Quarantine protocols for export of fruit and vegetables


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  • phosphine1,3-dichloropropenechloropicrinmethyl isocyanatehydrogen cyanidesulfuryl fluorideformaldehydeIodoform
  • Methyl bromide treatment
  • Irradiated products
  • Methyl bromide standards
  • Quarantine protocols for export of fruit and vegetables

    1. 1. UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES<br />WELCOME<br />SEMINAR I<br />QUARANTINE PROTOCOLS FOR EXPORT OF FRUITS & VEGETABLES<br />Speaker:<br />Nanje Gowda.N.A<br />Sr.M.Tech <br />(PAK-9303)<br />Seminar teacher:<br />Dr.B.Ranganna<br />Department of Agricultural Engineering, GKVK, Bangalore<br />
    2. 2. Index<br />INTRODUCTION<br />Importance of Quarantine<br />International Trade & Policy<br />INTERNATIONAL QUARANTINE STANDARDS<br />Different Quarantine Treatments<br />CONCLUSION<br />
    3. 3. Quarantine<br />History<br /><ul><li>“Quarantine“ is derived from the Italian wordQuarantum, which means forty days period
    4. 4. In 1374 when plague swept through Europe, the government ofVeniceinstituted 30 days isolation for ships and people prior to entering the city of Dubrovnik
    5. 5. Newcomers had to spend 30 days in a restricted location to check the symptoms of disease and later isolation was prolonged to 40 days and was called “quarantine”</li></li></ul><li>Quarantine Protocols<br /><ul><li>1st quarantine work started in 1879 in Fiji & in 1900’s The Agricultural Quarantine started again in Fiji
    6. 6. Quarantineis a strategy of control and prevent the entry & spread of pests and diseases. It covers all regulatory actions taken to exclude animal or plant pests & pathogens entering from a site, area, country or group of countries
    7. 7. Isolationmeans separation of products which are infected or contaminated from others, so that such infection or contamination do not spread further</li></li></ul><li>Quarantine Protocols<br />Importance of quarantine in export promotion<br /><ul><li>To prevent the introduction and spread of exotic pests that are destructive to crops by regulating/restricting the import of plants/plant products
    8. 8. To facilitate safe global trade in agriculture by assisting the producers and exporters by providing a technically competent and reliable phytosanitary certificate system to meet the requirements of trading partners
    9. 9. To inspect goods coming from other country & to check for exotic pests, diseases and weeds</li></li></ul><li>Quarantine Protocols<br /> Contd…<br /><ul><li>Inspection of imported agricultural commodities for preventing entry of exotic pests and diseases
    10. 10. Inspection of agricultural commodities meant for export as per the requirements of importing countries under International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC)
    11. 11. Detection of exotic pests and diseases already introduced for controlling/containing them by adopting domestic quarantine regulations
    12. 12. Undertaking Post Entry Quarantine Inspection in respect of identified planting materials
    13. 13. Conducting the Pest Risk Analysis (PRA) to finalise phytosanitary requirements for import of plant/plant material</li></li></ul><li>International Standards, Trade & Policy<br />International standards<br />World Trade organisation(WTO)<br />MRL’s Established by CODEX<br />Sanitary and Phytosanitary measures(SPS)<br />Phytosanitary certification(PC)<br />Pest risk analysis(PRA)<br />North American Plant Protection Organization (NAPPO)<br />International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC)<br />National standards<br />Post entry quarantine(PEQ)<br />
    14. 14. International Standards, Trade & Policy<br />Located in Geneva, Switzerland<br />Came into existence on 1stJanuary, 1995 replacing GATT 1948 (General Agreement on Trade & Tariffs)<br />Currently WTO has 153 countries (on 23 July 2008)<br />The WTO reiterates the objectives of GATT<br />To set and enforce rules for international trade<br />To provide a forum for negotiating and monitoring further trade liberalization<br />
    15. 15. Contd…<br />To increase the transparency of decision-making processes<br />To resolve trade disputes<br />To cooperate with other major international economic institutions involved in global economic management<br />To help developing countries benefit fully from the global trading system<br />
    16. 16. MRLs established by Codex Elimentarius <br />mg/kg or ppm<br />
    17. 17. MRLs established by Codex Elimentarius <br />mg/kg or ppm<br />
    18. 18. Standards for exporting F&V to foreign countries<br />SPS Measures-1995<br />Sanitary and Phyto-sanitary measures are various regulations imposed by government or applied by industries to ensure<br />Food safety of both raw and processed <br />Protect plant and animal health<br />These measures may include prescribed product standards, labelling and packaging requirements, quarantine treatment, processing and production standards, and testing, inspection, certification and approval procedures<br />
    19. 19. Contd…<br />Objective<br />Presents future requirements for post entry quarantine (PEQ) and testing for the quarantine pathogens associated<br />To promote a rationalized, modern and harmonized quarantine or SPS system with the dual functions of border protection and trade/export facilitation<br /> SPS measures are applied in Indonesia, Malaysia, Japan, China & Australia for import of..<br />
    20. 20. Contd…<br />Phytosanitary certificate <br /> These are documents issued by an official of an exporting country, or country of re-export, attesting to the freedom from pests and admissibility into the destination country for specific plants or plant products<br />Phytosanitary certificate performs the following tasks at the port of entry<br />Identify type of plants or plant products<br />Identify area where plants or plant products were grown<br />Determine if the plants or plant products were treated in country of origin and if so, identify the treatment<br />Determine if quarantine requirements are met<br />Confirm that plant products meet specific certification requirements<br />
    21. 21. Standards for exporting F&V to foreign countries<br />Pest Risk Analysis<br />PRA is a process of investigation, evaluation of information and decision making with respect to a certain pest, that starts once it is known or determined that this pest is a quarantine pest<br />Purpose of Pest Risk Analysis<br />To estimate the likelihood of entry, establishment, spread of pest and its impact <br />To protect the country’s agriculture from damages that could be caused by harmful (quarantine) pests which can be brought in along with imported commodities<br />To justify Phytosanitary measures on traded plant products<br />
    22. 22. Components of PRA<br />
    23. 23. Standards for exporting F&V to foreign countries<br />North American Plant Protection Organization<br />NAPPO is the phytosanitary standard setting organization recognized by NAFTA & created under the authority of the IPPC of the FAO of the United Nations<br />NAPPO countries formalized this relationship in a cooperative agreement between Canada, United States and Mexico in 1976<br /> Steps for Certifying a Commodity<br />Determine certification eligibility<br />Determine country’s import requirements<br />Inspect the commodity<br />Completion of export certificate<br />Collect user fee<br />
    24. 24. Standards for exporting F&V to foreign countries<br />International Plant Protection <br />Convention (IPPC)<br /> It is the phytosanitary standard setting organization named in WTO-SPS Agreements & Implemented by the FAO in 1952<br />Purpose<br />To prevent the introduction and spread of pests(article-1 of IPPC)<br />To provide an appropriate measures to control the introduced pests<br />
    25. 25. Contd…<br /> Key Obligations<br />To setup & administer a National Plant Protection Organization (NAPPO)<br />Official IPPC contact points<br />Conduct treatments & certify exports<br />Regulate import<br />Cooperate internationally<br /><ul><li>Share information on pests & regulation</li></ul>Develop & take into account Phytosanitary standards<br />IPPC Standards<br />ISPM 1:Principles of Plant Quarantine as related to International Trade<br />ISPM 2: Guidelines for PRA<br />ISPM 7: Export Certification System<br />ISPM 11:PRA For Quarantine Pests<br />ISPM 12: Guidelines for Phytosanitary certificates<br />
    26. 26. Standards for exporting F&V to foreign countries<br />Post Entry Quarantine<br />"Post-entry Quarantine" means growing of plants in isolation for any specified period in a glass-house and a facility, area of nursery, approved by the Plant Protection Adviser<br />Purpose<br />To facilitate adoption of standard operating procedures by all the inspection authorities notified by the Ministry of Agriculture<br />To prevent the introduction and spread of destructive pests that affects plants and other plant material <br />Examine the container and the seeds for pesticide residue<br /> The Standard operating procedure for export inspection under PEQ can seen below…<br />
    27. 27.
    28. 28. List of Quarantine Insects & Pests<br />
    29. 29. Different Quarantine Treatments<br />Chemical Treatments <br />Fumigation<br />Methyl Bromide <br />Fumigation + Refrigeration of Fruits<br />Cold Treatment + Fumigation of Fruits<br />Controlled Atmosphere High-Temperature Treatments (CATTS)<br />Physical Treatments<br />Water Treatment<br />High Temperature Forced Air<br />Vapour Heat<br />Cold Treatment<br />Irradiation<br />Radio frequency heating<br />Quick Freeze<br />Re-export<br />
    30. 30. Different Quarantine Treatments<br /><ul><li>Fumigation</li></ul> Fumigation is the act of releasing/application of toxic chemicals in a gaseous state in a gas tight enclosure to kill insect and other pests<br />Used to prevent transfer of exotic pest & insects during processing of goods to be imported or exported<br />Chemicals are applied as aerosols, smoke, mist, and fog<br /> Examples<br />Methyl bromide -most widely used fumigants although its use was restricted by the Montreal Protocol due to its role in ozone depletion<br />Phosphine<br />Formaldehyde<br />Hydrogen cyanide<br />1,3-dichloropropene<br />Methyl isocyanate<br />
    31. 31. Contd…..<br />MB is most effective in treating some of pests & insects like mites & ticks, nematodes, snails & slugs, fungi<br />Over 95% of consumption of methyl bromide for treatment of commodities like<br />Export logs and sawn timber<br />Wooden packaging materials, dunnage and pallets<br />Export of fruit and vegetables<br />Some export grains, pulses and oilseeds, and derived products<br />Dried food stuffs<br />Fruits treated with <br />methyl bromide<br />
    32. 32. Contd…..<br />Methyl bromide is one of ozone-depleting gas as a result of this property, MB is particular concern in two Multilateral Agreements<br />The Montreal Protocol<br />International Plant Protection Convention<br />MB-Treatments:<br /> Citrus spp- MB @ 32 g/m³ for 2 hrs at 21°c is used against Fruit flies like Mediterranean fruit fly, Natal fruit fly, Queens land fruit fly<br />Mango, Guava & Kiwi-MB@ 32 g/m³ for 3½ hrs at 21°c or above used against Jackbeardsley mealy bug & citrus mealy bug<br />Methyl bromide fumigation under as a quarantine treatment<br />
    33. 33. Commodities suitable for<br />Methyl Bromide Fumigation<br />Grapes<br />Leafy vegetables<br />Avocado <br />Macadamia <br />Okra<br />Citrus <br />Almond <br />Asparagus<br />Stone fruit <br />Walnut <br />Corn<br />Pome fruit <br />Cut flowers <br />Root crops<br />Ornamentals beans/lentils<br />Kiwi & gauva<br />Produce will be treated with methyl bromide to control pests before 21 days prior to export to meet the official requirements of the import and export of different countries<br />
    34. 34. Physical Treatment<br /><ul><li>Water Treatments-Non-heated</li></ul>Soapy Water and Wax<br /><ul><li>Cherimoya, Limes &</li></ul> Passion fruit from Chile<br /><ul><li>Spider mite in grapes</li></ul>Warm Soapy Water and brushing<br /><ul><li> Durian and other large fruits </li></ul> such as breadfruit for <br /> external feeders<br /><ul><li>To kill aphids eggs & larvae </li></li></ul><li>Physical Treatment<br /><ul><li>Heat Treatments</li></ul>Maintaining the product (fruit & vegetables) at a specific temperature for a specified time; designed to kill plant pests without destroying or devaluing the infested commodity<br />Goal:<br />Heat the fruit fast for a short time without damaging quality, yet controlling target pest<br /> Considerations:<br />Type of product<br />Heating Method<br />Treatment Time & Temperature<br />
    35. 35. Physical Treatment<br /><ul><li>Hot Water Treatment</li></ul>Temperature varies between 40°c to 60°c<br />Time varies between 30sec to <10min<br />Purpose is to reduce damage caused by<br />Fungi in Apple & Peaches <br />Mealy bugs in Litchi & Limes <br />Protecting F & V against oxidation and fungal infection<br />For export of mangoes from Brazil, it is recommended that dipping is performed at 12 cm depth in water at 46.1 °c for <br /> 7-9 min (Gorgatti Neto, et al.,1994)<br />
    36. 36. Physical Treatment<br /><ul><li>Vapour Heat Treatment</li></ul>The temperature-ramp up time -heating time relations varies with the commodity and the pest involved<br />Treatment temp varies from 35°c to 50 °c<br />Temperature of the innermost fruit pulp must not exceed >47.5 °c during a ramp up time of 4hrs<br />Time varies from 20min to 30min<br />Treatment is mainly aimed against fruit flies in most of the fruits<br />
    37. 37. Physical Treatment<br /><ul><li>Forced Hot Air Treatment</li></ul>Air temperature varies from 43° to 49°c<br />Time varies from 2min to 20min<br />RH varies from 30-80%<br />A venturi exhaust fan is used which forces the air at rate of 20.67 m 3 /min<br />Commodity like papaya, mango, starfruit, lychee, eggplant, pepper, cucumber etc..<br />This method is used for disinfesting fruits from flies like mediterranean fruit fly, melon fly, oriental fruit fly in papaya and mango seed weevil in mango<br />
    38. 38. Physical Treatment<br /><ul><li>Cold Treatment</li></ul>Temperature varies from 0°c to 21°c & RH varies from 75% to 95%<br />Starting with low temp of 0°c for beetroot, carrot and little high temp of 13°c to 21°c for tomato<br />Other products like Cabbage, Orange, Cauliflower, Cucumber, Pears, Pumpkin, Spinach<br />Used against fruit fly like Caribbean fruit fly by exposing fruits at 0°c to 2.22°c<br />To control other pests and plant pathogens quick freezing at -17°c or below can also be done<br />
    39. 39. Controlled Atmosphere Temperature Treatment Systems (CATTS)<br />CATTS combines forced moist or vapour hot air with controlled atmosphere (i.e. low oxygen, high carbon dioxide)<br />Air speed equivalent to 1.3-2.0 m/s<br />Gases composition equivalent to 1% O₂ and 15% CO₂ & RH of up to 90%<br />Treatment temp is 47°c for 4hr, with core temp ≤46.5°c for 25 min &ramp up temp of 12°c/hr<br />Treatment is done in a chamber similar to a vapour heat or forced hot air chamber with facility of introducing N₂ & Co₂<br />Developed to control western cherry fruit fly & codling moth in sweet cherries and Mexican & West Indian fruit fly in mangoes<br />
    40. 40. Contd…<br />
    41. 41. Physical Treatment<br /><ul><li>Irradiation</li></ul>Food is exposed to ionizing radiations like gamma-ray, X-ray, and electron beams in order to sterilize or kill insects and microbial pests by damaging their DNA<br />Irradiation doses that will result in a 1-log reduction in bacterial pathogens are in the range of 0.2–0.8 kGy<br />Radiation kills microorganisms by raising food temperature quickly<br />U.S Food & Drug Administration has approved all types of irradiated fresh F&V, can be treated up to a maximum dose of 1 kGy<br />Irradiated products<br />Note: Gy=Gray or 100 rad/kg kGy=1000 Gray<br />
    42. 42. Radiation doses approved for insects and insect groups by the USDA-APHIS<br />
    43. 43. Physical Treatment <br /><ul><li>Radio Frequency Heating</li></ul>RF energy refers to non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation with low frequency ranging from 30 MHz to 300 MHz<br />Fruits will be heated in a 12 kw and 27.12 MHz batch type RF heating system which generates internal heat by agitating molecules in the fruit with a very rapid change in charge within the electrical field<br />RF heating is used for disinfestations of fruits like Orange, apple, grapefruit, peach, cherry and avocado <br />Used to kill insects like codling moth in pome & stone fruits before shipment to trading partners<br />Holding fruits at 48 °c for 6.6 minutes shall provide control of the Mexican fruit fly and maintain fruit quality. (Dentener et al.,1996; <br /> Paull and Armstrong, 1994)<br />
    44. 44. Approaches for the Future<br />Chemically-Based Alternatives<br />New Fumigants & New Techniques<br />Mating Disruption<br />Emissions Control<br />Non-Chemical/Physical Alternatives<br /> Irradiation <br /> Heat/Cold<br /> Physical Control<br /> Combination of Compression/Vacuum technique<br /> RF Energy<br />
    45. 45. Contd…<br /> Fumigant Alternatives<br />Newly Developed Fumigants<br />COS – Carbonyl Sulfide<br />O₃ – Ozone<br />CH₃I – Methyl Iodide<br /> C₂N₂ – Cyanogen<br />Modified Existing Fumigants<br /> SO₂F₂ – Profume<br /> C ₂ H₅COOH – Ethyl Formate<br />C₃ H₆O – Propylene Oxide<br /> PH₃ – ECO₂ Fume<br />
    46. 46. Path ways for entry of pests and pathogens<br />Natural Pathways<br />Winds, storms<br />Air and convection currents<br />Surface drainage<br />Natural seed dispersal<br />Fliers (insects and mites)<br />Migratory species (locusts)<br />Self locomotion (zoospores)<br />Vectors (insects, nematodes)<br />Other carriers (birds and other higher animals)<br />
    47. 47. Contd….<br />Artificial Pathways<br />Cargo (agricultural and non agricultural)<br />Mail baggage<br />Common carriers (ships, vehicles, airplanes)<br />Dunnage, crates,packing materials<br />Smuggling<br />Farm practices (irrigation, used farm equipment)<br />
    48. 48. Conclusion<br />Quarantine is an important protocol for international food trading ...<br />To prevent dumping of low quality goods in the country<br />Increasing competence of the manufacturers to compete in the international market<br />Protecting the nation from introduction & spread of exotic pests and diseases<br />Overall safety and welfare of nation’s economy and mankind<br />If Quarantine regulations were made mandatory in past, today India would have been free from important diseases like leaf rust of coffee(Srilanka), late blight of potato(UK), Bunchy top of banana(Srilanka), onion smut of onion(Europe) etc<br />
    49. 49.
    50. 50. Guidelines for export of mangoes from INDIAN to USA<br />For entry into USA, the mangoes must be treated in India with irradiation by receiving a minimum absorbed dosage of 400 Grays<br />Each consignment of mangoes must be accompanied by a phytosanitary certificate issued by the National Plant Protection Organization (NPPO) of India<br />The phytosanitary certificate must also bear the following two additional declarations confirming that:<br /> (1) The mangoes will be subjected to post-harvest mitigation options described as above<br /> (2) The mangoes will be inspected during pre-clearance activities and should be free from fungi like Cytosphaera mangiferae, Macrophoma mangiferae, and Xanthomonas campestris(bacteria)<br />
    51. 51. Contd…<br />Functions<br />It oversees the implementation, administration and operation of the covered agreements<br />It provides a forum for negotiations and for settling disputes<br />Salient features of WTO Agreement onAgriculture<br />Market Access <br />Special Safeguard<br /> Domestic Support<br /> Export subsidies<br />
    52. 52. Different Quarantine Treatments<br /><ul><li>Methyl Bromide Standards</li></ul>International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) aims at “securing common and effective action to prevent the spread and introduction of pests of plants and plant products, and to promote appropriate measures for their control”<br />The Montreal Protocol aims “to protect the ozone layer by taking precautionary measures to control total global emissions of substances that deplete ozone.<br />
    53. 53. Standards for exporting F&V to foreign countries<br />Montreal Protocol<br />In 1987 - 27 nations (including U.S.) signed to initiate protocols on substances that deplete the ozone layer in Montreal, known as “MP”<br />MP controls many ozone depleting substances (ODS) like: CFCs, Halons,) 1,1,1-Trichloroethane (Methyl chloroform) HCFCs, methyl bromide, carbon tetrachloride..<br />MP aims to protect the ozone layer by taking precautionary measures to control equitably total global emissions of substances that deplete ozone & return the ozone layer to pre-1980 levels by 2050 to 2075<br />
    54. 54. Standards for exporting F&V to foreign countries<br />Strategic goals<br />Build partnerships with other relevant organizations<br />to provide a forum for public and private sectors in Canada, the United States and Mexico to collaborate in the development of science-based standards<br />To rapidly develop NAPPO regional standards and NAPPO positions on international standards and decisions of other international organizations<br />To develop regional phytosanitary standards for safe movement/import of commodities such as potatoes, grapevines and citrus into Canada, United States & Mexico<br />
    55. 55. Contd…<br />
    56. 56. List of F,V&S and countries from where import is prohibited along with justifications<br /><ul><li>Radio frequency production
    57. 57. RF power is produced when electricity is applied to an RF generator whose signal is amplified and delivered to a parallel electrode system (RF cavity), in which a selected material is placed to apply heat...</li></ul>Approved irradiation quarantine treatment doses for Mediterranean fruit fly, Melon fly, and Oriental fruit fly is 210–250 Gy <br />
    58. 58. Contd…<br />Fruits(cherry) stored at room temp are subjected to RF heating in a fruit mover<br />Fruits was conducted(heated) in a 12 kW, 27.12 MHz batch type RF heating system<br />A batch of fruits was placed in a tap water filled fruit mover system between 200 mm RF electrodes gap<br />Fruits are kept in motion by means of water jet nozzles mounted on the periphery of fruit mover<br />Water temperature during RF heating is controlled , RF input power was switched off when the water temperature reached 50 °c.<br />
    59. 59. Irradiation Effects<br />It is effective against most insect and mite pests at dose levels that do not affect the quality of most commodities<br />Increase shelf life by slowing ripening of fresh Fruits and Vegetables<br />A generic dose of 150 Gy has been proposed for tephritid fruit flies & 250–300 Gy for sweet potato pests<br />
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