1.1 Transport as a component of the
! The means to reach the destination;!
! A necessary means of movement at the destination;!
! In a minority of instances it is the actual tourism attraction or
1.2 Components of the Transportation
1. The Way;!
2. The Terminal;!
3. The Vehicle; and!
4. Motive power.!
1.2.1 The Way!
The way is the medium of travel over which the vehicle operates. It may be purely
artiﬁcial such as roads or railways, or natural, such as air or water.!
1.2.2 The Terminal!
Public transport terminals give the passenger access to the vehicle, or act as an
interchange between different modes of transport. Not all modes need to have
sophisticated terminals; buses and coaches for instance can and do operate from
roadside locations although town and city centre terminals are often more substantive.
Perhaps the most complex terminal is an airport and the dramatic growth in the air
transport worldwide has witnessed the development of many new airports in recent
years. The design of terminals and the amenities they offer depend heavily upon the
type of journey and mode of transportation involved, as does the length of time spent
at the terminal. !
1.2.3 The Vehicle!
The carrying unit is the actual transportation media: the vehicle that facilitates the
movement. The nature of vehicles has been inﬂuenced by numerous factors, which
include travel demand and technological developments, as well as the other elements
of the mode, particularly motive power. !
1.2.4 Motive Power!
Motive power is the key element in transportation development. The recent history of
transport for tourism is characterised by changes in technology with the emphasise
on environmental issues!
1.3.1 Road transport!
The car dominates road transport, which is almost the perfect tool for tourist use
offering the following attractions:!
- the control of the route and the stops en route;!
- the control of departure times;!
- door - to - door ﬂexibility!
- the ideal capacity for families;!
- the ability to carry baggage and equipment easily;!
- the ability to use the vehicle for accommodation in the case of recreational vehicles
- the freedom to use the vehicle once the destination is reached; and!
- the low perceived cost. !
1.3.2 Railway transport!
For rail, the main competition between modes is often based upon the time and
distance comparison, city centre to city centre, compared with air. Beyond a certain
distance, some visitors see rail as being too cumbersome and tiring and it is then that
notions of adventure and sightseeing take over as the attractions of the rail
mode.Trains are a relatively ‘green’ form of travel, both in terms of fuel efﬁciency and
also in terms of emissions.!
The most important reasons for travelling by train are:!
- the ability to look out of the train and see en route;!
- the ability to move around the coach;!
- arriving at the destination rested and relaxed;!
- personal comfort;!
- centrally located termini; and!
- environmentally - friendly form of transport!
1.3.3 Sea transport!
We can divide water-borne transport into short sea ferry transport and ocean-going
cruises. Cruising should also be thought of as a holiday product as much as a mode of
transport. Ferry services, which include or exclude vehicles, can provide lifeline
services to islands as well as a focus for visitors who normally are packaged holiday
makers, independent or same-day visitors. !
As far as the transportation of vehicles and merchandise is required on short sea
crossing, ferries offer inexpensive, reliable and safe services. Fery transportation is the
only possibility in the case of remote and small islands which have no airport. !
1.3.4 Air transport!
Travelling by air is probably the most important transportation innovation of the
twentieth century. It has enabled the transportation of passengers in the shortest time
and it has boosted the demand for long-haul trips. !
Scheduled airlines offer a safe, convenient,reliable, frequent and relatively consumer-
orientated product. Airlines attract business travellers, who appreciate the speed and
ﬂexibility between the various ﬂights, especially on popular routes, as well as the
leisure passengers who enjoy the ability to arrive at the destination quickly, and
without spending time and money en route. !
In the context of tourism sector in general, accommodation rarely has a place or
rationale in its own right. It is rare for a tourist to select to stay in a hotel or other
form of accommodation for its own sake. Rather, the choice is made because of the
accommodation provides a support service for the wider motivation that has brought
the visitor to the destination, whether for business or leisure purposes. !
Accommodation is a necessary component in the development of tourism within any
destination that seeks to serve visitors other than day-trippers. The quality and
range of accommodation available will both reﬂect and inﬂuence the range of visitors
to a location. In addition to this, it has been found that accommodation plays such an
important role in the overall economic contribution which tourism makes at a local
and national level. !
Accommodation is, according to Cooper et al. (19998), the largest and most ubiquitous
sub-sector within the tourism economy. Not only do most, if not all, tourists require
overnight accommodation during their journey through, or stay in, a destination, but
also spending on accommodation usually represents the most signiﬁcant element of
total tourist expenditure. !
1. The accommodation sector of the tourism industry is enormously fragmented and
diverse. In terms of size, style, location, ownership and the type, variety and level of
services provided - a multitude of other types of accommodation are available. !
2. Tourism accommodation is a sub-sector of the international hospitality industry.
Hospitality, according to Jones (1996), is made up of two distinct services - the
provision of overnight accommodation for people staying away from home, and the
provision of sustenance for people eating away from home. !
3. Accommodation is not only a constituent element of the tourism product but also of
the tourism experience. That is, accommodation provision represents more than the
tangible elements of a room, a bed, a meal and so on. It is also concerned with meeting
guests’ needs and expectations. !
Hotels are undoubtedly the most signiﬁcant and visible sub-sector within
accommodation or lodging. In addition to this, hotels are the tourism sub-sector that
provides the greatest total employment in global terms and probably accounts for
the highest level of receipts. !
when most people think about hotel , what do they think
The tradition view of a hotel was an establishment providing accommodation as well
as food and beverage services to short-stay guests on a paying basis. !
The hotel industry"
According to Chambers English Dictionary:!
A hotel is a ‘usually large house run for the purposes of giving
travellers food, lodging, etc’. !
The dictionary deﬁnition includes some of the characteristics of
modern hotels, but fails to do justice to the complexity and variety of
Hotels today are in the business of providing space to the customers in which they can eat,
drink, sleep, wash, bathe, play, confer, relax, do business and a whole range of other human
Hotel can be deﬁned as: ‘an operation that provides accommodation and ancillary services
to people away from home’ - all people who spend time away from home for whatever
reason and so it includes the traditional concept of a ‘hotel’, as well as motels, holiday
camps, condominiums, hostels, hospitals and prisons.!
How can we classify the hotels?
What means can we use?!
! Type of guest served (Business or leisure travel)!
! Ownership !
4. Structure of the accommodation sector -
operations (service provided)!
Accommodation sector can be grouped into:
- Commercial sector
- Non-Commercial Sector
Also, the accommodation sector comprises widely differing forms of sleeping and
hospitality facilities which can be conveniently categorised as either serviced or self-
Caravan and campsites
Holiday centres, villages, camps
Figure 2: The structure of tourist accommodation I
Source: Adapted from Holloway, J.C. (2002)
QUASI/NON COMMERCIAL SECTOR
Figure 3: The structure of tourist accommodation II
Source: Adapted from Holloway, J.C. (2002)
Figure 3: Range of Lodging Property Alternatives
Source: Hayes, D.K. and Ninemeier (2005)
5. Hotel Ownership and
• Single-Unit Property Not Aﬃliated with Any Brand -
these properties capture a small market share. Private/own
• Single-Unit Properties Aﬃliated with a Brand -
properties that are part of a hotel chain and able to receive
ﬁnancing support from business afﬁliating with a brand
• Multiunit Properties Aﬃliated with the Same Brand - owners
own several hotels and afﬁliate all of them with the same brand.!
• Multiunit Properties Aﬃliated with Diﬀerent Brands - some
owners elect to choose several brands. They sometimes own more
than one hotel in a market area. They may have some limited-
service and some full-service hotels. Same brand name would not
represent both these types of properties.!
• Multiunit Properties Operated by the Brand or Others - some
brands will offer management services to hotel owners. Some
companies neither own the hotels but simply provide, for a fee,
management services to the hotel’s owners. These companies are
known as management companies. !
• Multiunit Properties Owned by the Brand - some brands do
own some of their own hotels.!
Bed and Breakfast (B&B)"
• B&B allows overseas visitors to
meet the people and enjoy a
more intimate relationship with
the culture of the country they are
• B&B is generally family run,
catering to business tourists in the
towns and to leisure tourists in
country towns, rural areas and the
• Farmhouse holiday have enjoyed
considerable success in most
European countries with strong
agricultural traditions, such as
Britain and Denmark. !
• Holiday camps are very much a
British innovation introduced on a
major scale in the 1930s by three
noted entrepreneurs, Billy Butlin,
Fred Pontin and Harry Warner. !
• The aim of holiday camps is to
provide all-in entertainment at a
low price in chalet-style
accommodation which would be
largely unaffected by inclement
The new holiday villages"
• Holiday villages offer a new
concept in resort marketing. !
• It offers a very different kind of
holiday experience to the
traditional holiday centre. !
• The up-market holiday village
such as Club Mediterranean. !
Second-home and time-share
• Where an outright purchase is beyond
people s means, the concept of time-share
offers an alternative means of taking a
holiday in one s second home. !
• Time-share is a scheme whereby an
apartment or villa is sold to several co-
owners, each of whom purchases the right
to use the accommodation for a given
period of the year, which may range from
one week to several weeks. !
• The initial cost of the accommodation will
vary not only according to the length of
time fo which it is purchased, but also
depending on the period of the year, so that
a week in July or August, for example, may
be three or four times the cost of the same
accommodation in winter. !
• Universities and other institutions
of higher education, seeking to
increase contributions to their
revenue through the rental of
student accommodation during
the academic holidays, have
marketed this accommodation for
budget holidays to tour operators
and others. !
.... and recently"
Themes based accommodation
Theme hotels and themed hotel rooms have popped up all over the world in recent years
in order to accommodate niche groups of travellers with a passion for certain sports,
musicians, places and general interests. Some of these are situated near the world s best
theme parks and are devoted to creating a fun atmosphere for all ages. Others are five-star
luxury hotels that use subtle decor to hint at the theme that they are trying to project. And
still others are truly out-there niche hotels themed around oddities like physics and even
death! Take a look at seven of the best theme hotels out there.
Hoteliers develop themes based on the properties their hotel occupy. Old magistrates
courts, police and railway stations, even a former boatman s brothel, have all been
converted into tourist accommodation and have retained many of their original
characteristic features to offer unique appeal to the customers.
The Glasglow Mal: A renovation of an old church
into a hotel
The Belfast Mal: An old seed warehouse that has
been turned into the slinkiest boutique hotel in
The Birmingham Mal: A gloriously converted Royal
Mail Sorting Office
Le Meridien Cambridge [MA, United States] This hotel, better
known as the Hotel@MIT, is a technology and physics themed
hotel designed around the major fields of study at the nearby
tech school. Pictures of famous physicists in the bedrooms,
bedspreads designed with mathematical equations and robots
serving as sculptural art in the lobby are all symbols that lend
themselves well to the overall theme of the hotel.
The Oxford Mal (Oxford, England): The core of Oxford Castle
is nearly 1,000 years old but most of its structures (old and
new) were converted into a prison in the 1800s. Today, the
Malmaison Hotel complex has overnight rooms, apartments,
restaurants and bars. Much of the prison infrastructure is still
legible to visitors and overnight guests though everything has
been upgraded, remodeled and refurbished for guests.
Santa Isabel @ Europa Park [Germany] Europa Park is one of the
world’s largest theme parks so it’s fitting that there are a series
of theme hotels associated with the location. While many people
choose to go to the more established theme hotels (like the
ancient Roman hotel called Colosseo), the most interesting of
the hotels is the new Santa Isabel hotel. Themed around the
concept of a Portuguese monastery, it has all of the amenities of
a four star hotel but still hints at the simple historic charm of
the homes made by monks.
Hard Days Night Hotel [Liverpool, England] There are millions of
people who love The Beatles and a large percentage of them would
be thrilled to stay in a hotel devoted entirely to the legendary band.
If you’re one of those folks then you need to take yourself to this
hotel which began development in 2004 and finally opened earlier this
year. If you want to go all out, you should book into one of the two
penthouse suites suitably called The Lennon Suite and McCartney
Suite, of course. And if you think John and Yoko are the couple to
live up to then you can get married in the wedding chapel at this
luxury theme hotel!
Hotel Pelirocco [Brighton Beach, England] This hotel starts
off as a theme hotel devoted to rock ‘n roll but it takes
things a step further and extends the theme to include all
pop subculture. The nineteen art rooms in the hotel are all
based on different aspects of the pop star or rock star’s
way of life. There’s an Asbolut vodka room for the rocker
who likes to drink. There’s a pin-up parlor for the star who
loves the ladies. There’s a tropical room for the star that
needs to get away. And there’s a Jamie Reed room named
and decorated after the punk rock visionary.
Argonaut Hotel [CA, United States] San Francisco is a city nearly
surrounded by water so it’s no surprise that it has a hotel themed
around the maritime history of the place. Argonaut Hotel is housed
within a historic building called the Haslett Warehouse which
overlooks the historic ships docked at the city’s Maritime National
Historic Park. The luxury hotel (situated in the Fisherman’s Wharf
neighborhood) has all of the amenities you could possible need from
spas to gourmet snacks, but maintains a strong link with the history
of the region.
Le Monde Hotel [Edinburgh, Scotland] This hotel is themed
around the idea that you can travel around the world without
leaving your hotel. Each of the rooms is decorated to illicit the
feeling that you are in a specific city somewhere else in the
world. There are also themed bars to create the sensation that
you are a globetrotting party animal. And, of course, there are
theme restaurants with cuisine from the city around which they
are based : dine in Paris, drink in Shanghai and then fall asleep
Astronomer’s Inn [AZ, United States] If the theme that gets you all hot and
bothered is to be out and about amidst the stars then you might want to stay
in a bed-and-breakfast devoted to the art of astronomy. These
accommodations are situated right next door to an observatory and provide
all of the amenities necessary to create the perfect star-gazing situation.
Rooftop telescopes, guided tours of the night sky and a peaceful ambience
are all conducive to helping you gain an understanding of the constellations
above you. There are four suites to choose from for enhancing your stay: The
Galaxy Room, The Astronomer’s Studio, The Egyptian Room and The Garden
Room. No matter which suite you pick, you’ll have an out-of-this-world hotel
3.1 The nature and role of destinations!
The destination really does sit at the core of the wider tourism system in that it
represents an amalgam of tourism products that collectively offer a destination
‘experience’ to visitors. The destination is the principal motivating factor behind the
consumer’s decision and expectations. !
3.2 Destination types!
3.2.1 Coastal destinations - epitomised in the ever popular seaside resort that has
undergone many changes since their modern-day emergence in the mid-eighteenth
century with advocacy of inland spas and sea bathing for health cures. One of the
fundamental lessons to learn from the development of coastal resorts, whether new or
old, is the importance of the public-private sector partnership. !
3.2.2 Urban destinations - in the major cities have been cultural attractions from ancient
times onwards and some, such as Venice, which was popularised in the period of the
Grand Tour by Europe’s aristocracy, have continued as tourist cities long after their
commercial function has diminished.!
From the early 1980s, major cities have been taking tourism development more seriously
and trying to strengthen the sector with strategic plans and tactics hinged upon the
existence of quintessential factors for tourism development. !
Some of the common characteristics of city destinations are:!
- Urban destinations are both multi-sold and multi-bought, through offering a range of
tourist products and services that create diverse product packages;!
= City destinations are often the tourism gateways to their surrounding region. Location
that associate themselves with a major city destination may beneﬁt from the high volumes
The sheer scale of heterogeneous products and services sold to visitors and locals in urban
areas make each city destination a unique tourism product cluster;!
Developing and marketing the product clusters of city destinations cannot be directed by
a single authority. Residents, private and public tourism stakeholders and other urban
authorities need to cooperate to initiate development projects and to effect marketing
activities by creating a on-voice strategies. !
- Despite the fact that tourism-related products and services in cities are manifold,
visitors usually concentrate on certain locations and create invisible boundaries that
deﬁne tourist zones or districts; !
- Tourism in urban areas, compared to traditional holiday resorts, is an all-year-round
activity with limited seasonality. This is principally due to the diversiﬁed demand and
supply aspects of city destinations; and!
- By their very nature, cities embrace more than one economic industry. Hence their
economic function depends on the coexistence of various manufacturing and service
operations. Neither tourism nor other industries should hamper each other’s
functioning. Opposition to tourism may arise from residents and businesspeople if
concentrated tourist ﬂows in certain districts impair the living standards of the city.!
3.2.3 Rural destinations that range from the ordinary countryside to national parks,
wilderness areas, mountains and lakes. In other words, the product strengths of many
rural areas lie in their strong natural environments, for example, hills, mountains and
lakes, and remoteness, which make them increasingly attractive for tourism
development at a time when ‘green tourism’ is in vogue.!
On the other hand, there is concern for the social impact of tourism on small, close-knit
communities and the environmental threat to undisturbed wilderness. As a result,
when considering the impact of tourism on the local community, the greater the
difference in lifestyles between rural hosts and tourists, and the less the former have
been exposed to visitors, then the longer should be the period of adaptation. !
Attractions provide the single most important reason for leisure tourism to a
destination. Many of the components fo tourist trip - for example, transport and
accommodation - are demands derived from the consumer’s desire to enjoy what a
destination has to offer in terms of ‘things to see and do’. !
Thus, a tourist attraction is a focus for recreational and, in part, educational activity
undertaken by both day and stay visitors that is frequently shared with the domestic
resident population. !
Early attempts to classify the attractions were according to type, distinguishing
between ‘natural resources’ and artiﬁcial ‘man - made’ features or products. !
3.3.1 Natural Attractions!
The feature of natural attractions is the quality of the resource to provide the
attraction, whereby location becomes secondary. Their appeal is both national and
international. For example, people come from all over the globe to enjoy the beaches in
Phuket, Khaoyai National Park. Traditionally, water based resources either coastlines
or lakes, have always been the most important tourism resource and still are, but with
more frequent holiday - taking, the countryside and panoramic scenery have
witnessed increasing usage. !
National attractions, however, are not only conﬁned to its physiography (the nature
and appearance of its landscape) but also include, for example, its climate (the kind of
weather it has over a period of years i.e. the conditions of heat and cold, moisture and
dryness and wind). In addition to this, the third component of the natural
environment is people. They are including: 1) those who ‘belong’ to the destination
(its residents) and 2) those who are current or potential visitors to the destination (the
tourism market). !
The most common aspect of natural resources is that they are generally ﬁxed in supply
and are able to provide only a limited amount of services in any given time period,!
Natural resources included national parks, wildlife, viewpoints and outstanding
natural phenomena such as Uluru (Ayers Rock) in Australia or the Niagara Falls in
Ontario, Canada. !
3.3.2 Man - Made
Another dimension of the tourism phenomenon is the built environment that has been
created by humans. Many man-made attractions are products of history and culture.
The range of museums and art galleries in the world’s top tourist destinations is
usually extensive and many are subject-speciﬁc. !
Examples of man made attractions are including: historic buildings, old industrial
buildings, disused market halls, railway stations and docks. Recently, it has been
rather common to convert old industry buildings into tourist zones which serve both
visitors and speciality shopping - as in the designer outlet village in Swindon, UK - a
convention centre, exhibition hall or trade centre. !
Other man made attractions are including: Festivals and special events, fairs,
museums, zoo and aquariums, theme parks (amusement park), carnivals, circus, live
entertainment, spectator sports, gaming and shopping (Megamalls). !
4. Food & Beverage!
Tourism and dining out go hand in hand. Restaurants are the most likely place to fulﬁll
the need to dine. However, grocery stores are an extension of the dining component
for campers who buy food supplies as well as for local residents who buy food for their
5.1 The nature of intermediation!
In all industries the task of intermediaries is to transform goods and services from a
form that consumers do not want into a product that they do want. In tourism,
however, the situation is somewhat different for it is quite possible to buy the
components of the tourism trip (accommodation, transport, excursions and
entertainment) directly from producers. "
Traditionally, this has not happened to any great degree because of the linkagages
(termed distribution channels) between the suppliers of tourism products and their
potential customers are imperfect, and so the output of the travel intermediary is what
is termed a search good, since it offers customers the opportunity of avoiding the
effort and cost of undertaking the production activity. !
In other words, the advance of the technology has helped the distribution channels in
a great deal. !
+ are able to sell in bulk and so transfer risk to the tour operator, though wholesalers do
attempt to cover themselves by a variety of agreements and release clauses. The latter
may vary from four or more weeks to seven days;!
+ can reduce promotion costs by focusing on the travel trade, rather than consumer
promotion, which is much more expensive.!
+ can avoid search and transaction costs in both time and money by being able to
purchase an inclusive tour;!
+ gain from the specialist knowledge of tour operator and the fact that uncertainties of
travel are minimised. For example, cruising and coach tours are attractive to senior
citizens because the holiday starts the moment they board the ship or coach;!
+ often gain most from lower prices, notably in the case of resorts dealing with large
numbers of visitors as in the Mediterranean, Mexico, Florida and Hawaii. In such
destinations, wholesalers are able through their buying power to negotiate discounts of
up to 60% off the normal tariff. !
+ especially in developing countries where budgets are limited, may beneﬁt
considerably from the international marketing network of tour operators. However, it
is naive to expect, as some countries do, that this should be a responsibility of these
companies, particularly as the Internet has made it so much easier for national tourist
organisations (NTOs) to promote their tourist areas. !
+ use of intermediaries reduce margins and their degree of marketing control and
inﬂuence over the process of distribution;!
+ it is also most likely that ultimate customer service will be beyond their control with
most attention being directed at the channel intermediaries rather than the end
+ reduce choice and increase price.!
+ if they become overly dependent on intermediaries for bookings, they are very much
susceptible to ‘whims’ and ‘vagaries’ of the marketplace.!
Direct sales of individual components"
Direct sales of package tours"
Figure 1: Structure of distribution channels"
Source: Adapted from Cooper et al., 2008"
6. Public Sector and Policy (Tourism
promoters and Land Managing Agencies !
With tourism as one of the main international economic drivers in the 21st century,
together with increasing demands from the domestic population for leisure and
recreation, the industry is a development option that few governments can afford to
Since the tourist industry does not control all those factors that make up the
attractiveness of a destination and the impact on the host population can be
considerable, it is necessary for the options concerning the development of tourism to
be considered at the highest level of government and the appropriate pubic
administrative framework put in place. !
Beyond the national horizon, governments are involved in supporting a variety of
multinational agencies. The ofﬁcial ﬂag carrier for international tourism is the
UNWTO, which is vested by the United Nations with a central and decisive role in
promoting the development of responsible, sustainable and universally accessible
tourism. Elsewhere there are a number of other international bodies whose activities
impinge upon tourism, these include the World Bank, the International Bank for
Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO), the
World Health Organisation (WHO) and UNESCO, the International Air Transport
Association (IATA), and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and
At a lower level, there is a variety of regional bodies such as the Organization of
American States (OAS), Paciﬁc Asia Travel Association (PATA) and the European
Travel Commission (ETC).!
6.1 Impact of the Public Sector!
• Marketing and promotion - marketing is the principal function of the NTO and its
job is to create and protect the brand image of the country/destination;!
• Information provision and network development - the ability of tourists to express
their demands depends upon their awareness of the facilities available,
particularly attractions, which are a key component of leisure tourism;!
• Pricing - there are several ways in which the public sector may affect the price the
tourist pays for staying at a destination. The direct inﬂuence arises out of state
ownership, notably in the case of attractions. The trend in market-orientated
economies is for governments to introduce charges for publicly owned attractions.
Many of the world s airlines are still owned by governments, though the trend is
increasingly towards privatisation or, if not, the liberalisation of air policy,
particularly in response to the rise of low-cost airlines. !
• Controlling access - is a means of limiting visitor numbers of channelling visitor ﬂows.
At an international level, the easiest way for a country to limit demand is by restricting
the number of visas issued. Prohibiting charter ﬂights is a means by which several
countries have conveyed an image of exclusiveness to the market; !
• Safety and security - There have always been issues of criminal activities targeted at
tourists, particularly in countries where there are large disparities between ‘the haves
and have-nots’. Increasingly, tourist enterprises have tightened security and visitors
have been given advice to make them ‘streetwise’. Governments have also instituted
special tourist police and tourism victim support services. Unfortunately, terrorism is
much more difﬁcult to deal with, because its causes have little to do with tourism. !
• Land -use planning and environmental control - is the most basic technique and
arguable the one that has the greatest inﬂuence on the supply of tourist structures. All
governments have a form of town and country planning legislation whereby
permission is required to develop, extend or change the use of almost every piece of
land. The controls are designed to protect areas of high landscape and amenity value. !
• Cooper, C., Fletcher, J., Fyall, A., Gilber, D. and Wanhill, S. (2008) Tourism: Principles
and Practice. 4th edition Pearson Education, Harlow.
• Goeldner, C.R. Ritchie, J.R.B. (2009) Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies.
Canada: John Wiley & Sons, INC.
• Nickerson, N.P. (1996). Foundations of Tourism. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
• Pender, L. (2005) Managing the Tourism System . In Pender, L. and Sharpley, R. (Eds.).
The Management of Tourism. London: SAGE
• Sharpley, R. (1999) Tourism, Tourists and Society. Cambridgeshire: ELM Publications.
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