BanBossy - Leadership tips for managers


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BanBossy - Leadership tips for managers

  1. 1. Brought to you by LeanIn.Org & Girl Scouts of the USA Leadership Tips for Managers
  2. 2. Join us to Ban Bossy When it comes to girls and ambition, the pattern is clear: girls are discouraged from leading. When a little boy asserts himself, he is called a “leader.” Yet when a little girl does the same, she risks being branded “bossy”—a precursor to words like “aggressive,” “angry,” and “too ambitious” that plague strong female leaders. Calling girls bossy is one of many things we do to discourage them from leading. It’s no wonder that by middle school, girls are less interested in leadership roles than boys, a trend that continues into adulthood. LeanIn.Org is proud to partner with Girl Scouts of the USA to bring you Ban Bossy, a public service campaign to encourage leadership and achievement in girls. With the help of girls’ leadership expert Rachel Simmons and the Girl Scout Research Institute, we’ve developed practical tips to help girls flex their leadership muscles and to offer parents, teachers, troop leaders, and managers hands-on strategies for supporting female leadership. The time to start building female leaders is now. We hope you’ll join us to Ban Bossy—and to encourage girls and women to lead. Women pay for their success: Success and likeability are positively correlated for men but negatively correlated for women.1 #BANBOSSY 2 Post “I will #banbossy” to your social media channels and visit to take the pledge and learn more. JOIN US TO BAN BOSSY
  3. 3. Gender bias is triggered by these deep-rooted stereotypes of women and men. As Malcolm Gladwell explores in Blink, we often rely on unconscious beliefs and assessments to make snap decisions—we think without thinking.2 Gender stereotypes are one of these mental shortcuts; we use them to filter information to simplify the world around us. Unfortunately, this often disadvantages women. Gender bias leads us to systematically discount women’s performance. Women receive less credit for achievements than their male counterparts.3 And successful women are generally less well liked than successful men.4 As a manager, you have a strong incentive to make sure that women can succeed in your organization. In the global war for talent, leveraging the full potential of the population provides a serious competitive advantage. Companies with more women in leadership roles have been shown to perform better.5 The good news is that there are small adjustments you can make to overcome gender bias on your team and in your organization. As you do, all ships will rise. —Rachel Thomas Co-founder and president of LeanIn.Org If you ask a room full of women, “Have you ever been called aggressive or difficult at work?” almost every hand goes up. If you ask a room full of men the very same question, only a few hands go up. Why are women and men having such vastly different experiences? Decades of social science research have taught us what we already know—stereotypes are enormously self-reinforcing. Men are expected to be assertive, confident, and opinionated, so we welcome their lead- ership. In contrast, women are expected to be kind, nurturing, and compassionate, so when they lead, they are going against our expectations. A man who makes a tough decision at work is often seen as decisive, while a woman who does the same may be seen as impulsive and brash. Don’t underestimate bias: One study found that replacing a woman’s name on a résumé with a man’s can increase her “worthiness of hire” by 60%.6 #BANBOSSY 3
  4. 4. #BANBOSSY 4 1. Push Back on the “Likeability Penalty” THE SITUATION > Women navigate a tightrope between being seen as competent and being well liked. When a woman exhibits leadership skills, such as speaking in a direct style or promoting her ideas, she is often liked less by her peers. If she is friendly and helpful, her peers tend to like her but may be less apt to see her as competent.7 This can have a big impact on a woman’s career. Ask yourself: Who are you more likely to support and promote, the man with high marks across the board or the woman who has equally high marks but is “just not as well liked”? THE SOLUTION > Listen for the language of the likeability penalty. When a woman is described as “aggressive,” “too ambitious,” “out for herself,” or “not well liked,” there’s a good chance this is the penalty in action. Push the person making the comment for a specific example of what the woman did. Then ask, “Would you have the same reaction if a man did the same thing?” In many cases, the answer will be no, and you can surface the possibility that gender bias is the culprit. If they push back, citing that men and women have the same issues with her, remind them that we’re all susceptible to bias—women are more harshly judged by both genders. Finally, it’s important to remember that you can fall into the same bias traps; think carefully about your own response to female coworkers. Listen for the language of the likeability penalty.
  5. 5. WHAT WOMEN CAN DO: FIND A WORK BUDDY One way to combat these negative meeting dynamics is to pair up with another woman and agree to advocate for each other. You can reinforce her good ideas and ask for her opinions, and she can do the same for you. When a woman advocates for another woman, they both benefit. — Shared by Gina Bianchini, CEO of Mightybell co-founder of LeanIn.Org 2. Get Everyone to Sit at the Table Participate THE SITUATION Compared to women, men talk more and make more suggestions in meetings, while women are interrupted more, given less credit for their ideas, and have less overall influence.8 If you watch men and women at the same job level, you will also notice that more of the men sit in the front and center seats, while women tend to gravitate toward the end of the table and edge of the room in meetings— away from the positions that convey status. Lack of full participation often undermines outcomes; but tapping into the skills and expertise of a diverse group of employees can improve performance.9 THE SOLUTION It’s important to make sure everyone speaks up and is heard. Start by watching where your team sits in meetings. Make sure women as well as men sit front and center. Set a precedent that every voice counts and establish a no interruptions rule to reinforce it. If a colleague is cut off, interject and say you’d like to hear her finish; this is good for her and elevates your leadership. Openly ask women to contribute to the conversation, and when they do contribute, acknowledge their contributions by name. #BANBOSSY 5
  6. 6. 1. Make Résumé Review Gender Blind Hiring decisions are prone to gender bias, too—remember, replacing a woman’s name on a résumé with a man’s can significantly increase her chances of being hired.12 When reviewing résumés for a job opening, consider making them gender blind. After a major U.S. symphony introduced a blind audition process—where musicians played behind a screen—a woman’s odds of advancing to the next round increased by 50 percent.13 2. Watch “Creating a Level Playing Field” Watch “Creating a Level Playing Field” by Shelley Correll, director of Stanford’s Clayman Institute for Gender Research, to learn six strategies for reducing errors in decision making and recognizing everyone’s best work. Use the discussion guide to lead a team conversation on gender bias, or break into small groups for more exploration and group exercises. You’ll find everything you need at ACTIVITIES 3. Evaluate Performance Fairly THE SITUATION We all understand the importance of fair evaluations, yet women are evaluated more harshly than men.10 This bias is more pronounced when review criteria are unclear, and we’re more likely to rely on gut feelings and personal inferences.11 THE SOLUTION Awareness begets fairness. Make sure everyone on your team is aware of the gender bias in evaluating performance. Work with your team to set expectations up front. Be specific about what constitutes excellent performance, and make sure goals are understood and measurable. The clearer your criteria are, the better. Ask team members to explain their evaluations—and ask the same of yourself. When we’re accountable for our decisions, we’re more motivated to think through them carefully. #BANBOSSY 6 Awareness begets fairness.
  7. 7. WHAT WOMEN CAN DO: OWN YOUR SUCCESS So often we deflect praise with a self-deprecating comment like “I got lucky” or “It was nothing.” What a missed opportunity! Praise can be hard to come by and goes a long way toward establishing your credibility. If nothing else, smile and say, “Thank you.” In two simple words, you’ve owned your accomplishment and communicated your appreciation. —Shared by Roxane Divol, senior vice president of partner alliances, Symantec 4. Give Women Credit THE SITUATION Ask a man to explain his success and he’ll typically point to his innate qualities and skills. Ask a woman and she’ll likely attribute her success to external factors, insisting she did well because she “worked really hard,” “got lucky,” or “had help from others.”14 And it’s not just women who are tough on themselves. All of us discount women’s achievements. Women also get less credit than their male counterparts for their role in team accomplishments.15 THE SOLUTION Make sure women get the credit they deserve and look for opportunities to celebrate their success. Help women identify their own success on a regular basis with questions like “What progress have you made since we last spoke?” or “What are you most proud of this month?” Keep a running record of their responses and have them to do the same. #BANBOSSY 7
  8. 8. 5. Pay Women Fairly THE SITUATION Even if you adjust for number of hours worked, on average women are paid less than men.16 Yet fair compensation makes good business sense— it can protect organizations from reputation risks and can increase employee motivation.17 THE SOLUTION Audit compensation across your team. Are women getting paid as much as men at the same level? Remember, fair pay begins with evaluating performance correctly and giving everyone full credit for their contributions. #BANBOSSY 8 DID YOU KNOW? The wage gap starts right out of school: A recent study found that women in their first year out of college were paid 82 cents for every dollar paid to their male peers.18
  9. 9. 6. Encourage Women to Negotiate THE SITUATION Women are less likely to negotiate, often because they are concerned they’ll be viewed unfavorably. They are right to worry. We expect men to advocate on their own behalf and be rewarded for their accomplishments, so there’s little downside for them when they negotiate, even fiercely. In contrast, we expect women to be communal and collaborative, so when they negotiate or advocate for themselves, we often react unfavorably.19 Of course it follows that women are less likely to receive equal pay if they don’t negotiate actively. THE SOLUTION Communicate to all the members of your team— especially the women—that it’s important for them to ask for what they deserve. Research shows that women will negotiate at comparable rates to men when given explicit permission.20 In addition, remember we’re all prone to penalize women when they negotiate. Be conscious of this dynamic and correct for it; you’ll set a good example for others. #BANBOSSY 9 WHAT WOMEN CAN DO: NEGOTIATE—BUT DO IT EFFECTIVELY! First and foremost, you need to negotiate—you won’t get what you don’t ask for. And when you do negotiate, understand the gender stereotypes you are fighting against and educate yourself about how to do so effectively. Use communal language, since women get better outcomes when they emphasize a concern for organizational relationships.23 For example, you can say, “My team exceeded all our goals this year. We all deserve to be rewarded for our accomplishments, including me.” Another way to demonstrate a connection to others is to ground the negotiation in gender pay issues: “Given that women are paid less than men across the board, we would both be disappointed if I didn’t negotiate for myself.” Watch Stanford professor Margaret Neale’s lecture at for other strategies to prepare for your next negotiation. DID YOU KNOW? Gender differences in the willingness to negotiate contribute to the underrepresentation of women at the top. According to one study, employees who negotiate are promoted 17 months more quickly.22 DID YOU KNOW? Studies show that women negotiate as effectively as men on someone else’s behalf, when their advocacy does not appear self-serving.21
  10. 10. Audit Your Team’s Project Work Make a list of the most common types of mission-critical and service work your team does. Service work can be anything from organizing birthday gifts to taking recruits out to dinner. Then evaluate who is doing what. If the women on your team are disproportionately doing service work, make adjustments. ACTIVITY 7. Distribute Work Equally THE SITUATION A majority of women end up in support roles, but line roles with PL responsibility more often lead to senior leadership positions.24 Women also tend to take on more service work (e.g., organizing events, training new hires, running team-building programs), leaving less time for mission-critical work.25 Whether women volunteer for these duties or are just expected to take them on, service work rarely gets someone noticed and promoted. When women are asked a favor at work, they earn almost no social capital for saying yes and are penalized for saying no. Men, on the other hand, gain points for saying yes and face minimal fallout for saying no.26 Over time, these dynamics can have a serious impact on a woman’s career trajectory. THE SOLUTION Audit who’s doing service work and make sure it’s distributed equally. Pay attention to who volunteers and what they volunteer for. Talk to the people who don’t volunteer for high-profile assignments to understand what’s holding them back—high workload, lack of interest, fear they won’t deliver— and help them work through their concerns. #BANBOSSY 10 WHAT WOMEN CAN DO: USE THE STRATEGIC NO Volunteer for stretch projects that will enhance your career. Then when people ask you to take on undervalued work, use what I call the strategic no. Simply say, “I’m working with Jim on a project that will open the door to an important new client base, but this would be a perfect stretch assignment for X down the hall.” This way you can dodge the project while communicating you’re a good team player. — Shared by Joan C. Williams, co-author of What Works for Women at Work DID YOU KNOW? Two-thirds of executive women in Fortune 200 companies are in support roles, such as HR and communications, but line roles with PL responsibility more often lead to the C-suite.27
  11. 11. 8. Encourage Women to Pursue Opportunities THE SITUATION Women tend to underestimate their skills and take fewer risks than men.28 As a result, they may be more hesitant to ask for high-profile projects or apply for new opportunities.29 Even when women have the desire, they don’t always have the flexibility and support to go for it. This has a huge impact on who ends up in leadership roles. THE SOLUTION Push back when a woman says she’s “not ready” or “not qualified.” Remind her what she’s already accomplished and how quickly she’s progressing. In addition, make it easier for her—and everyone on your team—to reach for opportunities and still meet family responsibilities. Support and encourage flexibility for everyone. Make it clear you value results over face time and actively serve as a good role model. If you talk openly about leaving early for your son’s game, you signal to everyone that it’s okay to make time for family. #BANBOSSY 11 DID YOU KNOW? Women are more likely than men to suffer from the impostor syndrome, a phenomenon that plagues people with self-doubt. Despite external evidence of their competence, they feel like frauds.31 DID YOU KNOW? Research shows that men apply for jobs when they meet 60% of the criteria, while women wait until they feel they meet 100% of the criteria.30
  12. 12. 9. Let Your Team Know You’ll Support Them Through Pregnancy THE SITUATION Companies lose talented women during their childbearing years—one study found that more than 40 percent of highly qualified women with children choose to “off-ramp,”32 and more than a quarter of them never rejoin the workforce.33 As a result, organizations incur significant expense recruiting and onboarding new employees and lose valuable institutional knowledge and connections.34 THE SOLUTION It’s not illegal to talk about pregnancy, only to discriminate based on it.35 Let the women—and men—on your team know you’ll support their decision to start a family. Offer to talk to them if and when they’re ready. They may not take you up on it, but they’ll feel supported knowing your door is open. Be explicit that you are asking so you can help them—for example, assure them you won’t start giving away the best assignments and that their jobs will be waiting for them on their return. #BANBOSSY 12 Learn How to Talk About Pregnancy Read Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher Flom’s guidelines for talking to women about pregnancy within the framework of the law. Go to about-pregnancy-at-work. ACTIVITY
  13. 13. 10. Mentor Sponsor Women THE SITUATION Mentorship and sponsorship are key drivers of success, yet women can have a harder time finding mentors and sponsors, especially those with lots of influence.36 Mentoring relationships often form between individuals with common interests.37 Men end up gravitating toward other men, and since there are more men in senior roles, women miss out.38 Moreover, junior women and senior men often avoid mentoring relationships out of concern that a close relationship—or even time spent together—will look inappropriate.39 THE SOLUTION We need more male managers to mentor and sponsor junior women, and we should reward them when they do. Establish formal mentorship and sponsorship programs. Encourage informal interactions between the women and men on your team—personal connections lead to relationships that can propel careers. Finally, look for ways to make access to managers equal. #BANBOSSY 13 WHAT WOMEN CAN DO: 1. FOCUS ON AUTHENTIC CONNECTIONS Too many young women start with, “Will you be my mentor?” That’s an awfully big ask. More specific and thoughtful questions are more effective—for example, “I researched Competitor X and wonder why we don’t compare our product features to theirs. Do you have a few minutes to discuss?” I always feel compelled to spend a few minutes answering, and over time these quick exchanges lead to a deeper relationship that I feel invested in. —Shared by Heather S. Burgess, associate director, Procter Gamble 2. START A CIRCLE Finding a mentor can be difficult, but peers can be just as effective at offering guidance. This is the power of Lean In Circles. These small self-organizing groups meet regularly to harness the experience and creativity of all their members. Research shows that people are more confident and are able to learn and accomplish more in groups.41 Start or join your own Circle today at, and invite men to join the conversation too. DID YOU KNOW? According to a recent report, almost two-thirds of male executives are hesitant to have one-on-one meetings with a more junior woman.40
  14. 14. The photographs in this document are from the Lean In Collection on Getty Images available at #BANBOSSY 14 Post “I will #banbossy” to your social media channels and visit to take the pledge and learn more. JOIN US TO BAN BOSSY LeanIn.Org LeanIn.Org is the nonprofit organization founded by Facebook COO Sheryl Sandberg to empower all women to achieve their ambitions. LeanIn.Org offers inspiration and support through an online community, free expert lectures, and Lean In Circles, small peer groups who meet regularly to share and learn together. Visit for more information and tips for parents and girls.
  15. 15. #BANBOSSY 1 Madeline E. Heilman and Tyler G. Okimoto, “Why Are Women Penalized for Success at Male Tasks? The Implied Communality Deficit,” Journal of Applied Psychology 92, no. 1 (2007): 81–92; and Madeline E. Heilman et al., “Penalties for Success: Reactions to Women Who Succeed at Male Gender-Typed Tasks,” Journal of Applied Psychology 89, no. 3 (2004): 416—27. 2 Malcolm Gladwell, Blink (New York: Back Bay Books, 2007). 3 Madeline E. Heilman and Michelle C. Haynes, “No Credit Where Credit Is Due: Attributional Rationalization of Women’s Success in Male-Female Teams,” Journal of Applied Psychology 90, no. 5 (2005): 905—16. 4 Madeline E. Heilman and Tyler G. Okimoto, “Why Are Women Penalized for Success at Male Tasks?”; and Madeline E. Heilman et al., “Penalties for Success.” 5 “Women on Boards. Factsheet 1: The Economic Arguments,” European Commission (2013), womenonboards/factsheet-general-1_en.pdf; Nancy M. Carter and Harvey M. Wagner, “The Bottom Line: Corporate Performance and Women’s Representation on Boards (2004—2008),” Catalyst (March 1, 2011), performance-and-womens-representation-boards-20042008; Mary Cur- tis, Christine Schmid, and Marion Struber, Gender Diversity and Corporate Performance (August 2012), Credit Suisse Research Institute, https://; and Dow Jones, “Women at the Wheel: Do Female Executives Drive Start-Up Suc- cess?” (2012), port_final.pdf. 6 Rhea E. Steinpreis, Katie A. Anders, and Dawn Ritzke, “The Impact of Gender on the Review of Curricula Vitae of Job Applicants and Tenure Candidates: A National Empirical Study,” Sex Roles 41, nos. 7—8 (1999): 509—28. 7 Catalyst, The Double-Bind Dilemma for Women in Leadership: Damned if You Do, Doomed if You Don’t (July 2007), knowledge/double-bind-dilemma-women-leadership-damned-if-you- do-doomed-if-you-dont-0; Madeline E. Heilman and Julie J. Chen, “Same Behavior, Different Consequences: Reactions to Men’s and Women’s Altruistic Citizenship Behaviors,” Journal of Applied Psychology 90, no. 3 (2005): 431—41; Madeline E. Heilman and Tyler G. Okimoto, “Why Are Women Penalized for Success at Male Tasks?”; and Sheryl Sandberg, Lean In (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2013), 39—51. 8 Sheryl Sandberg, Lean In, 149; Deborah Tannen, “The Power of Talk: Who Gets Heard and Why,” Harvard Business Review 73, no. 5 (1995): 138—48; and Melissa C. Thomas-Hunt and Katherine Phillips, “When What You Know Is Not Enough,” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 30, no. 12 (2004): 1585–98. For a review of gender and speech, see Cecilia L. Ridgeway and Lynn Smith-Lovin, “The Gender System and Interaction,” Annual Review of Sociology 25, no. 1 (1999): 202—3. 9 Cedric Herring, “Does Diversity Pay? Race, Gender and the Business Case for Diversity,” American Sociological Review 74, no. 2 (2009): 208—24. 10 Corinne A. Moss-Racusin et al., “Science Faculty’s Subtle Gender Biases Favor Male Students,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 109, no. 41 (2012): 16474—79. 11 Madeline E. Heilman, “Gender Stereotypes and Workplace Bias,” Research in Organizational Behavior 32 (2012): 113—35; and Eric Luis Uhl- mann and Geoffrey L. Cohen, “Constructed Criteria: Redefining Merit to Justify Discrimination,” Psychological Science 16, no. 6 (2005): 474—80. 12 Rhea E. Steinpreis, Katie A. Anders, and Dawn Ritzke, “The Impact of Gender on the Review of Curricula Vitae of Job Applicants and Tenure Candidates.” 13 Ibid.; and Claudia Goldin and Cecilia Rouse, “Orchestrating Impartiali- ty: The Impact of ‘Blind’ Auditions on Female Musicians,” The American Economic Review 90, no. 4 (2000): 715—41. 14 Sylvia Beyer, “Gender Differences in Causal Attributions by College Students of Performance on Course Examinations,” Current Psychology 17, no. 4 (1998): 346—58; and Sylvia Beyer, “The Effects of Gender, Dysphoria, and Performance Feedback on the Accuracy of Self-Evalua- tions,” Sex Roles 47, nos. 9—10 (2002): 453—64. 15 Sheryl Sandberg, Lean In, 30; and Madeline E. Heilman and Michelle C. Haynes, “No Credit Where Credit Is Due.” 16 Francine D. Blau and Lawrence M. Kahn, “The U.S. Gender Pay Gap in the 1990s: Slowing Convergence,” Industrial and Labor Relations Review 60, no. 1 (2006): 45—66. 17 Equality and Human Rights Commission, Equal Pay—A Good Business Decision (December 2011), loaded_files/publications/equalpayagoodbusinessdecision.pdf; Peggy A. Cloninger, Nagarajan Ramamoorthy, and Patrick C. Flood, “The Influence of Equity, Equality and Gender on Organizational Citizenship Behaviors,” S.A.M. Advanced Management Journal 76 (Autumn 2011): 37—46; and Kent Romanoff, Ken Boehm, and Edward Benson, “Pay Equity: Internal and External Considerations,” Compensation and Benefits Review 18a, no. 6 (1986): 17—25. 18 Christianne Corbett and Catherine Hill, Graduating to a Pay Gap: The Earnings of Women and Men One Year After College Graduation, American Association of University Women (October 2012), http://www. en-and-men-one-year-after-college-graduation.pdf. 19 Sheryl Sandberg, Lean In, 45; Emily T. Amanatullah and Catherine H. Tinsley, “Punishing Female Negotiators for Asserting Too Much . . . or Not Enough: Exploring Why Advocacy Moderates Backlash Against Assertive Female Negotiators,” Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 120, no. 1 (2013): 110—22; and Hannah Riley Bowles, Linda Babcock, and Lei Lai, “Social Incentives for Gender Differences in the Propensity to Initiate Negotiations: Sometimes It Does Hurt to Ask,” Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 103, no. 1 (2007): 84–103. Endnotes 15
  16. 16. #BANBOSSY 20 Andreas Leibbrandt and John A. List, Do Women Avoid Salary Nego- tiations? Evidence from a Large Scale Natural Field Experiment, National Bureau of Economic Research, Working Paper 18511 (November 2012). 21 Emily T. Amanatullah and Michael W. Morris, “Negotiating Gender Roles: Gender Differences in Assertive Negotiating Are Mediated by Women’s Fear of Backlash and Attenuated When Negotiating on Behalf of Others,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 98, no. 2 (2010): 256—67; and Hannah Riley Bowles et al., “Constraints and Triggers: Situational Mechanics of Gender in Negotiation,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 89, no. 6 (2005): 951—65. 22 Fiona Greig, “Propensity to Negotiate and Career Advancement: Evidence from an Investment Bank That Women Are on a ‘Slow Elevator,’” Negotiation Journal no. 24 (2008): 495—508. 23 Hannah Riley Bowles and Linda Babcock, “How Can Women Escape the Compensation Negotiation Dilemma? Relational Accounts Are One Answer,” Psychology of Women Quarterly 37, no. 1 (2013): 80—96. 24 Joanna Barsh and Lareina Yee, Special Report: Unlocking the Full Potential of Women at Work, McKinsey Company (2012), http://online. 25 Joan C. Williams and Rachel Dempsey, What Works for Women at Work: Four Patterns Working Women Need to Know (New York: NYU Press, 2014). 26 Madeline E. Heilman and Julie J. Chen, “Same Behavior, Different Consequences.” 27 Joanna Barsh and Lareina Yee, Special Report: Unlocking the Full Potential of Women at Work. 28 Jennifer L. Lawless and Richard L. Fox, Men Rule: The Continued Under-Representation of Women in U.S. Politics, Women Politics Institute, American University School of Public Affairs (January 2012), final-web.pdf; Marianne Bertrand, “New Perspectives on Gender,” in Handbook of Labor Economics, vol. 4B, ed. Orley Ashenfelter and David Card (Amsterdam: North Holland, 2010): 1544—90; Rachel Croson and Uri Gneezy, “Gender Differences in Preferences,” Journal of Economic Literature 47, no. 2 (2009): 448—74; Irene E. De Pater et al., “Challenging Experiences: Gender Differences in Task Choice,” Journal of Manage- rial Psychology 24, no.1 (2009): 4—28; Catherine C. Eckel and Phillip J. Grossman, “Men, Women, and Risk Aversion: Experimental Evidence,” in Handbook of Experimental Economics Results, vol. 1, ed. Charles R. Plott and Vernon L. Smith (Amsterdam: North Holland, 2008), 1061—73; S. Scott Lind et al., “Competency-Based Student Self-Assessment on a Surgery Rotation,” Journal of Surgical Research 105, no. 1 (2002): 31—34; and Kimberly A. Daubman, Laurie Heatherington, and Alicia Ahn, “Gen- der and the Self-Presentation of Academic Achievement,” Sex Roles 27, nos. 3–4 (1992): 187–204. 29 Anne Ross-Smith and Colleen Chesterman, “‘Girl Disease’: Women Managers’ Reticence and Ambivalence Towards Organizational Advance- ment,” Journal of Management Organization 15, no. 5 (2009): 582—95; Liz Doherty and Simonetta Manfredi, “Women’s Progression to Senior Positions in English Universities,” Employee Relations 28, no. 6 (2006): 553—72; and Belinda Probert, “‘I Just Couldn’t Fit It In’: Gender and Unequal Outcomes in Academic Careers,” Gender, Work and Organization 12, no. 1 (2005): 50—72. 30 Georges Desvaux, Sandrine Devillard-Hoellinger, and Mary C. Meaney, “A Business Case for Women,” The McKinsey Quarterly (September 2008): 4, Women.pdf. 31 Pauline Rose Clance and Suzanne Ament Imes, “The Imposter Phenom- enon in High Achieving Women: Dynamics and Therapeutic Intervention,” Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice 15, no. 3 (1978): 241—47; and Gina Gibson-Beverly and Jonathan P. Schwartz, “Attachment, Entitlement, and the Impostor Phenomenon in Female Graduate Students,” Journal of College Counseling 11, no. 2 (2008): 120—21. 32 Sylvia Ann Hewlett and Carolyn Buck Luce, “Off-Ramps and On-Ramps: Keeping Talented Women on the Road to Success,” Harvard Business Review 83, no. 3 (2005): 43—54. 33 Ibid. 34 Ibid. 35 Joseph Yaffe, “Rethinking Workplace Pregnancy Discussions,” LeanIn.Org, April 8, 2013, place-pregnancy-discussions/. 36 Sheryl Sandberg, Lean In, 8; Kimberly E. O’Brien et al., “A Meta-Analytic Investigation of Gender Differences in Mentoring,” Journal of Manage- ment 36, no. 2 (2010): 539—40; Herminia Ibarra, Nancy M. Carter, and Christine Silva, “Why Men Still Get More Promotions than Women,” Har- vard Business Review 88, no. 9 (2010): 80—85; and George F. Dreher and Taylor H. Cox Jr., “Race, Gender, and Opportunity: A Study of Compensa- tion Attainment and the Establishing of Mentoring Relationships,” Journal of Applied Psychology 81, no. 3 (1996): 297—308. 37 Tammy D. Allen, Mark L. Poteet, and Susan M. Burroughs, “The Mentor’s Perspective: A Qualitative Inquiry and Future Research Agenda,” Journal of Vocational Behavior 51, no. 1 (1997): 86. 38 Herminia Ibarra, Nancy M. Carter, and Christine Silva, “Why Men Still Get More Promotions Than Women.” 39 Sylvia Ann Hewlett et al., The Sponsor Effect: Breaking Through the Last Glass Ceiling, a Harvard Business Review Research Report (December 2010): 35. 40 Ibid. 41 Patrick R. Laughlin, Erin C. Hatch, Jonathan S. Silver, and Lee Boh, “Groups Perform Better Than the Best Individuals on Letters-to-Numbers Problems: Effects of Induced Strategies,” Journal of Personality and So- cial Psychology 90, no. 4 (2006): 644—51; and Paul Zarnoth and Janet A. Sniezek, “The Social Influence of Confidence in Group Decision Making,” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 33, no. 4 (1997): 345—66. Endnotes 16