uncertainty directive style analytic style conceptual style
  • 52. 6-53 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education Terms to Know (cont’d) behavioral style heuristics business performance management (BPM) software
  • 53. 6-54 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education

×