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  • 1. Management: Arab World Edition Robbins, Coulter, Sidani, Jamali Chapter 16: Managers As Leaders Lecturer: : [Insert your name here]
  • 2. Learning Outcomes Follow this Learning Outline as you read and study this chapter. 16.1 Who Are Leaders and What Is Leadership • Define leaders and leadership. • Explain why managers should be leaders. 16.2 Historical Leadership In The Middle East • Ibn-Khaldun Conception of Leadership • The role of Asabiya (Group-bond in fostering leadership) • The Prophetic-Caliphal Model of Leadership 16-3 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education
  • 3. Learning Outcomes 16.3 Early Leadership Theories • Discuss what research has shown about leadership traits. • Contrast • Explain the findings of the four behavioral leadership theories. the dual nature of a leader’s behavior. 16.4 Contingency Theories of Leadership • Explain Fiedler’s contingency model of leadership. • Describe • Discuss 16-4 situational leadership theory. how path–goal theory explains leadership. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education
  • 4. Learning Outcomes 16.5 Contemporary Views of Leadership • Differentiate between transactional and transformational leaders. • Describe • Discuss charismatic and visionary leadership. what team leadership involves. 16.6 Leadership Issues in the Twenty-First Century • Describe • Discuss 16-5 the five sources of a leader’s power. the issues today’s leaders face. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education
  • 5. Who Are Leaders and What Is Leadership 1. Define leaders and leadership. 2. Explain why managers should be leaders. 16-6 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education
  • 6. Who Are Leaders and What Is Leadership Leader  Someone who can influence others and who has managerial authority Leadership  What leaders do; the process of influencing a group to achieve goals 16-7 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education
  • 7. Who Are Leaders and What Is Leadership Although groups may have informal leaders who emerge, those are not the leaders we’re studying. Leadership research has tried to answer: What is an effective leader? 16-8 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education
  • 8. Historical Leadership In The Middle East 1. Ibn-Khaldun Conception of Leadership 2. The role of Asabiya (Group-bond in fostering leadership) 3. The Prophetic-Caliphal Model of Leadership 16-9 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education
  • 9. Ibn-Khaldun Conception of Leadership He was born in Tunis in the year 1332.  He was mainly interested in political leadership, but his conceptualization is important for understanding leadership in any context, business or non-business.  Ibn Khaldun emphasizes the personal qualities of the leader. He calls those qualities “perfecting details”.  16-10 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education
  • 10. Perfecting Details Include: 1. Generosity 2. Forgiveness of error 3. Patience and perseverance 4. Hospitality toward guests 5. Maintenance of the indigent 6. Execution of commitments 7. Respect for the religious law 16-11 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education
  • 11. Perfecting Details Include: 8. Reverence for old men and teachers 9. Fairness 10. Meekness 11. Consideration to the needs of followers 12. Avoidance of deception and fraud 13. Kindness to, and protection of, subjects. 16-12 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education
  • 12. The role of Asabiya  Asabiya (“group feeling” or “group bond”). Asabiya stems from blood ties and alliances, with the former having the most weight in fostering the leadership bond. Blood ties may be an unimportant factor in the West as a source of leadership, but they are important in the Arab region. 16-13 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education
  • 13. The Prophetic-Caliphal Model of Leadership Four elements of the model: (1) Personalism (2) Individualism (3) Lack of institutionalization (4) The importance of the great man 16-14 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education
  • 14. The Prophetic-Caliphal Model of Leadership Personalism refers to the degree that a person insists on his personal opinion and the degree of concern and emphasis he has on himself. Individualism means making decisions or actions that do not take into account the opinions of the group. The combination of personalism and individualism leads to a lack of institutional development. 16-15 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education
  • 15. The Prophetic-Caliphal Model of Leadership  In cases of conflict or succession, there is no institution to fill the vacuum. The vacuum is alternatively filled by an expectation of the “great man”.  If the expected great man really turns out to be a great man, then we have a prophetic type of leader whose relationship with followers depends on love and compassion and voluntary compliance.  If the expected great man turns out to be an ordinary man then the only way to ensure follower compliance is through coercion and authoritarianism. 16-16 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education
  • 16. Exhibit 16–1 Social Origins Khadra’s Model of Leadership Leadership Climate Two Conditions Two Models Prophetic Model Great Man Personalism Lack of institutionalism Vacuum Strong attachment to the leader Expecting great man Individualism Ordinary Man Fear, coercion, strife Caliphal Model 16-17 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education
  • 17. Early Leadership Theories 1. Discuss what research has shown about leadership traits. 2. Contrast the findings of the four behavioral leadership theories. 3. Explain the dual nature of a leader’s behavior. 16-18 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education
  • 18. Early Leadership Theories Trait Theories (1920s–1930s) • Research focused on identifying personal characteristics that differentiated leaders from non-leaders was unsuccessful. • Later research on the leadership process identified seven traits associated with successful leadership: • Drive, the desire to lead, honesty and integrity, selfconfidence, intelligence, job-relevant knowledge, and extraversion. 16-19 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education
  • 19. Exhibit 16–2 Seven Traits Associated with Leadership Source: S. A. Kirkpatrick and E. A. Locke, “Leadership: Do Traits Really Matter?” Academy of Management Executive, May 1991, pp. 48–60; T. A. Judge, J. E. Bono, R. llies, and M. W. Gerhardt, “Personality and Leadership: A Qualitative and Quantitative Review,” Journal of Applied Psychology, August 2002, pp. 765–780. 16-20 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education
  • 20. Behavioral Theories 1. University of Iowa Studies 2. Ohio State Studies 3. University of Michigan Studies 4. The Managerial Grid 16-21 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education
  • 21. Behavioral Theories University of Iowa Studies (Kurt Lewin) • Identified three leadership styles: – – Democratic style: involvement, high participation, feedback – 16-22 Autocratic style: centralized authority, low participation Laissez faire style: hands-off management Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education
  • 22. Behavioral Theories University of Iowa Studies (Kurt Lewin) • Research findings: mixed results – – 16-23 No specific style was consistently better for producing better performance. Employees were more satisfied under a democratic leader than an autocratic leader. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education
  • 23. Behavioral Theories (cont’d) Ohio State Studies • Identified two dimensions of leader behavior: – – 16-24 Initiating structure: the role of the leader in defining his or her role and the roles of group members. Consideration: the leader’s mutual trust and respect for group members’ ideas and feelings. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education
  • 24. Behavioral Theories (cont’d) Ohio State Studies • Research findings: mixed results – – 16-25 High-high leaders generally, but not always, achieved high group task performance and satisfaction. Evidence indicated that situational factors appeared to strongly influence leadership effectiveness. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education
  • 25. Behavioral Theories (cont’d) University of Michigan Studies • Identified two dimensions of leader behavior: – – • 16-26 Employee oriented: emphasizing personal relationships Production oriented: emphasizing task accomplishment Research findings: Leaders who are employee oriented are strongly associated with high group productivity and high job satisfaction. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education
  • 26. Behavioral Theories (cont’d) The Managerial Grid • Appraises leadership styles using two dimensions: concern for people and concern for production • Places managerial styles in five categories: • Impoverished • Task management management • Middle-of-the-road • Country • Team 16-27 management club management management Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education
  • 27. Exhibit 16–3 16-28 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education Behavioral Theories of Leadership
  • 28. Exhibit 16–3 (cont’d) Behavioral Theories of Leadership 16-29 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education
  • 29. Exhibit 16–4 The Managerial Grid Source: Reprinted by permission of Harvard Business Review. An exhibit from “Breakthrough in Organization Development” by Robert R. Blake, Jane S. Mouton, Louis B. Barnes, and Larry E. Greiner, November–December 1964, p. 136. Copyright © 1964 by the President and Fellows of Harvard College. All rights reserved. 16-30 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education
  • 30. Contingency Theories of Leadership 1. Explain Fiedler’s contingency model of leadership. 2. Describe situational leadership theory. 3. Discuss how path–goal theory explains leadership. 16-31 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education
  • 31. The Fiedler Model  16-32 Proposes that effective group performance depends upon the proper match between the leader’s style of interacting with followers and the degree to which the situation allows the leader to control and influence. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education
  • 32. The Fiedler Model Assumptions:  A certain leadership style should be most effective in different types of situations.  Leaders do not readily change leadership styles.  Matching the leader to the situation or changing the situation to make it favorable to the leader is required. 16-33 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education
  • 33. The Fiedler Model • Situational factors in matching leader to the situation: • Leader–member • Task structure • Position 16-34 power Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education relations
  • 34. Exhibit 16–5 16-35 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education Findings of the Fiedler Model
  • 35. Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Theory (SLT) • Argues that successful leadership is achieved by selecting the right leadership style which is contingent on the level of the followers’ readiness. • Acceptance: leadership effectiveness depends on whether followers accept or reject a leader. • Readiness: the extent to which followers have the ability and willingness to accomplish a specific task. • 16-36 Leaders must relinquish control over and contact with followers as they become more competent. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education
  • 36. Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Theory (SLT) • Creates four specific leadership styles incorporating Fiedler’s two leadership dimensions: • Telling: high task–low relationship leadership • Selling: high task–high relationship leadership • Participating: • Delegating: 16-37 low task–high relationship leadership low task–low relationship leadership Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education
  • 37. Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Theory (SLT) • Posits four stages for follower readiness: • R1: • R2: followers are unable but willing • R3: followers are able but unwilling • R4: 16-38 followers are unable and unwilling followers are able and willing Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education
  • 38. Path-Goal Model • 16-39 States that the leader’s job is to assist his or her followers in attaining their goals and to provide direction or support to ensure their goals are compatible with organizational goals. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education
  • 39. Path-Goal Model • Leaders assume different leadership styles at different times depending on the situation: • Directive leader • Supportive leader • Participative • Achievement 16-40 leader oriented leader Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education
  • 40. Exhibit 16–6 16-41 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education Path-Goal Theory
  • 41. Contemporary Views of Leadership 1. Differentiate between transactional and transformational leaders. 2. Describe charismatic and visionary leadership. 3. Discuss what team leadership involves. 16-42 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education
  • 42. Transactional-Transformational Leadership Transactional Leadership • Leaders who guide or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements. Transformational Leadership • 16-43 Leaders who inspire followers to transcend their own self-interests for the good of the organization by clarifying role and task requirements. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education
  • 43. Team leadership • Having patience to share information • Being able to trust others and to give up authority • Understanding when to intervene • Managing the team’s external boundary • Facilitating the team process • Coaching, facilitating, handling disciplinary problems , reviewing team and individual performance, training, and communication 16-44 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education
  • 44. Leadership Issues in the Twenty-First Century 1. Managing Power 2. Developing Trust 3. Empowering Employees 4. Leading across Cultures 5. Understanding Gender Differences 6. Gender differences in the Arab World 7. Becoming an Effective Leader 16-45 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education
  • 45. Managing Power Legitimate power • The power a leader has as a result of his or her position. • Coercive power • The power a leader has to punish or control. • Reward power • The power to give positive benefits or rewards. • 16-46 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education Expert power • The influence a leader can exert as a result of his or her expertise, skills, or knowledge. • Referent power • The power of a leader that arises because of a person’s desirable resources or admired personal traits. •
  • 46. Developing Trust Credibility (of a Leader)  The assessment of a leader’s honesty, competence, and ability to inspire by his or her followers. Trust  Is the belief of followers and others in the integrity, character, and ability of a leader.  Is related to increases in job performance, organizational citizenship behaviors, job satisfaction, and organization commitment. 16-47 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education
  • 47. Dimensions of Trust Integrity: Honesty and truthfulness Competence: Technical and interpersonal knowledge and skills Consistency: Reliability, predictability, and good judgment in handling situations Loyalty: Willingness to protect a person, physically and emotionally Openness: Willingness to share ideas and information freely 16-48 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education
  • 48. Empowering Employees Empowerment involves increasing the decision-making discretion of workers such that teams can make key operating decisions that directly affect their work. • Why empower employees? • Quicker responses to problems and faster decisions • Addresses the problem of increased spans of control in relieving managers to work on other problems 16-49 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education
  • 49. Cross-Cultural Leadership Universal Elements of Effective Leadership • Vision • Foresight • Providing encouragement • Trustworthiness • Dynamism • Positiveness • Proactiveness 16-50 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education
  • 50. Exhibit 16–7 Selected Cross-Cultural Leadership Findings • Korean leaders are expected to be paternalistic toward employees. • Arab leaders who show kindness or generosity without being asked to do so are seen by other Arabs as weak. • Japanese leaders are expected to be humble and speak frequently. • Scandinavian and Dutch leaders who single out individuals with public praise are likely to embarrass, not energize, those individuals. Source: Based on J. C. Kennedy, “Leadership in Malaysia: Traditional Values, International Outlook,” Academy of Management Executive, August 2002, pp. 15–16; F.C. Brodbeck, M. Frese, and M. Javidan, “Leadership Made in Germany: Low on Compassion, High on Performance,” Academy of Management Executive, February 2002, pp. 16–29; M. F. Peterson and J. G. Hunt, “International Perspectives on International Leadership,” Leadership Quarterly, Fall 1997, pp. 203–31; R. J. House and R. N. Aditya, “The Social Scientific Study of Leadership: Quo Vadis?” Journal of Management, vol. 23, no. 3, (1997), p. 463; and R. J. House, “Leadership in the Twenty-First Century,” in A. Howard (ed.), The Changing Nature of Work (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1995), p. 442. 16-51 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education
  • 51. Exhibit 16–7 (cont’d) Selected Cross-Cultural Leadership Findings • Effective leaders in Malaysia are expected to show compassion while using more of an autocratic than a participative style. • Effective German leaders are characterized by high performance orientation, low compassion, low selfprotection, low team orientation, high autonomy, and high participation. Source: Based on J. C. Kennedy, “Leadership in Malaysia: Traditional Values, International Outlook,” Academy of Management Executive, August 2002, pp. 15–16; F.C. Brodbeck, M. Frese, and M. Javidan, “Leadership Made in Germany: Low on Compassion, High on Performance,” Academy of Management Executive, February 2002, pp. 16–29; M. F. Peterson and J. G. Hunt, “International Perspectives on International Leadership,” Leadership Quarterly, Fall 1997, pp. 203–31; R. J. House and R. N. Aditya, “The Social Scientific Study of Leadership: Quo Vadis?” Journal of Management, vol. 23, no. 3, (1997), p. 463; and R. J. House, “Leadership in the Twenty-First Century,” in A. Howard (ed.), The Changing Nature of Work (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1995), p. 442. 16-52 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education
  • 52. Gender Differences and Leadership: Research findings  Males and females use different styles.  Women tend to adopt a more democratic or participative style unless in a male-dominated job.  Women tend to use transformational leadership.  Men tend to use transactional leadership.  Even if men and women differ in their leadership styles, we should not assume that one is always preferable to the other. 16-53 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education
  • 53. Gender Differences In Leadership In The Arab World • Leadership positions in the Arab world have traditionally been monopolized by men. • The dominant leadership prototype in Arab culture is a male figure. • However, many prominent women leaders have managed to reach top decision-making positions. 16-54 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education
  • 54. Exhibit 16-8 Female Economic Activity Rate in Selected World Regions in 2010 16-55 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education
  • 55. Becoming an Effective Leader: Leader Training • More likely to be successful with individuals who are high selfmonitors than with low self-monitors. • Individuals with higher levels of motivation to lead are more receptive to leadership development opportunities What can be taught: – – Trust-building – Mentoring – 16-56 Implementation skills Situational analysis Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education
  • 56. Becoming an Effective Leader: Substitutes for Leadership Sometimes, leadership may not be important! Follower characteristics  Experience, training, professional orientation, or the need for independence Job characteristics  Routine, unambiguous, and satisfying jobs Organizational characteristics  16-57 Explicit formalized goals, rigid rules and procedures, or cohesive work groups Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education
  • 57. Terms to Know leader leadership behavioral theories autocratic style democratic style laissez-faire style initiating structure consideration high-high leader managerial grid Fiedler contingency model 16-58 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education leader-member relations task structure position power situational leadership theory (SLT) readiness leader participation model path–goal theory transactional leaders transformational leaders
  • 58. Terms to Know legitimate power coercive power reward power expert power referent power credibility trust empowerment 16-59 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education
  • 59. 16-60 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education