-Egyptian civilization started around 3150 BC- commenced with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under the first pharaoh.-history of ancient Egypt occurred in a series of stable Kingdoms, separated by periods of relative instability known as IntermediatePeriods: the Old Kingdom of the Early BronzeAge, the Middle Kingdom of the Middle BronzeAge and the New Kingdom of the Late Bronze Age.
Ancient Egypt was an ancient civilization of eastern North Africa,concentrated along the lower reachesof the Nile River in what is now themodern country of Egypt.
-The success of ancient Egyptian civilization came from its ability to adapt to the conditions of the Nile River Valley. flooding and controlled irrigation of the fertile valley produced surplus crops, which fueled social development and culture.-Administration had surplus resources due to their successful farming methods.-surplus was used on: mineral exploitation of the valley and surrounding desert regions, the early development of an independent writing system,the organization ofcollective construction and agricultural projects, trade with surrounding regions, military intended to defeat foreign enemies and assert Egyptian dominance.-ancient Egyptians’ achievements include quarrying, surveying and construction techniques that facilitated the building of monumental pyramids, temples, andobelisks; a system of mathematics, a practical and effective system of medicine, the first known ships, the earliest known peace treaty and agricultural advancements. -land management; tax -Had no coin system until 5th centuary BCE.
-Pharoah was at the top, he was deitified.-Pharoah- Vizier (adminstrative stuff) Nomarchs (heads of the 42 provinces called nomes), scribes and officials, artisans farmers then everyone else -Staple diet was bread and beer supplemented with lots of vegetables. -Family was very important.
-Men and women were viewd as equal except slaves.-Ancient Egyptians believed a balanced relationship between people and animals was essential. -Ancient Egyptian placed great importance on hygene and appearance. -Music and Dance were popular for the affluent. -Pharoah had a cult where he was worshiped from the start of his reign. -Mummification
Metals used Gold Silver Copper Iron Electrum* *20% Silver/80% GoldEgyptians used this as gold became spare, but it reduced the high sheen of the gold
Lapis Lazuli(Dark Blue) Carnelian (Red/Orange) Turquoise (Turquoise/teal mix with brown veins)
"Egyptian blue" (irtiu, sbedj) “Green” (wadj)•Symbolic of the sky and of water •New life.•Heavens and of the primeval floods. •Osiris was often portrayed with green•Meaning of life and re-birth. skin and was also referred to as "the Great Green".”Yellow” (khenet, kenit) •Color of new life and re-birth•Both the sun and gold were yellow andshared the qualities of being imperishable, “Red” (desher)eternal and indestructible. •Life and of victory.•The skin and bones of the gods were •During celebrations, ancient Egyptians would paintbelieved to be made of gold. their bodies with red ochre and would wear amulets made of cornelian,“White ”(hedj and shesep) •Dipicted Seth•Omnipotence and purity. •Red was commonly used to symbolize the fiery nature•Simple and sacred things. of the radiant sun and serpent amulets representing the•White was also the heraldic color of "Eye of Re" (the fiery, protective, and possiblyUpper Egypt. malevolent aspect of the sun) were made of red stones.“Black” (kem)•Was a symbol of death and ofthe night.•Osiris, the king of the afterlifewas called "the black one.”
Eye of Ra/Horus Cartouche Scarab Flower of Life Falcon/Eagle Ankh
Chasing and RepousseCloisonné Engraving of metal/carving of Stone Granulation