TERM PAPERS ENGLISH LEARNING STRATEGYAsked To Meet Classic Final Course Learning Strategy Created by : Class : II D Nani Afriyani (2223102422) ENGLISH DEPARTMENT TEACHERS’ TRAINING EDUCATION FACULTY SULTAN AGENG TIRTAYASA UNIVERSITY 2011
PREFACE All praises be to allah, the god who creates us being and teaches us language. So ,with language teaching , we could be understood of the language. Then , we are very gratefulto our teacher who has guided us to make paper planning on English Learning Strategy. This paper means explain definition ―Cognitive Learning Strategy ―In make this paperour so, understood. ―No Body’s perfect‖. That is our motto in the paper assignment. We realize that thisexercise is far from being perfect, but we do expect it will be of any use for you, the learners.It is for this reason that we open our door for the constructive criticism as well as the advicefrom you who really want to have this exercise better improved. Our since gratitude is , ofcourse, addressed to you.
INTRODUCTION1.1 Background of Language Learning Strategies Research into language learning strategies began in the 1960s. Particularly,developments in cognitive psychology influenced much of the research done on languagelearning strategies (Wiliams and Burden 1997:149). In most of the research on languagelearning strategies, the primary concern has been on "identifying what good language learnersreport they do to learn a second or foreign language, or, in some cases, are observed doingwhile learning a second or foreign language." (Rubin and Wenden 1987:19). In 1966, AaronCarton published his study entitled The Method of Inference in Foreign Language Study,which was the first attempt on learner strategies.After Carton, in 1971, Rubin started doingresearch focussing on the strategies of successful learners and stated that, once identified,such strategies could be made available to less successful learners. Rubin (1975) classifiedstrategies in terms of processes contributing directly or indirectly to language learning.Wong-Fillmore (1976), Tarone (1977), Naiman et al. (1978), Bialystok (1979), Cohen andAphek (1981), Wenden (1982), Chamot and OMalley (1987), Politzer and McGroarty(1985), Conti and Kolsody (1997), and many others studied strategies used by languagelearners during the process of foreign language learning. The concept of learning strategy is dependent on the assumption that learnersconsciously engage in activities to achieve certain goals and learning strategies can beregarded as broadly conceived intentional directions and learning techniques." All languagelearners use language learning strategies either consciously or unconsciously whenprocessing new information and performing tasks in the language classroom. Since language
classroom is like a problem-solving environment in which language learners are likely to facenew input and difficult tasks given by their instructors, learners attempts to find the quickestor easiest way to do what is required, that is, using language learning strategies isinescapable. Language learning strategies language learners use during the act of processing thenew information and performing tasks have been identified and described by researchers. Inthe following section, how various researchers have categorized language learning strategieswill be shortly summarized: In Oxford’s language learning strategy taxonomy , language – learning strategies aredivided into two big categories : direct and indirect strategies. Direct learning strategiesinvolve the target language , requiring different ways of mentally processing a given aet oflingustic data. Direct strategy consist of memory ,cognitive strategy ,compensation strategy.Direct learning strategy Memory strategis Cognitive strategies Compensation strategies Creating mental linkages Creating mental linkages Guessing inteligentlyApplying images and sounds Receiving and sending Overcoming limitations in messages speaking and writing Reviewing well Analyzing and reasoning Employing action Creating structure for input and output
Indirect learning strategies support and manage language learning without involvingthe target language directly. They consist of metacognitive, affective , and social strategies.Indirect learning strategy Metacognitive strategis Affective strategies Social strategies Creating your learning Lowering your anxiety Asking questionArranging and planning your Encouraging your self Cooperating with others learning Evaluating your learning Takaing your emotional Empathizing with other temperature1.2 Cognitive of Language Learning Strategy Etymologically, the term cognitive-strategy derived from the Latin verb co-agitarewhich, among other means thinking, planning, designing, and figure, and said strategema,ATIS, which means strategy. Thus, cognitive strategy is a ploy to understand. But cognitivestrategies are not identical with the intellectual skills (intellectual skills). Intellectual skills ismore oriented to the interaction of learners as individuals with a learning environment, that isnumbers, words (language), symbols, formulas, principles, procedures and so forth. Whilecognitive strategies is a persons ability to control the interaction with the environment. Cognitive strategies are one type of learning strategy that learners use in order to learnmore successfully. These include repetition, organising new language, summarising meaning,
guessing meaning from context, using imagery for memorisation. All of these strategiesinvolve deliberate manipulation of language to improve learning. Classifications of learningstrategies distinguish between cognitive strategies and two other types, metacognitivestrategies (organising learning), and social/ affective strategies (which enable interaction). Because they are diverse and highly relevant to tasks, the use of cognitive strategiesby teachers and students can significantly impact important learning outcomes for students.This website provides examples of cognitive strategies, with descriptions and examples. Thefollowing table presents the strategies that will be discussed. In addition, case studies will bepresented to show cognitive strategies in action.Cognitive Strategies for Special ConnectionsStrategy Type Brief Description Examples Students attention is drawn to a taskOrienting through teacher input, Teacher cue to "listenStrategies highlighted material, carefully"Boldface type and/or student self- regulation. Students attention is A special pencil cues theSpecific Aids for maintained by student to pay specialAttention connecting a concrete attention to punctuation object or other cue to when he is writing
the task. sentences. Students problem-Specific Aids for solving is enhanced Concrete objects are usedProblem-Solving by connecting a in solving math problems.or Memorization concrete object or other cue to the task. Student practices Students practice (rehearses) target vocabulary andRehearsal information through definitions through games verbalization, visual where they must orally study, or other means. repeat target information. Student expands target information by Students relate the life of relating otherElaboration an ant colony to their information to it (ex. community. creating a phrase, making an analogy). Student simplifies Procedures for protecting target information by oneself from being burnedTransformation converting difficult or are learned as "Stop, unfamiliar Drop, and Roll". information into more
manageable information. Student transforms target information by creating meaningful Visualization of a sceneImagery* visual, auditory, or described in a passage kinesthetic images of the information. Student transforms My Dear Aunt Sally for target information by the order of mathematicalMnemonics* relating a cue word, operations (multiply, phrase, or sentence to divide, add, subtract) the target information. Student categorizes, sequences or otherwise organizes Words in lists are placedOrganization information for more in categories. efficient recall and use.Cognitive Function Strategy Cognitive strategies intended to increase the number of links between the informationpresented by the existing knowledge through a processing information consciously anddeliberately (generative) with the aim of improving retention.1.3 Purpose In order to better comprehend and understand about the courses Home LearningStrategy. In Home Learning Strategy, there are two categories, namely direct strategiesconsisting of (memory strategies, cognitive strategies, and compensation strategies), and
indirect strategies consist of (metacognitive strategies, affective strategies, and socialstrategies).In this paper I discuss the cognitive strategies, and I have a goal, to be able to understandmore about the definite cognitive strategy, the use of cognitive strategy, and on a moredetailed explanation of the parts of the cognitive strategies.
Discussion2.1 Definition Cognitive strategies are one type of learning strategy that learners use in order to learnmore successfully. These include repetition, organising new language, summarising meaning,guessing meaning from context, using imagery for memorisation. All of these strategiesinvolve deliberate manipulation of language to improve learning. Classifications of learningstrategies distinguish between cognitive strategies and two other types, metacognitivestrategies (organising learning), and social/ affective strategies (which enable interaction). Cognitive learning is defined as the acquisition of knowledge and skill by mental orcognitive processes — ;the procedures we have for manipulating information in our heads.Cognitive processes include creating mental representations of physical objects and events,and other forms of information processing.2.1 Classification of cognitive strategies In general, cognitive strategies can be classified into two, namely the main strategyand supporting strategies (Jonassen, 1987). The main strategy used directly on the materialstudied, which represents the information-processing activities. Meanwhile, supporters of thestrategy used to maintain adequate learning climate. There are two kinds of main strategies: the strategy of processing the material(information) and active cognitive strategies. Active cognitive strategies include learningsystems such as Murder or SQ3R. Materials processing strategies include cognitive strategiessuch note-taking, mengggarisbawahi, and test preparation (such as, ask yourself about thethings being studied). When active cognitive strategies assume a certain cognitive processesof the material, then the strategy prioritizes the information processing activities directly
processing.Information processing strategies are grouped into four. The four types of strategies that arepemrossan recall, integration, organization, and elaboration, each of which includes somespecific strategies (Jonassen, 1987). Strategies recall concentration on practice repetition. Integration strategy andorganization - called also a recall strategy and transformation - is the processing strategiesthat facilitate the transformation of information into a form that is easier to remember. Thesestrategies help organizations in menstrukturisasikan and restructure ones knowledge base,which is to see how ideas are connected with other ideas. In the elaboration of strategies,information elaborated by adding more information to make the material produces images ofphysical and mental. In addition to the main strategies that operate directly on information, individuals alsoshould use the supporting strategies (Jonassen, 1987). Supporting strategies intended tosupport information processing by helping individuals to maintain a good learningorientation. Supporting strategies include strategies for learning systems, such as goal setting,time management, management concentration, and relactation techniques, and strategiesmetalearning.2.3 How do we learn cognitive? In cognitive learning, the individual learns by listening, watching, touching, reading,or experiencing and then processing and remembering the information. Cognitive learningmight seem to be passive learning, because there is no motor movement. However, thelearner is quite active, in a cognitive way, in processing and remembering newly incominginformation.Cognitive learning enables us to create and transmit a complex culture that includes symbols,
values, beliefs and norms. Because cognitive activity is involved in many aspects of humanbehavior, it might seem that cognitive learning only takes place in human beings. However,many different species of animals are capable of observational learning. For example, amonkey in the zoo, sometimes imitates human visitors or other monkeys. Nevertheless,most information about cognitive learning is obtained from studies on human beings.2.4 Theories a) Weinstein and Mayer (1986) at http://journalofresearchandreview.books.officelive.com/Documents/A2V6_2_TIJRR.pdf Cognitive strategies include rehearsal strategies, elaboration strategies, and organization strategies. b) Oxford (1990) at http://puslit2.petra.ac.id/ejournal/index.php/ing/article/viewFile/16471/16463 Cognitive strategies are the most popular ones with language learners. They are unified by common functions: manipulation and transformation of the target language by the learners (Oxford, 1990). c) Rosenshine (1997) at http://www.specialconnections.ku.edu/cgi bin/cgiwrap/specconn/main.php?cat=instruction§ion=cs/main A cognitive strategy serves to support the learner as he or she develops internal procedures that enable him/her to perform tasks that are complex d) Rigney (1978) at http://anabrend.wordpress.com/ Cognitive strategies are the operations or procedures that could be used mental individuals to acquire, hold and retrieve a variety of knowledge and understanding . e) Jonassen (1987)at http://anabrend.wordpress.com/
concluded that the cognitive strategies of cognitive activities represent a very broad one that supports learning. Thus, it is clear that the cognitive strategies is essential for anyone was to achieve a good competency.f) Hartono (2008) at http://ebekunt.wordpress.com/2009/04/06/kontribusi-strategi-kognitif-dalam-akselerasi- pembelajaran/ Cognitive strategies are techniques Learners That use to control and monitor cognitive prosesses Their own" .g) Robert M. Gagne (1974) at http://somasalims.blogspot.com/2011/03/strategi-kognitif- dalam-pembelajaran.html cognitive strategies are internally organized capabilities, which can help learners in the learning process, the process of thinking, solving problems and making decisions. The types of cognitive strategy he says is (1985): 1) cognitive strategies in Attending, 2) cognitive strategies in encoding, 3) cognitive strategies in retrieval, 4) cognitive strategies in problem solving; 5) cognitive strategies in thinking.h) Bell-Gredler (1986) at http://somasalims.blogspot.com/2011/03/strategi-kognitif- dalam-pembelajaran.html defines cognitive strategies as a process of inductive thinking. When learning something, someone makes a generalization based on facts or principles that have been learned.i) Bruning (1983) at http://slorazki.blogspot.com/2011/02/strategi-kognitif-cognitive- strategies.html argues that cognitive strategies to facilitate the transfer of information from short-term memory into long-term memory.
2.5 Why Are Cognitive Learning Strategies So Important? It is a constant surprise to me to come across middle and senior managers who, have little or no awareness of how they or other adults learn, and what is required for them to optimise their own learning. You are more likely to hear back comments like, "I prefer to learn hands on," or "I learn best by solving real problems." These may be true insights, but fall short of a sophisticated understanding of adult learning. Simply, cognitive learning is about being a confident learner. Having an understanding of the learning process, and specifically how to manage your own learning increases confidence and encourages independence. Being more independent empowers learners to take more ownership of their own learning.A knowledge of their cognitive learning style can help people be more aware of their own learning, and their current strengths and weaknesses as an adult learner. In other words ,all the advantages claimed for metacognition, (ie being aware of one’s own thought and learning processes)can be gained by encouraging all learners to become knowledgeable about their own learning, and that of others.2.6 Examples A learner remembers new words by visualising them represented in a memorable or ridiculous situation. This makes it easier and faster to recall these words. At http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/think/knowledge-wiki/cognitive-strategies
In the classroom Activities which can be described as cognitive strategies includemaking mind maps, visualisation, association, mnemonics, using clues in readingcomprehension, underlining key words, scanning and self-testing and monitoring.At http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/think/knowledge-wiki/cognitive-strategiesYou can compare the teaching of cognitive strategies to teaching a friend to drive inyour hometown. Because you are in your hometown, you know the area, or content,very well. In addition, the person you are teaching to drive is your friend, so you alsoknow the learner well. This knowledge can make your teaching more efficient,because you have two areas of expertise (the content and the learner) at your disposal.You will use a combination of explicit instructions (turn left on Church Street) andsupports (maps, the rule that "all avenues run North-South") to teach your friend howto navigate around town. You may also use verbal directions as opposed to maps,depending on your friends preferred mode of information. Just as important, you canavoid situations that could become barriers to learning (and your friendship). Forexample, if your friend tends to be anxious, you will NOT begin your instructionduring rush hour!At http://www.specialconnections.ku.edu/cgi-bin/cgiwrap/specconn/main.php?cat=instruction§ion=cs/mainThe use of cognitive strategies can increase the efficiency with which the learnerapproaches a learning task. These academic tasks can include, but are not limited to,remembering and applying information from course content, constructing sentencesand paragraphs, editing written work, paraphrasing, and classifying information to belearned.In a classroom where cognitive strategies are used, the teacher fulfills a pivotal role,bridging the gap between student and content/skill to be learned. This role requires an
understanding of the task to be completed, as well as knowledge of an approach (orapproaches) to the task that he/she can communicate to the learner.Athttp://www.specialconnections.ku.edu/cgibin/cgiwrap/specconn/main.php?cat=instruction§ion=cs/main
Conclusion Describes the strategies that can be done to realize the direct strategy, in particularcognitive strategies (cognitive strategies). The first strategy is to practice. In practicing thingsthat need to be considered is the existence of repetition, the practice of formally using asystem of oral and written, to recognize and use the formula / formulas and examples, re-incorporation, and practice it with naturally. Cognitive strategies are one type of learning strategy that learners use in order to learnmore successfully. These include repetition, organising new language, summarising meaning,guessing meaning from context, using imagery for memorisation. All of these strategiesinvolve deliberate manipulation of language to improve learning. Classifications of learningstrategies distinguish between cognitive strategies and two other types, metacognitivestrategies (organising learning), and social/ affective strategies (which enable interaction).Cognitive Strategies for Special ConnectionsStrategy Type Brief Description Examples Students attention is drawn to a taskOrienting through teacher input, Teacher cue to "listenStrategies highlighted material, carefully"Boldface type and/or student self- regulation.Specific Aids for Students attention is A special pencil cues the
Attention maintained by student to pay special connecting a concrete attention to punctuation object or other cue to when he is writing the task. sentences. Students problem-Specific Aids for solving is enhanced Concrete objects are usedProblem-Solving by connecting a in solving math problems.or Memorization concrete object or other cue to the task. Student practices Students practice (rehearses) target vocabulary andRehearsal information through definitions through games verbalization, visual where they must orally study, or other means. repeat target information. Student expands target information by Students relate the life of relating otherElaboration an ant colony to their information to it (ex. community. creating a phrase, making an analogy). Student simplifies Procedures for protectingTransformation target information by oneself from being burned
converting difficult or are learned as "Stop, unfamiliar Drop, and Roll". information into more manageable information. Student transforms target information by creating meaningful Visualization of a sceneImagery* visual, auditory, or described in a passage kinesthetic images of the information. Student transforms My Dear Aunt Sally for target information by the order of mathematicalMnemonics* relating a cue word, operations (multiply, phrase, or sentence to divide, add, subtract) the target information. Student categorizes, sequences or otherwise organizes Words in lists are placedOrganization information for more in categories. efficient recall and use.
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