Epq Merielee


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Epq Merielee

  1. 1. Knowing Yourself the Scientific Way What does that mean in the workplace?
  2. 2. “ [Personality] is the stable pattern of behaviour that characterises a person” (Burns, 1997)
  3. 3. Impact of Personality in the Organisational Mix <ul><li>Personality and Personal Values play an important role in the workplace </li></ul><ul><li>Eysenck’s and Cattell’s theories attempt to show the underlying personality traits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>explaining human behaviour in various situations (“Trait Theories”) </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Know Thyself: Eysenck’s Personality Typology <ul><li>According to Eysenck, personality is structured across 3 dimensions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extraversion - Introversion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neuroticism - Stable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychoticism - Normal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) was devised to objectively assess a person’s personality dimensions </li></ul>
  5. 5. Personality Dimensions <ul><li>Scores on the dimensions are related to specific characteristics. </li></ul><ul><li>Eysenck’s theory produces 4 main types of personality, combining these </li></ul>Sanguine Choleric Phlegmatic Melancholic Unstable-Introverted Stable-Introverted Stable-Extraverted Unstable-Extraverted
  6. 6. Extraversion Dimension <ul><li>Extraverts are typically active, sociable, assertive and are carefree. </li></ul><ul><li>Intraverts are the opposite </li></ul>Costa & McCrae, 1995 High Activity Sociability Expressiveness Assertiveness Ambition Dogmatism Aggressiveness Extraverted Intraverted Low
  7. 7. Neuroticism Dimension <ul><li>Neurotic personality is associated with high level of negative affect; ie worries, anxieties, irrationality and depression </li></ul>Costa & McCrae, 1995 High Inferiority Unhappiness Anxiety Dependence Hypochrondia Guilt Obessiveness Neurotic Stable Low
  8. 8. Psychotism Dimension <ul><li>Those who score highly on the psychotism dimension has the capacity for psychotic episodes </li></ul><ul><li>They are also non-conforming, reckless, and unempathic, but also creative </li></ul>High Risk Taking Impulsivity Irresponsibility Manipulativeness Tough-mindedness Sensation-seeking Practicality Psychotic Normal Low
  9. 9. Cattell’s Way <ul><li>Cattell isolated 16 descriptive terms which are primary traits (source) of personality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Warmth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reasoning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional Stability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dominance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liveliness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rule-Consciousness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Openness to Change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-Reliance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perfectionism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tension </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social Boldness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensitivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vigilance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abstractedness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Privateness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apprehensiveness </li></ul></ul>See for more info http://www.16pfworld.com/primaryfactors.html
  10. 10. Global Factors <ul><li>When the primary traits are factor-analysed you get Global Factors which describe personality at a broader level. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extraversion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anxiety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tough-Mindedness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Independence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-Control </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Relevance to Work Practice <ul><li>Both these theories have predictive usefulness in the occupational sphere </li></ul><ul><li>In business and industry, for e.g. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They have implication for behavioural preference and individual fit for certain work roles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Therefore, they can be used as methods for increasing work contentment by means of personnel selection, and to also improve efficiency output and occupational successes </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. That is… <ul><li>Using these Eysenck’s and Cattell’s methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You can choose the right job for you… </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. What are your personality dimensions? <ul><li>See for yourself </li></ul><ul><li>Go to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://similarminds.com/eysenck.html </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.16pfworld.com/primaryfactors.html </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. References <ul><li>McKenna, E. (1994). Business & Organisational Behaviour: A Student’s Handbook. Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc Ltd, East Sussex </li></ul><ul><li>Furnham, A. (2008). Personality & Intelligence at Work: Exploring and Explaining Individual Differences at Work. Routledge, East Sussex </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.trans4mind.com/personality/ </li></ul><ul><li>Jackson (2000). Structure of the EPP, Brit. J. Psych, 91 , 223 </li></ul><ul><li>Costa & McCrae (95). Primary Traits of the Eysenck PEN System, J. Personality & Social Psych, 69 , 308 </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Independence (IN)Accommodation </li></ul><ul><li>Independence </li></ul><ul><li>Low Scorers tend to be agreeable and accommodating to other people and external influences rather than being self-determining. They may be uncomfortable in situations that call for independence or assertiveness. Low scorers have varying degrees of deference, cooperation, shyness, trust, and adherence to the status quo. Their ability to accommodate others' wishes often comes at their own expense, and may frustrate others who desire more active participation from them. </li></ul><ul><li>High Scorers tend to take charge of situations and to influence others rather than be influenced. Their active stance on life can include one or more of these elements: dominance and an unwillingness to acquiesce; social boldness and fearlessness; skepticism of others, especially about being controlled; and willingness to question and improve on the status quo. High scorers can be seen as disagreeable by others who feel challenged or controlled. They may find it hard to accommodate others when it is important to do so. </li></ul><ul><li>Self-Control (SC) </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of Restraint </li></ul><ul><li>Self-Control </li></ul><ul><li>Low Scorers are unrestrained and tend to have fewer resources for controlling their behavior. They may find it hard to place limits on their own urges or to focus their attention. They may be: spontaneous, carefree or impulsive; non-conforming, or inattentive to rules and regulations; so caught up in internal thoughts that they don't focus on practicalities; or so undisciplined and casual that they do not plan, organize, or persevere. While perceived as flexible, playful and casual, low scorers can also be seen as unreliable, expedient, or careless. </li></ul><ul><li>High Scorers are conscientious and have substantial resources for controlling their behavior and meeting their responsibilities. These resources may include one or more of these qualities: being cautious, restrained, and taking matters seriously; placing importance on following rules and meeting expectations; being practical, focused, and realistic; being self-disciplined, goal-oriented, and organized. While they tend to be seen as conscientious, responsible, and reliable, high scorers can also be seen as overly controlled -- that is, too serious or moralistic or task-oriented. </li></ul>