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    Reading interventions manual 2009 Reading interventions manual 2009 Document Transcript

    • 1 Strategies for Improving Reading SkillsSarah McGowanMelissa MarenusChelsea GrantEducational Consultation: Spring 2009
    • 2 Table of ContentsIntroduction…………………………………………………………………….3 References………………………………………………………………7Phonological Awareness……………………………………………………….8 Segmenting & Blending………………………………………………..15 Phoneme Isolation & Identification……………………………………28 Rhyming………………………………………………………………..47 References……………………………………………………………...52Alphabetic Principle…………………………………………………………...55 References………………………………………………………………93Fluency………………………………………………………………………....97 Accuracy………………………………………………………………..103 Rate……………………………………………………………………..113 Prosody…………………………………………………………………135 References………………………………………………………………155Vocabulary……………………………………………………………………..160 References………………………………………………………………200Comprehension…………………………………………………………………202 References………………………………………………………………248Standard Protocol………………………………………………………………250 Fundations………………………………………………………………251 Read Naturally…………………………………………………………..259 References………………………………………………………………264
    • 3 The Importance of Good Reading Instruction Learning to read is the most important fundamental task that students undertake in theiracademic career. It is also the most complex, both for the teacher and for the student. Reading isa multifaceted process that requires an understanding of how sounds are related to print, theability to decode words, the ability to read fluently, having enough background knowledge andvocabulary to understand what is being read, construct an understanding from print, as well ashaving the motivation to read (Daly III, Chafouleas, & Skinner, 2005). Many students learn toread in kindergarten and go on to become proficient readers. However, there are still a greatnumber of students who have difficulties. The National Center for Educational Statistics statedthat only one-third of 4th, 8th, and 12th graders are proficient readers (Daly III, et al, 2005). Datafrom their 2005 assessment revealed that over a quarter of these students are ―unable to read andunderstand a simple paragraph from a grade-level text‖ (Rathvon, 2008, p.175). According toSnow, Burns, & Griffin (2008), 80% of those students diagnosed with a learning disability arestruggling readers. Reading achievement has continued to decline for urban minority children and thoseliving in poverty. Students having difficulties in reading in the third grade continue havingdifficulties into their adult life. Low achievement in reading has been linked to school failure,substance abuse, criminal behavior, and incarceration (Reutzel & Cooter, 2004). Therefore, it isimperative teachers know how to and do deliver good reading instruction, especially in thecurrent information age in which reading and writing plays such a critical role. The Five Components of Reading In order to effectively teach reading, it is important to understand the foundational skillsneeded to be a successful reader. The first component in reading is phonological awareness.
    • 4This refers to the ability to hear and manipulate sounds within words (Big Ideas, 2005). Itincludes the understanding that words are made up of smaller units of sounds, called phonemes.Alphabetic principle, another component of reading, is the understanding the relationshipbetween written letters and spoken sounds (Armbruster & Osborn, 2003). An example of this isunderstanding that the letter ‗b‘ makes the ‗bbbb‘ sound. Another critical skill in reading iscomprehension. This refers to the ability of the reader to construct an understanding and extractmeaning from what they have read. Comprehension is the purpose for reading. If students cannotunderstand what they have read, it is likely that they will not be very motivated to read. Being afluent reader is also important. Fluency means that a student reads quickly and accurately so thatthe process becomes an automatic one. Also included in the skill of fluency is the ability to readwith expression. The final foundational component of reading is vocabulary. Vocabulary refersto the knowledge of words that are used orally or recognized in print. The use of these wordsallows the reader or speaker to convey meaning. Building vocabulary is important because inorder to make sense of reading, students rely on words they know (Armbruster & Osborn, 2003).In order to become a good reader, one must be proficient in all skill areas. A difficulty in onearea can lead to difficulties in other. For example, if a student has trouble decoding words, theywill not be able to focus on the content of what they are reading, thus leading to difficulties incomprehension as well (Shapiro, 2004). General Guidelines for Reading Instruction There are some general guidelines that teachers can follow to help with effective readinginstruction. First, direct, systematic, and explicit instruction is critical in teaching reading(Gaskins, 2003). Many students, especially those struggling in reading, will not developstrategies on their own so they must be explicitly taught the necessary skills to become a good
    • 5reader. Direct instruction is effective for not only struggling students, but for all students as well(Carnine, Silbert, Kame‘enui, & Tarver, 2004). Wright (2001) outlines steps for a direct-instruction framework:1. First, the teacher demonstrates the strategy and shows students how to use it. The skill isintroduced with a rationale, described and performed by the teacher as the students are activelyengaged in the lesson. After a few demonstrations, students can help the teacher walk throughthe strategy. Before moving to the next stage of instruction, assess students‘ understanding ofhow and when to use the strategy.2. In the second step the students practice the skill with teacher supervision. Teachers shouldgive multiple opportunities to practice and provide feedback and praise. Students can workcooperatively, taking turns demonstrating and checking the steps. Encourage students to ―thinkaloud‖ at first and then think silently as they become better at using the strategy. Again, assessstudent understanding and ability to use the strategy reliably with simple materials beforemoving on.3. Have students use the strategy independently in real situations during this step. Start withsimple applications before building to more complex. Teachers should monitor studentperformance and provide feedback and praise.4. Finally, have students use the strategy is all situations and settings that are appropriate.While a strategy may have been taught and used during reading class, it may also apply toreading during science class. Have students practice with different materials, in different classes,and at home as well. Always continue to provide feedback and encouragement. Using research-based direct instruction methods is not the only essential characteristic tobeing a successful reading teacher. Teacher should understand the critical role of language inreading development. Students from poverty start school with about half the vocabulary formstudents from a higher socio-economic status. These students are already at a disadvantagestarting in school so teachers need to work on building vocabulary. Teachers should useassessments to help inform instruction. They should know what skills a student has and whatskills they are lacking and how they are progressing and change instruction accordingly. Ifstudents are struggling in reading, teachers should adapt their instruction to fit their needs(Reutzel & Cooter, 2004).
    • 6 Another important characteristic is having a well organized and print-rich environment.Teachers should have a variety of reading materials available and displayed for students.Finally, schools, family, and community should all be involved in the development of readingskills. Reading is such a critical skill that a student should be supported and positively in thatdevelopment by all surrounding environments. Purpose of the Manual As previously mentioned, reading is a complex yet critical skill. Although many studentsgo on to be successful readers, there are still a large number of students who are strugglingreader. For those students, the implementation of effective interventions is crucial. This manualwas designed as a resource for educators and other school-based professionals to help strugglingreaders in the classroom. Targeted at the five basic components of reading, this manual providesstep-by-step instructions on how to implement a wide variety of research-based interventions.Also included are explanations of two comprehensive intervention programs designed toimprove reading performance.
    • 7 ReferencesArmbruster, B.B., Osborn, J. (2003). Putting Reading First: The Research Building Blocks for Teaching Children to Read (2nd edition). Jessup, MD: National Institute for Literacy.BIG IDEAS (2005): [On-line] Available: http://www.reading.uoregon.eduCarnine, D.W., Silbert, J., Kame‘enui, E.J., & Tarver, S.G. (2004). Direct Instruction Reading (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.Daly, E.J., III, Chafouleas, S., Skinner, C.H. (2005). Interventions for Reading Problems: Designing and Evaluating Effective Strategies. New York, NY: The Guilford PressGaskins, I.W. (2003). A multidimensional approach to beginning literacy. In D.M. Barone and L.M. Morrow (Eds.), Literacy and Young Children: Research-Based Practices (pp. 45-60). New York: Guilford Press.Putting Reading First K-3 (2006): [On-line] Available:Rathvon, N. (2008). Effective School Interventions (2nd ed.): Evidence-based strategies for improving student outcomes. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.Reutzel, D.R. & Cooter, R.B. (2004). Teaching Children to Read: Putting the Pieces Together (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.Shapiro, E. S. (2004). Academic Skills Problems (3rd ed.). New York: The Guilford Press.Snow, C.E., Burns, M.S., & Griffin, P. (Eds.) (1998). Preventing reading difficulties in young children. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Wright, J. (2001). The Savvy Teachers Guide: Reading Interventions that Work. Retrieved from: www.interventioncentral.org
    • 8Phonological Awareness
    • 9 What is Phonological Awareness? Phonological awareness refers to the understanding of the various ways that oral wordscan be broken down into smaller segments and manipulated (Chard and Dickson, 1999). Thisincludes breaking down sentences into words, words into syllables, onset and rime (ex: in theword start, st is the onset and art is the rime) and into individual phonemes (ex: the word cat, /c//a/ /t/). Manipulation of the words refers to the deletion, addition, or substitution of syllables orsounds. In order for a student to be considered phonologically aware, they must possess anunderstanding of all levels: from basic rhyme to phonemic awareness (Daly III, Chafouleas, &Skinner, 2005). Figure 1 below depicts the hierarchy of skills in the area of phonologicalawareness. (Chard & Dickson, 1999) Why is it important? Phonological awareness is important because if students understand the underlyingstructure of words, research shows that they are more likely to benefit from reading instruction(Adams, 1990). In addition, it is necessary to be aware of phonemes in order to understand thealphabetic principle. If students can understand that words can be segmented into individual
    • 10phonemes and that phonemes can be blended into words, they are better able to use letter-soundknowledge to read and build words (Chard & Dickson, 1999). Shankweiler and Fowler (2004)reviewed relevant research and concluded that ―phoneme awareness is key to reading analphabetic system‖ (p.488). Research also shows that a child‘s level of phonemic awarenesswhen they enter school is considered the strongest predictor of reading success (Adams, 1990).Further, students‘ ability to attend to and manipulate phonemes strongly correlates with theirreading success through 12th grade (Gillon, 2004). According to Lyon (1998) phonemic awareness isthe most important predictor of success in learning to read and is more highly related to reading than testsof general intelligence, reading readiness, and listening comprehension. Below are some criticalfindings from the literature on phonological awareness: The ability to hear and manipulate phonemes plays a causal role in the acquisition of beginning reading skills The primary difference between good and poor readers lies in their phonological processing ability The effects of training phonological awareness and learning to read are mutually supportive Phonological awareness is necessary, but not sufficient for reading acquisition Phonological awareness is teachable and promoted by attention to instructional variables(Smith, Simmons, and Kameenui., 1995) Phonological Awareness vs. Phonemic Awareness and Phonics Sometimes, educators and professionals use the terms phonological and phonemicawareness interchangeably, when in fact, they shouldn‘t. Phonemic awareness is a subcategoryof phonological awareness and is the identification and manipulation of individual sounds inwords (Armbruster, Lehr, & Osborn, 2001). Specifically, phonemic awareness refers to theunderstanding that words can be segmented into letter sounds (ex: /c/ /a/ /t/) and that when
    • 11blending together, they pronounce the word (ex: cat). The term phonological awareness isbroader than phonemic awareness and includes the manipulation of larger parts of languageincluding onsets and rimes, syllables, and phonemes. Under phonological awareness also fallskills such as rhyming and alliteration. An appropriate distinction comes from Snow, Burns, andGriffin (1998): The term phonological awareness refers to a general appreciation of the sounds of speech as distinct from their meaning. When that insight includes an understanding that words can be divided into a sequence of phonemes, this finer-grained sensitivity is termed phonemic awareness (p.51). Students lacking phonemic awareness cannot: Group words with similar and dissimilar sounds (mat, mug, sun) Blend and split sounds (b oot) Blend sounds into words (m_a_n= man) Segment a word as a sequence of sounds (ex: fish is make up of three phonemes, /f/ /i/ /sh/) Detect and manipulate sounds within words (change r in run to s) (Kameenui, Simmons, Baker, Chad, Dickson, Gunn, Smith, Sprick, and Lin, 1997). In terms of phonemic awareness, the National Reading Panel concluded in their reportthat phonemic awareness instruction: helps student to learn to read and spell is most effective when students use letters of the alphabet as they are taught to manipulate phonemes produces greater benefits in reading when it includes blending and segmenting of phonemes in words helps all types of students improve their reading, including normally developing readers , those at-risk for reading problems, and those with disabilities is more beneficial when the focus is on one or two skills rather than three or more (National Reading Panel, 2000). Phonics is also a term that gets mixed in with phonological awareness, when in fact theterms are not synonymous. Whereas phonological awareness refers to the auditory and oralmanipulation of sounds, phonics refers to the relationship between letters and sounds in their
    • 12written form (Murphy, 2004). Learning ―A is for apple, and C is for cat‖ is an example of aphonic activity. Using the same example, a phonological activity would be to understand thatapple has two syllables and that cat has three phonemes. Further, phonics refers to the letter-sound association and knowing that ―b‖ makes the ―bbb‖ sound. How is it assessed? Given the important of the role of phonological awareness in reading, assessing students‘knowledge of this skill is important. First, when used as a screening measure, assessments giveeducators and professionals an idea of which students are having difficulties or those who are at-risk for difficulties. Second, assessments are an effective way of monitoring students‘ progressand response to interventions. Standardized instruments such as the Dynamic Indicators of BasicEarly Literacy Skills (DIBELS) and the Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing(CTOPP) are common assessments used with students. DIBELS is appropriate for screening skilllevel and for progress monitoring and is typically used with younger students. The CTOPP is abroad standardized measure that assesses skill level by identifying strengths and weaknesses inphonological processing during reading tasks. This assessment is suited for younger as well asolder students, including adolescents (Gillon, 2004). Adams, Foorman, Lundberg, and Beeler(1998) provide the Phonological Awareness Screening Test which can be administered to agroup or individual students. It is composed of 6 subtests: 1.) Detecting Rhymes, 2.) CountingSyllables, 3.) Matching Initial Sounds, 4.) Counting Phonemes, 5.) Comparing Word Lengths,and 6.) Representing Phonemes with Letters. Like other screening tools, this test helps identifythose students who may be lacking in this crucial area. Depending on the type of assessmentused, scoring can be based on accuracy, fluency, or both. Daly III, Chafouleas, and Skinner(2005) state that whole-word segmentation and initial sound segmentation are both predictive
    • 13measures of phonological awareness. Assessing these skills can be done through probes, whichcontain about 20 words. If assessing whole-word segmentation, it is scored by total correctsegments (ex: cat- possible score of 3). When assessing initial sound segmentation, the word isscored as either correct or incorrect. Guidelines for teaching phonological awareness When teaching phonological awareness or implementing an intervention for strugglingreaders, there are some general guidelines that will lead to effective instruction. First, instructionshould focus on fostering awareness at the phoneme level, as opposed to the word or sentencelevel. This can be done through phoneme segmentation and blending activities (Gillon, 2004).Segmentation occurs when words are broken into individual phonemes, words into syllables, orsyllables into onsets and rimes. Blending occurs when individual phonemes, onsets and rimes,and syllables are combined to form words. Second, instruction can be approached from a skillmastery approach or an integrated approach. Skill mastery teaches one skill at a time, until thestudent has mastered it, at which time the next skill is taught. An integrated approach teachesmultiple skills at once, intertwined into an activity. However, research shows that instruction ismost effective when it focuses only on one or two types of phoneme manipulation at a time,rather than multiple types at once (Armbruster, Lehr, & Osborn, 2001). For those who arehaving difficulties, small group instruction is warranted. In these groups, instruction can be moreintensive and individualized based on needs. Teachers should also focus on onsets and rimes andtheir location within words. Once students understand these sound units, it will be easier forthem to distinguish the similarities and differences between the units (Invernizzi, 2003). Phonemic awareness and secondary students
    • 14 Much of the research on reading problems, including phonological awareness, has beendone with elementary school populations. There happens to be a gap in the literature wheresecondary students are concerned (Bhat, Griffin, Sindelar, 2003). The National Reading Panel(2000) conducted an analysis of phonemic awareness interventions in which it was revealed thatit is harder to improve phonemic awareness in the older struggling students because there is lessroom for growth than in the younger readers. Another reason for this could be due to lack ofappropriate instruction and increasing academic demands (Bhat, et al, 2003). Regardless,research has shown that it is not too late to help these students succeed in reading (O‘Connor,2007). This Section This part of the manual will focus on research-based interventions to enhancephonological awareness. It is divided into three sections: segmenting/blending, phonemeisolation/identification, and rhyming. Many of the activities come from research-based programssuch as Road to the Code, Ladders to Literacy, and Phonemic Awareness in Young Children.Feel free to modify the activities to fit the needs of your students.
    • 15 Segmenting and BlendingSegmenting is said to stimulate word analysis and is strongly correlated withsuccessful acquisition of reading and spelling. Studies have also shown that blending helps students learn to read more easily. (O‘Connor, Notari-Syverson, & Vadsay, 1998).
    • 16 Say-It-and-Move-ItOverview:This is an activity designed to increase awareness of the phonemes of spoken words. It takesabout 5-7 minutes of each lesson and can be conducted with a group or with individual children.Children are taught to segment words by first repeating a target word and then moving one tile(or other small object) for each sound that they say in a word. Finally, after the word issegmented, it is blended.Materials: 1 Say-It-and-Move-It sheet per student Stack of tiles per student (varies depending on how many phonemes are used)Procedure:1. Give students a ―Say It and Move It‖ sheet and a set of tiles.2. Students place the tiles above the solid line (the shape is for placing the tiles that have been used)3. Say a word with two or three phonemes, such as the word sip. o (Variation: When first beginning this activity, and/or depending on the skill level of the student, the teacher may want to start with letters rather than words. For example, use /a/ and have the students move the tile while holding the /aaa/ sound.4. Students repeat the word.5. Students segment the word into phonemes by saying the word slowly and moving the tiles. They move the tiles down to the arrow as a guide for placement. /s/ Students move the counter down to the dot on the arrow. /i/ Students move a second counter down to the right of the first counter on the arrow. /p/ Students move a third counter down to the right of the second counter on the arrow.6. After they have moved all three tiles to the arrow, students repeat the word while sliding their fingers below the tiles in a left-to-right sequence. o (Variation: Students repeat the word while sliding all of the counters in one continuous motion across the arrow in a left-to-right sequence.)7. Continue with this procedure using other words with two or three phonemes. Variations: Substitute letters for counters. Begin by presenting only one letter with blank counters. Students place the letter where they hear that sound. For example, the letter a
    • 17 and two blank counters are used to segment and blend these words: at, fat, as, sat, map, am. Additional letters are added as other letter-sound correspondences are learned.References:Adapted from:Blachman, B. A., Ball, E. W., Black, R., & Tangel, D. M. (2000). Road to the code: A phonological awareness program for young children. Baltimore: Brookes; Neuhaus Education Center (1992). Reading readiness. Bellaire, TX: Author.
    • 18
    • 19 STOP (Stare, Tell, Open, Put)Overview: The purpose of this strategy is to teach segmenting and blending through the mnemonic deviceSTOP. It is important to note that students who participate in this activity must have theprerequisite skills of knowing at least 80% of their letter sounds. Each step incorporates familiarkey words that students of varying abilities could easily understand and use.Materials: Index cards for the target wordsProcedure:1. First students are instructed on the components of the strategy: Stare at the unknown word Tell yourself each letter sound Open your mouth and say each letter Put the letters together to say the word2. The teacher then describes and models the strategy to students3. Students then begin to use the mnemonic STOP independently, while the teacher provides feedback Stare: cues the student to look at each letter of the unknown word. This is also the first step of segmentation Tell: cues the student to say aloud or silently each letter sound. This is considered the second step of segmentation Open: cues the student to say aloud the segmented sounds Put: cues the student to blend the letter sounds to say the word.4. The first few sessions should utilize monosyllabic words, with multisyllabic words being incorporated as students master the strategy
    • 20 ** Teachers should incorporate 2-3 nonsense words each session to ensure that students are learning to pronounce the words, rather than memorizing sight wordsReferences:Boyle, J.R. (2008).Reading strategies for students with mild disabilities. Intervention in School and Clinic, 44, 3-9.Boyle, J.R. & Seibert, T. (1998). The effects of a phonological awareness strategy on the reading skills of elementary students with learning disabilities. Learning Disabilities: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 8, 145-153.
    • 21 Blending/Segmenting FlashcardsObjective:To increase accuracy in blending and segmenting skills. This intervention can be modified toaddress fluency by timing and keeping track of item completion.Materials: 4 flashcards of instructional words (words that the student is unable to read but which are decodable and whose letters have predictable and not unusual sounds) Blank flashcardProcedure:1. Shuffle the instructional cards2. Say ―Today we are going to learn how to read some words and then practice breaking them apart and putting them back together‖3. Present the first flashcard, covering the word with the blank flashcard. Say ―I will show you the sounds in the word, tell you the sounds, and then have you read the sounds‖4. Expose the first phoneme by withdrawing the blank flashcard from it and say ―The sound is _____.‖ Wait for a student response and say ―Good!‖ If the student makes an error, say ―No, the sound is ___. Say the sound. Good!‖ Repeat this step for all phonemes in the words, successively exposing each phoneme until the student can see the whole word5. Say ―Let‘s say the sounds together as a word. Say them together real fast. The word is _____.‖6. Repeat these steps for the remaining three flashcards7. Shuffle the instructional cards8. Say ―Now I want you to read the sounds and words to me. If you are not sure of a sound or word, I will help you.‖9. Present a flashcard to the student, exposing one phoneme at a time. If the student doesn‘t read a phoneme within 3 seconds, say the phoneme for the student and have the student repeat the sound.10. At the end of the word say, ―Say the sounds together as a word. Say them together real fast‖11. Repeat the two previous steps for the remaining flashcards
    • 2212. Shuffle the instructional cards13. ―Let‘s practice one last time‖14. Repeat steps 9 and 10 for each word15. Shuffle the instructional cards and say ―Now I will show you the cards again and I want you to read the whole word to me.‖ (provide correction and have the student repeat correct responses, if needed.)Reference:Daly, E.J., III, Chafouleas, S.M., Persampieri, M., Bonfiglio, C.M., & Lafleur, K. (2004). Teaching phoneme segmenting and blending as critical early literacy skills: An experimental analysis of minimal textual repertoires. Journal of Behavioral Education, 13, 165-178.Daly, E.J., III, Chafouleas, S., Skinner, C.H. (2005). Interventions for Reading Problems: Designing and Evaluating Effective Strategies. New York, NY: The Guilford Press
    • 23 Elkonin CardsOverview:Similar to the Say-It-and-Move-It activity, Elkonin boxes can be used to teach phonemicawareness by having students listen for individual sounds and marking where they hear them inthe boxes. Each box in an Elkonin box card represents one phoneme, or sound.Materials: Elkonin cards: map, sub, leg, nut, zip (1 per student) 3 tiles per childProcedure:1. Demonstrate with the tiles as students watch T: What is this picture? Yes. This is a map. T. I‘m going to put my three tiles on the picture of the map. T: Now I‘m going to say the sounds in the word map and move my tiles to show each sound.2. While holding the sound /mmmmmm/, move one of the tiles to the first box facing the students on the left, your right3. While holding the sound /aaaaaaa/, move the second tile to the middle box.4. Then quickly move the third tile to the last box while making the /p/ sound T: Map. T: Now I‘m going to say the sounds in map again. This time you‘ll move a tile each time I say a new sound5. Name the picture again, and then say it slowly as the students move a tile for each sound you say. When all the tiles have been moved into the boxes, repeat the word. Then the tiles are moved back to their pictures.6. Now let the students try. Have them start by saying the name of the picture. Then have them say it slowly, moving one tile for each sound. When the tiles are put in their boxes, have the student repeat the word normally.7. Give students the next card and continue these steps.Note:The website http://bogglesworldesl.com/elkonin_boxes.htm is a helpful source for pre-madeElkonin cards and also has a blank template for you to create your own.
    • 24Reference:Blachman, B. A., Ball, E. W., Black, R., & Tangel, D. M. (2000). Road to the code: A phonological awareness program for young children. Baltimore: Brookes; Neuhaus Education Center (1992). Reading readiness. Bellaire, TX: Author.
    • 25 Guess-the-Word GameObjective:Students will be able to blend and identify a word that is stretched out into its component sounds.This activity teaches the synthesis of phonemes into words.Materials: Picture cards of objects that are likely to be recognized by students, such as sun, bell, flag, clock. Include words that begin with stretched sounds (ex: starting with letters s, m, l, r) as well as stop sounds (ex: starting with letters c, k, t, d)Procedure:1. Spread 4 pictures across the table2. Begin by saying ―Guess the word I‘m saying, It‘s one of these pictures.‖3. Pronounce words segmented into onset-rime (/br-oom/), phonemes (/s-n-ake/), and syllables (/football/).4. When the students guess correctly, call on another student to show the picture that represents the word5. Repeat the game with other pictured words6. As students become comfortable with the stretched sounds, begin to incorporate words beginning with stop sounds7. Vary the skill level required for correct responding by the way you pronounce the work that the students are to blend.  Syllables are easiest, then stretched sounds, then words with one break. The most difficult are words with all sounds separated.Reference:O‘Connor, R., Notari-Syverson, A., & Vadsay, P. (1998). Ladders to Literacy. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.
    • 26 Clapping NamesObjective:To introduce students to the nature of syllables by leading them to clap and count the syllables intheir name.Materials:NoneProcedure:1. First model this activity by using several names of varying lengths. Pronounce the name syllable by syllable while clapping it out2. Ask the students ―How many syllables did you hear?‖3. Once the students understand the activity, ask each student to clap and count the syllables in their first name4. Then let them take turns pronouncing other students‘ names while clapping them outVariation: Have the students clap out their first and last name together After determining the number of syllables in a name, ask the students to hold two fingers horizontally under their chin, so they can feel their chin drop for each syllable. To maximize this effect, have the students stretch each syllable. After the students have gone through names, have them clap out the names of objects around the classroomReference:Adams, M., Foorman, B., Lundberg, I., & Beeler, T. (1998). Phonemic Awareness in Young Children. Baltimore MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.
    • 27 Segmenting with Onset-Rime BoxesObjective:Students will practice auditory segmentation to facilitate their awareness of the sounds in words.Materials: Onset-rime box for the teacher and each studentProcedure:1. Students listen to a word provided by the teacher and practice saying the word in two parts: the onset (first sound or blend) and the rime (the remaining part of the word).2. Instruct the students to touch the square in two parts; the first box for the first sound and the second box for the second sound3. Here is a suggested way of introducing this activity: ―Here‘s a new way to say parts in words: Magic Squares! Here‘s how they work. (Show the large two-rectangle form). When I want to say sail in two parts, I touch the squares like this. (Touch the first box: /s/. Touch the next box: /-ail/. Repeat twice). Try it with me‖4. Have the students try it on their own with other words /S/ /ail/Reference:O‘Connor, R., Notari-Syverson, A., & Vadsay, P. (1998). Ladders to Literacy. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.
    • 28 Phoneme Isolation and IdentificationIn order for students to acquire phonological awareness, they must be able to perceive phonemes in spoken words. This skill is necessary in understanding that words are made up of individual sounds. (Gillon, 2004)
    • 29 Where is it?Objective:To demonstrate phoneme identity and that phonemes can occur in multiple positions in words.Students will learn to recognize a phoneme when it occurs in first, middle, or last position and toisolate the position within a spoken word where a phoneme occurs.Materials: Sets of one-syllable words in which a phoneme occurs in differing positions Pictures to represent the wordsProcedure:1. To participate in this activity, students should be able to segment words into up to four sounds2. Once students can identify the first sound in words and have begun to segment words into all of their phonemes, introduce sets of words in which that phoneme occurs in different positions3. Ask students to say the sounds and then to identify whether particular phoneme occurs at the beginning, middle, or end of the word.4. You may want to use visual cues, such as the Elkonin boxes, or have the students tap out the sounds Examples are: G- got, lag, dog, girl S- so, grass, said, us A- ask, can, at, sadReference:O‘Connor, R., Notari-Syverson, A., & Vadsay, P. (1998). Ladders to Literacy. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.
    • 30 Stop on a Last SoundObjective:Students will learn to identify the last sound in spoken words. Students will say words slowly, sothat the last phoneme is distinct and easy to identify.Materials: A list of familiar words or collection of common objectsProcedure:1. Start by saying the target word slowly, placing emphasis on the last sound2. Try incorporating visual cues that tracks each sound as it is elongated3. After students are comfortable with this activity, prompt them to say it ―in their head‖ and whisper the last sound to a buddy.4. Here is an example of how this activity could be done: ―Let‘s say duck really slowly. Duuuuck‖ -Say each phoneme without stopping, and slowly sweep your hand across to emphasize each sound in the word, with a visual tap on the last sound ―Now we will do it again, but this time I will stop you‖ - As students say the /k/ sound, stop them ―What sound did you say?‖Variation: Try to incorporate words ending in consonant clusters, such as –st and –mp This activity can be done with emphasis on first soundsReference:O‘Connor, R., Notari-Syverson, A., & Vadsay, P. (1998). Ladders to Literacy. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.
    • 31 Post OfficeOverview:Students learn to isolate and identify the first sound of words, as well as group them together bybeginning sound. In this activity, students take on the role of letter carrier and deliver the ―mail‖(pictures) to the appropriate ―mailboxes‖ (lunch bags with the alphabet picture card on the front)Materials: Small alphabet picture cards of a, m, t, i, and s 5 brown lunch bags (glue one alphabet card to each bag, then place bags upright on table) Pictures of objects that start with /a/, /m/, /t/, /i/, and /s/ Large canvas or shopping bag designated as the letter carrier‘s bagProcedure:1. Place all the pictures to be used into the letter carrier‘s bag2. Students take turns being the letter carrier3. The letter carrier reaches into the bag and pulls out a picture4. The student then names the object in the picture, gives the initial sound of the object, and delivers it to the appropriate mailbox by putting it into the lunch bag that is labeled with the letter that represents the first sound of the pictured object.5. When all of the mail has been delivered, the mailboxes are checked to see if the mail was delivered to the right mailboxes.Reference:Blachman, B. A., Ball, E. W., Black, R., & Tangel, D. M. (2000). Road to the code: A phonological awareness program for young children. Baltimore: Brookes; Neuhaus Education Center (1992). Reading readiness. Bellaire, TX: Author.
    • 32 Picture Sorts- Beginning SoundsObjective:Students will learn categorization routines for classifying onsets by similarity and difference.According to Invernizzi (2003) beginning-sound picture sorts integrate the learning of letter-sound associations because as students sort picture cards into groups that start with the samesound, they can place them into columns headed by the letter that represents that sound. This isimportant because research suggests that awareness of sounds is heightened by print and is an―on-going by-product of learning to read‖ (p.147).Materials: Initial phoneme header picture cards Initial phoneme picture cardsProcedure:1. Place header cards face up on a flat surface. Shuffle the initial phoneme picture cards and place face down in a stack2. Taking turns, students draw a card from the stack, name the picture, and say the initial phoneme (ex: ―penguin, /p/‖3. Place in column under matching initial phoneme header card4. Point to and name picture cards in entire column, starting at the top5. Continue until all cards have been sortedVariation: This activity can be done with ending sounds (rimes) and vowel sounds. The only modification would be the picture cards used.Reference:Invernizzi, M. (2003). Concepts, sounds, and the ABCs: A diet for a very young reader. In D.M. Barone and L.M. Morrow (Eds.), Literacy and Young Children: Research-Based Practices (pp. 140-156). New York: Guilford Press.
    • 33 Sound BingoObjective:This activity helps students identify first and last sounds as well as match sounds and letters. Thestudent gains practices in making sound-symbol associations. Although categorized as aphonological awareness activity, this game also helps students with their alphabetic principleskills.Materials: 1 Sound Bingo card per student Copies of students‘ Sound Bingo cards, cut up, and put in a box 1 handful of Bingo chips per studentProcedure:1. Give one Bingo card and a handful of chips to each student2. Photocopy and cut up a second set of Sound Bingo cards into individual picture and letter squares and place them face down in a box3. Pick one square at a time and show it to the students4. If a picture is chosen, the students name the picture and give the first sound. Any student that has that picture on their card puts a chip on it5. If a letter is chosen, the students give the letter sound6. If the student does not have the letter or picture that is chosen, they do not cover it *Included in this manual are 2 different versions of Sound Bingo CardsVariation: Instead of using pictures with common first sounds, pictures with common last sounds can also be used.Reference:Blachman, B. A., Ball, E. W., Black, R., & Tangel, D. M. (2000). Road to the code: A phonological awareness program for young children. Baltimore: Brookes; Neuhaus Education Center (1992). Reading readiness. Bellaire, TX: Author.
    • 34
    • 35
    • 36 Tracking Sound ChangesObjective:This activity will help students to identify and reflect upon sound changes within wordsMaterials: Letter blocks with graphemes on them (ex: ‗ee‘, ‗ay‘)Procedure:1. The teacher presents the student with a word that is spelled out with the letter blocks (ex: ―see‖ ‗s‘ and ‗ee‘)2. The teacher then asks the student to change the word ‗see‘ to the word ‗say‘3. The student then must find side of the block with the ‗ay‘ on it and replace it where the ‗ee‘ side was4. This activity can be done with beginning, middle, or end sounds (ex: change ‗map‘ to ‗mop‘ and ‗can‘ to ‗cat‘.Variation: Instead of using blocks with letters on them and asking for specific changes, colored blocks can be used to identify where the change occurred. For example, the student is presented with these blocks and is told: ―If that says sun, show me run‖ the student would change the first block to a different color to symbolize that the change occurred in the first sound:
    • 37References:Gillon, G. T. (2004). Phonological Awareness: From Research to Practice. New York: Guilford Press.Gillon, G. (2000). The Gillon Phonological Awareness Training Programme (2nd ed.) Christchurch, New Zealand: Canterprise, University of Canterbury.
    • 38 How Many Sounds?Objective:Students will have to figure out how many phonemes, or sounds, are in a wordMaterials:NoneProcedure:1. The teacher pronounces a single phoneme or two-phoneme word, holding up one finger for each sound as it is pronounced.2. The teacher then asks students to repeat the procedure, answering the question ―How many sounds?‖*Make sure the word is pronounced slowly, stretching the sounds and not pausing between themVariation: This activity can be extended by touching one of the upheld fingers and asking a student to pronounce the sound represented by that finger.Reference:Blachman, B. A., Ball, E. W., Black, R., & Tangel, D. M. (2000). Road to the code: A phonological awareness program for young children. Baltimore: Brookes; Neuhaus Education Center (1992). Reading readiness. Bellaire, TX: Author.
    • 39 Different Words, Same Initial PhonemeObjective:To reinforce the concept that the same phoneme shows up in many different wordsMaterials: Picture cards for each targeted phonemeProcedure:1. Gather a set of three or four pictures for each phoneme you want to target2. Depending on the skill level of the students, you may choose either single consonant pictures (such as foot, fish, fox) or those with consonant blends (such as show, shut, and ship)3. Ask the students to name the pictures, to ensure that they know what the word is4. Ask one student at a time to pick a picture and name it, drawing out the initial consonant (or blend) and ask them to notice and describe what they are doing with their mouths and they make that initial sound.5. After all of the pictures are gone through, ask the students if the words begin with the same sound and what that sound is Variation: Once students have mastered the sets of the same phoneme, mix in pictures from other phoneme sets and see if the students can detect the difference This activity can also be done with middle and final phonemesReference:Adams, M., Foorman, B., Lundberg, I., & Beeler, T. (1998). Phonemic Awareness in Young Children. Baltimore MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.
    • 40 Take a Sound Away (Analysis)Objective:By showing the students that if the initial phoneme of a word is removed a totally different wordmay result, this activity further helps students to separate the sounds of words from theirmeanings. This activity has students attending to the initial phonemes of words, as they realizethat the presence or absence of the phoneme can result in two different wordsMaterials:NoneProcedure:1. Explain to the students that sometimes when a sound gets taken away from a word, you end up with a totally different word.2. Give the students an example: ―f-f-f-f-ear‖ and have them repeat it3. Then say ―ear‖ and have the students repeat4. Ask the students if they can determine which sound has been taken away
    • 41 Add a Sound (Synthesis)Objective:To show the students how to synthesize words from their separate phonemesMaterials:NoneProcedure:1. Explain to the students that sometimes a new word can be made by adding a sound to it2. Give the example ―ox‖ and have the students repeat it3. Ask what will happen if they add a new sound to it, such as ―f-f-f‖4. The students should say ―fox‖5. Until the students understand the activity, you should provide guidance, asking the students to say the word parts with you in unison6. Like the previous activity, depending on the skill level of the students, you can use either single consonants or consonant blendReference:Adams, M., Foorman, B., Lundberg, I., & Beeler, T. (1998). Phonemic Awareness in Young Children. Baltimore MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.
    • 42 Two-Sound WordsObjective:To introduce students to analyzing syllables into phonemes and synthesizing syllables fromphonemes.Materials: Blocks Two-phoneme word cardsProcedure:1. Begin with the analysis part of the activity and then shift to synthesis2. Each student should have two blocks3. Analysis o Student picks a card and names what the picture is o Repeat the word slowly, pausing between the two phonemes o Have the students repeat this o To show that the word has two different phonemes, the teacher places blocks in two different colors underneath the picture as she pronounces the sound represented by each o The students then repeat the word sound by sound while representing the sounds with their own blocks. o The students should repeat the sounds while pointing to the respective blocks and then the word Synthesis o This game is the reverse of the analysis game o Choose a picture and place it face down so the students cannot see it o Then name the picture phoneme by phoneme. While placing the blocks beneath the picture o While pointing to their own blocks, the students must repeat the phonemes over and over and faster and faster o They should then try to guess the name of the pictureVariations o Extend the exercises to include three-phoneme words o Challenge the students to decide whether the picture is a two- or three- phoneme wordReference:Adams, M., Foorman, B., Lundberg, I., & Beeler, T. (1998). Phonemic Awareness in Young Children. Baltimore MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.
    • 43 Consonant Blends: Inserting and Removing Internal SoundsObjective:To develop awareness of the structure of initial consonant blends by teaching students to insertand remove internal phonemesMaterials: Colored blocksProcedure:1. This activity is to be played in three stages2. Give each student three blocks Analysis to synthesis: o Pronounce a two-phoneme word that begins with a consonant and use it in a sentence o Have the students repeat the word, and using the colored blocks, separate it into phonemes o Phoneme by phoneme, produce a new word that rhymes with the first but begins with a consonant blend. The new word should be presented phoneme by phoneme o The students‘ challenge is to modify their blocks to represent this new three-sound word. o While pointing to their blocks, the students should repeat the three phonemes over and over until they recognize the word Synthesis to Analysis o Slowly, phoneme by phoneme, pronounce a three-phoneme word that begins with a consonant blend. o Student represent the three phonemes with their blocks and repeat the phonemes until they synthesize the word o Then they produce a two-phoneme rhyme, created by removing one of the consonants. o Then they should modify their block arrangements, to represent the new word Analysis and Synthesis o Select a rhyming pair, including a two- and three- phoneme word o Choose one of the words for analysis o After the students analyze the word and represented its phonemes with their blocks, ask the student to review the solution by pointing to each block while saying its phoneme o Then present the other member of the rhyming pair.
    • 44 o The students must then modify their blocks appropriately and then use them to synthesize the second word.References:Adams, M., Foorman, B., Lundberg, I., & Beeler, T. (1998). Phonemic Awareness in Young Children. Baltimore MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.
    • 45 Phoneme MatchmakerObjective:The student will match initial phonemes in words. They will identify initial phonemes bymatching picture cardsMaterials: Initial phoneme picture cardsProcedure:1. Divide the initial phoneme pictures by the numbers on the cards and place face down in three separate stacks2. Taking turns, students pick one card from each stack3. Say the name and initial sound of each picture. For example, ―kitten /k/, cake /k/, calendar /k/‖4. If the initial sounds match on all three cards, the student gets to keep all three cards. If two cards match, the student gets to keep the ones that match and put back the one that doesn‘t (return it to the middle of the deck from which it was taken). The same goes for if no cards match.5. Continue activity until all possible matches are made.References: Florida Center for Reading Research. (2008). Student Center Activities. Retrieved February 12, 2009, from http://www.fcrr.org/Curriculum/studentCenterActivities.htm
    • 46 Final Phoneme MemoryObjective:The student will match final phonemes in wordsMaterials: Final phoneme memory picture cardsProcedure:1. Place final phoneme memory picture cards face down in rows2. Taking turns, students turn over two cards and name the picture on the card.3. They then need to identify the final phoneme of each picture and state whether or not they match. If final phonemes match, the student gets to keep the cards. If not, the cards are placed face down in their original spot.4. Continue until all matches have been made*This game can also be played with initial and middle phoneme sounds. The only modificationwould be the cards used.References:Florida Center for Reading Research. (2008). Student Center Activities. Retrieved February 12, 2009, from http://www.fcrr.org/Curriculum/studentCenterActivities.htm
    • 47 Rhyming Rhyming is important in the acquisition of phonological awareness because itdraws students‘ attention to the similarities and differences between words. As shown inFigure 1 in the introduction, rhyming is one of the earliest competencies related tophonological awareness (Chard & Dickson, 1999). This section includes a few simpleactivities that use rhyming to promote phonological awareness..
    • 48 Word RhymingObjective: To help students understand that any word can be rhymed. The use of nonsense words in this case is fine because the goal is that they attend to the sounds in the words.Materials: List of words to be rhymedProcedure:1. Produce a word to be rhymed then ask students to give you a word that rhymes with it.2. You can increase the complexity by challenging the students to suggest a second word that is meaningfully related to the target word as well as a rhyme for that word. Examples include: Cat-hat Dog-? Car-far truck-? Mouse-house rat-? Rose-hose flower-? Face-lace Smile-? Can You Rhyme?Objective:To teach students to depend more strongly on phonological cues to generate rhymesMaterials: Sample rhyming phrasesProcedure:1. Begin by reading several rhyme phrases aloud, emphasizing the rhyming words2. Have the students complete each rhyme aloud3. Periodically request responses from individual students to see if students are learning the skills4. Examples of phrases include: o A cat wearing a ____ o A mouse that lives in a ______ o An owl drying off with a _____
    • 49 o A goat that‘s sailing a ______ Action RhymesObjective:To expose students to a new level of phonological awareness in which they attend to word stemsMaterials: pictures of rhyming word pairsProcedure:This activity is best suited for small groups1. Distribute the pictures corresponding to one of each rhyming pair to the students, keepingits mate to yourself.2. Show your picture and say a sentence using the depicted action word (ex: ―the bell is ringing‖).3. Then ask the students to examine their cards to see if they show an action that rhymes with ringing.4. If so, the student is to hold up the card and make a rhyming sentence (ex: ―The children are singing‖).5. Some examples of action rhymes include: o Barking-parking o Burning-turning o Cutting-shutting o Hopping-mopping o Looking-cookingReferences:Adams, M., Foorman, B., Lundberg, I., & Beeler, T. (1998). Phonemic Awareness in Young Children. Baltimore MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.
    • 50 Picture Rhyme BingoObjective:Students will find the rhyming match to the word chosenMaterials: Bingo board with pictures (can be made using clip-art pictures) Pictures of objects that rhyme with those on the Bingo board Tiles to put on the Bingo BoardProcedure:1. Each student has their own Bingo board in front of them, along with a few chips2. One student selects a card from a deck of picture cards3. The student than says aloud the name of the picture4. They then find a rhyming match on his/her Bingo board5. If the student has a match, they place a tile over that picture6. If they do not have a match, they do not put anything on their boardVariations: Once the student finds a rhyming pair, the teacher can ask him/her to come up with other words that rhyme with the target word Letter knowledge can be integrated into the rhyme bingo activity by matching the printed word with its picture and observing the visual rhyme pattern in the wordsReferences:Gillon, G. T. (2004). Phonological Awareness: From Research to Practice. New York: Guilford Press.Gillon, G. (2000). The Gillon Phonological Awareness Training Programme (2nded.) Christchurch, New Zealand: Canterprise, University of Canterbury.
    • 51 Sound Categorization by RhymeObjective:Students must determine which one of four pictures does not belong in a setMaterials: 3-5 sets of Sound Categorization by Rhyme cardsProcedure:1. Select a set of Sound Categorization by Rhyme cards2. Place the four pictures on the table in front of the children while saying the following verse: One of these things is not like the others One of these things does not belong?3. Ask the students to name each picture and ask them ―Which one does not belong?‖4. Have the students tell which card doesn‘t belong and have them tell why (or supply the rule). For example, if the objects pictured were cat, bat, mop, and hat, the student may say that all of the words end in –at except for mop. *The students may try to categorize pictures by another classification, such as animals. Let them know they are correct but that you are thinking of a different rule. ―Can you think of my rule?Reference:Blachman, B. A., Ball, E. W., Black, R., & Tangel, D. M. (2000). Road to the code: A phonological awareness program for young children. Baltimore: Brookes; Neuhaus Education Center (1992). Reading readiness. Bellaire, TX: Author.
    • 52 ReferencesAdams, M., Foorman, B., Lundberg, I., & Beeler, T. (1998). Phonemic Awareness in Young Children. Baltimore MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.Armbruster, B., Lehr, F., & Osborn, J. (2001). Put reading first: The research building blocks for teaching children to read. Jessup, MD: National Institute for Literacy.Bhat, P., Griffin, C., & Sindelar, P. (2003). Phonological awareness instruction for middle school students with learning disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly, 26, 73-87.Blachman, B. A., Ball, E. W., Black, R., & Tangel, D. M. (2000). Road to the code: A phonological awareness program for young children. Baltimore: Brookes; Neuhaus Education Center (1992). Reading readiness. Bellaire, TX: AuthorBoyle, J.R. (2008).Reading strategies for students with mild disabilities. Intervention in School and Clinic, 44, 3-9.Boyle, J.R. & Seibert, T. (1998). The effects of a phonological awareness strategy on the reading skills of elementary students with learning disabilities. Learning Disabilities: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 8, 145-153.Chard, D.J., Dickson, S.V. (1999). Phonological awareness: Instructional and assessment guidelines. Intervention in School and Clinic, 34, 261-270.Daly, E.J., III, Chafouleas, S.M., Persampieri, M., Bonfiglio, C.M., & Lafleur, K. (2004). Teaching phoneme segmenting and blending as critical early literacy skills: An experimental analysis of minimal textual repertoires. Journal of Behavioral Education, 13, 165-178.Daly, E.J., III, Chafouleas, S., Skinner, C.H. (2005). Interventions for Reading Problems: Designing and Evaluating Effective Strategies. New York, NY: The Guilford PressGillon, G. T. (2004). Phonological Awareness: From Research to Practice. New
    • 53 York: Guilford PressGillon, G. (2000). The Gillon Phonological Awareness Training Programme (2nd ed.) Christchurch, New Zealand: Canterprise, University of Canterbury.Invernizzi, M. (2003). Concepts, sounds, and the ABCs: A diet for a very young reader. In D.M. Barone and L.M. Morrow (Eds.), Literacy and Young Children: Research-Based q Practices (pp. 140-156). New York: Guilford Press.Kamenui, E.J., Simmons, D.C., Baker, S., Chard, D.J., Dickson, S.V., Gunn, B., Smith, S.B., Sprick, M., & Lin, S.J. (1997). Effective strategies for teaching beginning reading. In E.J. Kameenui & D.W. Carnine (Eds.), Effective teaching strategies that accommodate diverse learners. Columbus, OH: Merrill.Lyon, G. (1998). Why reading is not a natural process. Journal of Educational Leadership, 55, 14-18.Murphy, J. (2004). Leadership for Literacy: Research-Based Practice, PreK-3. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin PressNational Reading Panel (2000). Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implication for reading instruction. Washington, DC: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.O‘Connor, R., Notari-Syverson, A., & Vadsay, P. (1998). Ladders to Literacy. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.Shankweiler, D., & Fowler, A. E. (2004). Questions People Ask about the Role of Phonological Processes in Learning to Read. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal. 17(5),483-515.
    • 54Smith, B.K., Simmons, D.C., & Kameenui, E.J. (1998). Phonological awareness: Bases. In D.C. Simmons & E.J. Kameenui (Eds.), What reading research tells us about children with diverse learning needs. Bases and basics. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Smith, S.B., Simmons, D.C., Kame‘enui, E.J. (1995). Synthesis of research on phonological awareness: Principles and implications for reading acquisition. Eugene, OR: University of Oregon, National Center to Improve the Tools of Educators.Snow, C.E., Burns, M.S., & Griffin, P. (Eds.) (1998). Preventing reading difficulties in young children. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
    • 55Alphabetic Principle
    • 56 What is alphabetic principle? The alphabetic principle is the ability to associate sounds with letters and use these sounds toform words (BIG IDEAS, 2005). Students must be able to understand that there are systematicand predictable relationships between written letters and spoken sounds (Armbruster, Lehr, &Osborn, 2001). Alphabetic principle is the area of reading in which phonemic awareness andknowledge of letter-sound correspondences come together in a practical application. Overall, thecategory of alphabetic principle is composed of two parts: Alphabetic Understanding: Words are composed of letters that represent sounds. Phonological Recoding: Using systematic relationships between letters and phonemes (letter-sound correspondence) to retrieve the pronunciation of an unknown printed string or to spell words. This consists of three areas: regular word reading, irregular word reading and advanced word analysis. A student who has reached the mastery of alphabetic principle has moved from the earlieststage of reading in which they must sound out individual phonemes before blending them into aword (/k/ + /a/ + /t/ = cat) to the more efficient stage where they can automatically read words asa whole (cat) (Bursuck & Damer, 2005). A child with alphabetic principle is able to deciphernew and familiar words more easily and automatically. This automaticity is also considered a―fluent decoding‖ ability in children. Why is it important? The concept of alphabetic principle is important for children learning to read becauseletter-sound knowledge is a prerequisite to effective word identification. Those students who areable to acquire alphabetic principle at an early age will benefit from it later in their education byhaving an easier time decoding words and comprehending the text (Stanovich, 1986). Since our
    • 57language is alphabetic, decoding is an essential and primary means or recognizing words (BIGIDEAS, 2005). The following chart shows the correlation between the ability to decode words,and reading comprehension. It highlights the necessity to have the understanding of alphabeticprinciple before being able to comprehend the text.(Foorman, Francis, Shaywitz, Shaywitz, & Fletcher, 1997). Alphabetic principle is also a skill that does not necessarily come naturally to children. Ineducation, it is often assumed that children understand the function of letters in the words theyread and spell, but unfortunately this is not always the case. Past research has suggested thatgood readers have an understanding of alphabetic principle very early on, usually by the end offirst grade. Those readers that take an extended period of time to gain this understanding oftenmiss the opportunity to make use of the alphabetic principle on which further, more difficultreading development depends (O‘Connor, 2007). Since alphabetic principle is one of thebuilding blocks for comprehension, fluency, and more advanced reading skills, it is importantthat this idea is introduced to children as early as possible. By exposing children to alphabeticprinciple at a young age, it will help them to develop the skills necessary to improve theirreading ability.
    • 58 How is alphabetic principle assessed? Alphabetic principle is assessed through two key components: individual letter-soundcorrespondences and sounding out words. It can be formally assessed through DIBELS nonsenseword fluency assessments. The DIBELS Nonsense Word Fluency (NWF) measure is a standardized, individuallyadministered test of the alphabetic principle. This test includes letter-sound correspondence andthe ability to blend letters into words when letters represent their most common sounds(Kaminski & Good, 1996). The student is presented an 8.5" x 11" sheet of paper with randomlyordered vowel-consonant (VC) and consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) nonsense words (e.g.,sig, rav, ov) and asked to produce verbally the individual letter sound of each letter or verballyproduce, or read, the whole nonsense word. For example, if the word is "vab" the student couldsay /v/ /a/ /b/ or say the word /vab/ to obtain a total of three letter-sounds correct. The student isallowed 1 minute to produce as many letter-sounds as he or she can, and the final score is thenumber of letter-sounds produced correctly in one minute. This measure is fluency based,therefore students receive a higher score if they are phonologically recoding the word andreceive a lower score if they are providing letter sounds in isolation. The NWF measure alsotakes about 1 minute to administer and has over 20 alternate forms for monitoring progress (BIGIDEAS, 2005). Guidelines for Teaching Alphabetic Principle When teaching the alphabetic principle to children, there are three key skills that childrenmust be able to master: letter-sound correspondences, sounding out words, and readingconnected text. An example of teaching letter sound correspondence would be if a teacher put aletter on the board, n, and then points to that letter and tells the students, ―The sound of this letter
    • 59is /nnnnnnn/. Tell me the sound of this letter.‖ This type of task should be taught in an explicitmanner with consistent and brief wording. An example of teaching sounding out words would bethe following: Teacher points to the word map on the board, touches under each sound as thestudents sound it out, and slashes finger under the word as students say it fast.) "Sound it out."(/mmmmmmmmaaaaaaap/) "Say it fast." (map) (BIG IDEAS, 2005). When teaching this skillthere should be a systematic progression used to highlight the important steps of word reading: 1. Students orally produce each sound in a word and sustain that sound as they progress to the next. 2. Students must be taught to put those sounds together to make a whole word. 3. Students sound out the letter-sound correspondences "in their head" or silently and then produce the whole word.As with all aspects of teaching reading, each step should be modeled and practiced. Whenteaching the final critical skill, reading connected text, teachers should present short, highlycontrolled passages to children once they are able to accurately decode VC and CVC word types.The critical features of the alphabetic principle are outlined in the image below:
    • 60This puzzle shows the importance of starting the teaching of alphabetic principle early and withvarying methods of instruction, depending on the child‘s ability. This Section This part of the manual will present various intervention strategies to help children whoare struggling with reading alphabetic principle skills. This section will focus on strategiescentered on the two main areas of alphabetic principle; alphabetic understanding andphonological recoding. Teachers and others using these interventions should feel comfortableadapting and modifying each intervention to best suit the needs of the child.
    • 61 Brown Bag ItOverview:The student will match initial phonemes to graphemes. Students sort pictures by initial soundsinto bags labeled with the letters of the alphabet.Materials: Small brown paper bags; Label each of 26 bags with one letter of the alphabet. Print resources (e.g., magazines and catalogs) Review the print resources to ensure the information is appropriate for young children. ScissorsProcedure:1. Place paper bags in alphabetical order on a flat surface. Place print resources and scissors at the center.2. The student cuts 10-20 pictures from the print resources.3. Names each picture, says its initial sound (e.g., ―basketball, /b/‖), and places picture in corresponding bag.4. Continues until all pictures are sorted.References:Florida Center for Reading Research (2005): [On-line] Available: http://www.fcrr.org/Curriculum/studentCenterActivities.htmInvernizzi, M. (2003). Concepts, sounds, and the ABCs: A diet for a very young reader. In D.M. Barone and L.M. Morrow (Eds.), Literacy and Young Children: Research-Based Practices (pp. 140-156). New York: Guilford Press.Vadasy, P. F., Sanders, E. A., & Tudor, S. (2007). Effectiveness of Paraeducator-Supplemented Individual Instruction: Beyond Basic Decoding Skills. Journal of Learning Disabilities. 40(6), 508-525.
    • 62 Photo ChartOverview:The student will match initial phonemes to graphemes. Students match the initial sounds inclassmates‘ names to letters using student photographs.Materials: Student photographs Poster board; Write the letters of the alphabet vertically down the left side of the poster board.Procedure:1. Place scattered student photographs on a flat surface. Place poster board at the center.2. Working in pairs, students select a photograph, name the student, and say the initial sound in the student‘s name.3. Place photograph on the chart beside the letter that corresponds to the initial sound.4. Continue until all photographs are sorted.References:Florida Center for Reading Research (2005): [On-line] Available: http://www.fcrr.org/Curriculum/studentCenterActivities.htmVadasy, P. F., Sanders, E. A., & Tudor, S. (2007). Effectiveness of Paraeducator-Supplemented Individual Instruction: Beyond Basic Decoding Skills. Journal of Learning Disabilities. 40(6), 508-525.White, T. G. (2005). Effects of Systematic and Strategic Analogy-Based Phonics on Grade 2 Students Word Reading and Reading Comprehension. Reading Research Quarterly. 40(2), 234-255.
    • 63 Letter-Sound BingoOverview:The student will match medial phonemes to graphemes. Students match medial sounds of wordsto letters while playing a Bingo-type game.Materials: Letter-sound bingo cards Medial sound picture cards (you can use pictures with words containing medial sounds) Game pieces (e.g., counters)Procedure:1. Place the medial sound picture cards face down in a stack. Provide each student with a different bingo card and game pieces.2. Taking turns, student one selects the top card from the stack, names the picture, and says its medial sound (e.g., ―lock, /o/‖).3. Each student looks for letter on his bingo card that corresponds to the medial sound (i.e., ―o‖) and places one game piece on that letter.4. Student one places picture card in a discard pile.5. Continue until one student has a completed card and says, ―Bingo!‖References:Boyle, J. R. (2008). Reading Strategies for Students with Mild Disabilities. Intervention in School and Clinic. 44(1), 3-9.Denton, C., Parker, R., & Hasbrouck, J. E. (2003). How to Tutor Very Young Students with Reading Problems. Preventing School Failure. 48(1), 42-44.Flores, M. M., Shippen, M. E., Alberto, P., & Crowe, L. (2004). Teaching Letter-Sound Correspondence to Students with Moderate Intellectual Disabilities. Journal of Direct Instruction. 4(2), 173-188.Florida Center for Reading Research (2005): [On-line] Available: http://www.fcrr.org/Curriculum/studentCenterActivities.htm** Sample bingo card on following page
    • 64 BINGO!a o i ae u a oo e u i
    • 65 Letter BagOverview:The student will match final phonemes to graphemes. Students sort, illustrate, and write the finalsounds of objects.Materials: Target final sound objects Non-target final sound objects Bag; Place all objects in the bag. Student sheet; Write the target sound letter in the upper left hand corner. PencilProcedure:1. Place the bag of objects on a flat surface. Provide the student with a student sheet.2. The student selects one object from the bag, names it, and says its final sound (e.g., ―mug, /g/‖).3. Names the target letter, says its sound (e.g., ―g, /g/‖), and determines if the final sound of the object corresponds.4. If it matches, illustrates object in target letter column. If it does not match, illustrates object in X column. Writes letter for final sound beside it.5. Continue until all objects are sorted and illustrated.References:Denton, C., Parker, R., & Hasbrouck, J. E. (2003). How to Tutor Very Young Students with Reading Problems. Preventing School Failure. 48(1), 42-44.Florida Center for Reading Research (2005): [On-line] Available: http://www.fcrr.org/Curriculum/studentCenterActivities.htmInvernizzi, M. (2003). Concepts, sounds, and the ABCs: A diet for a very young reader. In D.M. Barone and L.M. Morrow (Eds.), Literacy and Young Children: Research-Based Practices (pp. 140-156). New York: Guilford Press.**Student Sheet on following page
    • 66Name ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ X
    • 67 Letter-Sound MatchOverview:The student will match initial, final, and medial phonemes to graphemes. Students sort picturesby matching phonemes to graphemes and write missing letters.Materials: Picture cards Note: The pictures used are: ant, map, pin, bib, bug, dog, cry, leg, fly, sun Go to: http://www.fcrr.org/Curriculum/pdf/GK-1/P_Final_Part2.pdf For example cards Student sheet Scissors GlueProcedure:1. Provide the student with a student sheet and picture card Activity Master. Place scissors and glue at the center.2. The student cuts out the pictures. Selects a picture, names it, and says each sound (e.g., ―bug, /b//u//g/‖).3. Looks for the letters that correspond to two of the sounds.4. Glues the picture in the fourth column next to the two letters. Looks at the blank space in the row, determines the missing sound, and writes the corresponding letter (i.e., ―/b//u//g/, the missing letter is g‖).5. Continues until all blanks are filled.References:Denton, C., Parker, R., & Hasbrouck, J. E. (2003). How to Tutor Very Young Students with Reading Problems. Preventing School Failure. 48(1), 42-44.Florida Center for Reading Research (2005): [On-line] Available: http://www.fcrr.org/Curriculum/studentCenterActivities.htmWhite, T. G. (2005). Effects of Systematic and Strategic Analogy-Based Phonics on Grade 2 Students Word Reading and Reading Comprehension. Reading Research Quarterly. 40(2), 234-255.** Sample student sheet on following page
    • 68m p picture i n pictureb u picturea t pictureb i pictures u picturec y picture e g picturef y picture o g picture
    • 69 Ways to Use the Alphabet SongOverview: Using the alphabet song in activities such as the ones that follow provides informal andenjoyable ways to become familiar with the names and appearance of letters. When childrenrecognize and know the names for letters of the alphabet they: have more tools for participation in graphophonic activities can more readily understand teachers and other adults instructions and comments that make use of the names for letters can help peers spell unfamiliar words.Materials: Alphabet chart (mounted close to childrens eye level) Chalkboard and chalk Pointer Set of laminated alphabet cards.Procedure:1. Sing the alphabet song with emerging learners on a regular basis but vary the ways that you do this. For example: o Point to the letters of the alphabet as children sing. o Vary the speed at which you sing. o Sing the alphabet backwards sometimes. o Tell the children to watch you and stop singing whenever you stop moving the pointer. Ask, "What letter did I stop on?" o Have child volunteers to take your role and do the pointing, stopping, and asking.Variations:1. Print the letters of the alphabet across the chalkboard while children are observing.2. Demonstrate singing the sounds that the letters make instead of singing the names of the letters.3. Stop on letters with more than one sound and sing both or all sounds of that letter.4. Write the number of sounds associated with each letter under the letter.
    • 705. On another occasion, write words related to each sound under the letter as well. For example, under A you might write at, ate, ball, and sing and point to each word as you sing the "a sound" it contains.6. Pass out your laminated alphabet cards--one per child. Display any that are left over on the chalkboard ledge. Sing the alphabet song slowly as the children line up for dismissal, etc. Each child can join the line when her/his letter is sung. Distribute the cards randomly whenever you repeat this activity so that no child is always A or always Z.References:Brand, S. T. (2006). Facilitating Emergent Literacy Skills: A Literature-Based, Multiple Intelligence Approach. Journal of Research in Childhood Education. 21(2), 133.Saskatchewan Education: Early Literacy: A Resource for Teachers (2000). [On-line] Available: http://www.sasked.gov.sk.ca/docs/ela/e_literacy/graph.htmlStandley, J. M. (2008). Does Music Instruction Help Children Learn to Read?: Evidence of a Meta-Analysis. Update: Applications of Research in Music Education. 27(1), 17-32.
    • 71 One-Letter Alphabet BooksOverview:One-letter books provide children with an example of what written letters look like, and thesounds that correspond with those written letters.Materials: Collection of books or teacher-constructed books that focus on a single letter of the alphabet One-letter "take home" books Paper, pencils, markers, crayons, magazines, scissors, and other materials for bookmaking.Procedure:1. Show children an example of a one-letter book and talk about its features:  focuses on one letter only  shows the printed version of that letter in both upper and lower case forms  each page contains a picture of something that starts with that letter and the word for the picture (for example, a book about the letter t might contain 8 pages with one of the following words and its accompanying picture on each page: table, tree, totem pole, tent, tub, ticket, turtle, t-shirt)2. Read the book a few times pausing from time to time to draw attention to letter-sound relationships.3. Invite each child to make a one-letter book. Initial books could focus on beginning consonants that most children know or the first letter in their name.4. When books are completed, they can be put in the alphabet center or class library, used for independent reading, and taken home to read to family members.Variation: Make a class set of one-letter books around a theme such as foods. Make a list of foods that start with each letter of the alphabet as a class and post these on an experience chart. Let children choose which letter their class book will be about.
    • 72References:Blachman, B. A., Wynne Ball, E., Black, R., & Tangel, D. M. (2000). Road to the code: A phonological awareness program for young children. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.Brabham, E. G., Murray, B. A., & Bowden, S. H. (2006). Reading Alphabet Books in Kindergarten: Effects of Instructional Emphasis and Media Practice. Journal of Research in Childhood Education. 20(3), 219.Justice, L. M., Kaderavek, J. N., Fan, X., Sofka, A., & Hunt, A. (2009). Accelerating Preschoolers Early Literacy Development through Classroom-Based Teacher-Child Storybook Reading and Explicit Print Referencing. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools. 40(1), 67-85.Royce, C. A. (2009). Communicating with Pictures and Precision. Science and Children. 46(5), 16-18.Saskatchewan Education: Early Literacy: A Resource for Teachers (2000). [On-line] Available: http://www.sasked.gov.sk.ca/docs/ela/e_literacy/graph.html
    • 73 Sensory Exploration of LettersOverview:Using other methods of learning letters can be effective and fun for children. Sensory explorationof letters gives children a variety of ways to practice recognizing letters and the sounds theymake.Materials: Individual chalkboards and chalk Clay Sand and/or salt trays Pencils, markers, and paper Magnetic letters and magnetic board Sandpaper letters Felt letters and felt boards.Procedure:1. Throughout your focus on the alphabet, encourage children to experiment with forming and/or tracing letters using a variety of materials.2. Encourage children to draw letters in the air, write letters on another childs back for them to identify, and form letters with their bodies--either alone or with a partner.References:Brand, S. T. (2006). Facilitating Emergent Literacy Skills: A Literature-Based, Multiple Intelligence Approach. Journal of Research in Childhood Education. 21(2), 133.Campbell, M. L., Helf, S., & Cooke, N. L. (2008). Effects of Adding Multisensory Components to a Supplemental Reading Program on the Decoding Skills of Treatment Resisters. Education and Treatment of Children. 31(3), 267-295.Donnell, W. J. (2007). The Effects of Multisensory Vowel Instruction during Word Study for Third-Grade Students. Reading Research Quarterly. 42(4), 468-471.Saskatchewan Education: Early Literacy: A Resource for Teachers (2000). [On-line] Available: http://www.sasked.gov.sk.ca/docs/ela/e_literacy/graph.html
    • 74 Who Has This Letter in Their Name?Overview:Research has shown that using children‘s names while teaching alphabetic principle can be apowerful reinforcing tool. This strategy capitalizes on that strength and helps children recognizeindividual letters and the sounds they make.Materials: Childrens name tags Large alphabet cards (optional) Chalkboard and chalk.Procedure:1. Write the letters of the alphabet across the board, or place a set of alphabet cards in order on the chalkboard ledge.2. Give children their name tags by holding the tags up one at a time and having them identify their own.3. Point to each letter of the alphabet in turn and ask "Who has this letter in their name?" If necessary, draw attention to both upper and lower case versions.4. Count the number of children who have each letter included in their names and write the number above each letter.5. Discuss which letter was included in the most and least names, and whether there were any letters that did not appear in any names.References:McNair, J. (2007). Say My Name, Say My Name! Using Childrens Names to Enhance Early Literacy Development. Young Children. 62(5), 84-89.Saskatchewan Education: Early Literacy: A Resource for Teachers (2000). [On-line] Available: http://www.sasked.gov.sk.ca/docs/ela/e_literacy/graph.html
    • 75 Action Words for the ConsonantsOverview:This strategy helps children recognize letters, and words that contain these letters through a funand active game. It helps to build a child‘s recognition of what an action word it as well.Materials: Laminated cards with a consonant of the alphabet on one side and an action word that starts with that consonant on the other side.Procedure:1. Teach children the actions for two or three consonants. Examples of action words for consonants: Bounce catch dance fall gallop hop jump/jiggle kick laugh march nod paint/point run sit/skip talk/tug vacuum walk/wiggle yawn zip2. Show the letter and the action word.3. Do the action yourself while saying the name of the letter and the name of the action.4. Exaggerate the action and have fun with it.5. Have the children join you in doing the action, and saying the letter and word.6. Have them continue to do each action while you are displaying that letter and continue until you hide the letter behind your back.7. Continue to teach new consonant-action combinations in subsequent days and use students knowledge of these associations for a variety of simple games.An example of one game would involve passing out the letters face down so that only the childwith that letter can peek at it to identify it.1. Have one child do an action and the other children try to guess which letter that child was given. Or2. Play a game called "Follow the Letter Leader".3. The child who is designated as the leader draws a card and does that action.
    • 764. The other children follow the leader in doing the same action.5. The leader can then pick a new child to be the leader and the game continues.References:Cunningham, P. M. (1995). Phonics they use: Words for reading and writing. New York: Harper-Collins.Saskatchewan Education: Early Literacy: A Resource for Teachers (2000). [On-line] Available: http://www.sasked.gov.sk.ca/docs/ela/e_literacy/graph.html
    • 77 What‘s in a Name?Overview:Visual discrimination abilities are foundational to the development of letter recognition andletter-sound association. Various activities are presented below incorporating the usage ofchildren‘s names.Students will develop an emerging ability to: discriminate visual similarities and differences in letters and words associate letters with their name.Materials: Name tags Chart paper and felt markers Chalkboard, individual chalkboards, and chalk Pencils and paper Scissors.Procedure: Make name tags for everyone in the class and use them for a variety of relevant purposes. For example:Letter games using childrens names:1. ―Follow my directions if your name has this letter in it.‖2. Say the name of a letter and write it on the chalkboard and ask students to follow your directions only if their name starts with the letter you write.3. For example, say and write an uppercase letter and then say, "Clap two times if your name starts with this letter".4. Alternate this with lowercase letters, writing the letter and saying its name followed by a direction like "Put one hand under your chin if your name ends with this letter."5. Or use at dismissal time, "Those whose name begins like this may get ready for home."6. Or, "If you have the letter e anywhere in your name, you may get ready for snack."
    • 78Name Bingo:1. Give each child a card with her/his name on it (initially just the first name, later include middle and last names) and a set of plastic chips.2. Tell the children, "I will call out the name of a letter and write it on the board. If your name has that letter in it, cover it with a plastic chip. When all the letters in your name are covered, hold up your hand and say Bingo."3. Each time a round is finished, have children switch name cards so that they learn the letters in other childrens names as well.Name Scramble:1. Give each child a card with her/his name printed on it and have students cut their name cards up into smaller cards, each one with a letter of their name on it.2. Ask students to scramble the letters on their desks and then put them back in order to spell their name. (Demonstrate this first.)3. Have students trade cards and see if they can unscramble a different name.4. Refer students to the attendance chart, or other chart with class names on it, if they need help. They could also ask the person whose name they have for one clue to get them started.Name Riddles:1. Make up riddles using childrens names. For example, I am thinking about a boy who has two os in his name.2. Encourage the children to make up name riddles as well.References:McNair, J. (2007). Say My Name, Say My Name! Using Childrens Names to Enhance Early Literacy Development. Young Children. 62(5), 84-89.Saskatchewan Education: Early Literacy: A Resource for Teachers (2000). [On-line] Available: http://www.sasked.gov.sk.ca/docs/ela/e_literacy/graph.html
    • 79 Guess my LetterOverview:This guessing game gives children repeated exposure to different letters of the alphabet and thesounds that they make.Materials: Chalkboard and chalk, or chart paper and marker Large alphabet cards with upper case letters on one side and lower case on the other.Procedure:1. Arrange the alphabet cards where all children can see them. Display either all upper case letters or all lower case ones.2. Tell children you are going to think of a letter for them to guess and that their clues will be visual ("You will need your eyes for this activity.").3. Explain that you are only going to write part of a letter and that they will need to watch you carefully and try to figure out which letters have that kind of shape or part.4. Tell them whether you will be writing upper or lower case letters and that students can check their ideas by looking at the alphabet cards.5. Make a part of a circle or curve, a straight vertical or horizontal line, a slanted line, etc.6. Pause and ask for students predictions as to which letter you are making. (Young students may point to the alphabet card instead of naming the letter.)7. Write students predictions beside your shape, drawing their attention to the part of the letters they predicted which do contain the shape that you drew.8. Continue to add more to your shape and elicit students predictions until the whole letter is drawn.9. As you add more lines or curves to your letter, ask students if you need to eliminate (or cross out) any of their predictions. For example, you might be thinking of an E and have started with the vertical line. Children might have guessed L, I, T, F, and E. If you added the middle horizontal line, some may realize that they need to eliminate the L, T, and the I.10. Once the children guess the correct letter have them practice making the sound that corresponds with that letter.
    • 80References:Denton, C., Parker, R., & Hasbrouck, J. E. (2003). How to Tutor Very Young Students with Reading Problems. Preventing School Failure. 48(1), 42-44.Saskatchewan Education: Early Literacy: A Resource for Teachers (2000). [On-line] Available: http://www.sasked.gov.sk.ca/docs/ela/e_literacy/graph.html
    • 81 Three-in-OneOverview:The student will blend sounds of letters to make words. Students use consonant and vowel cardsto make words.Materials: Letter cards Student sheet PencilsProcedure:1. Place the consonant cards face down in one stack and vowel cards face down in another stack. Provide each student with a student sheet.2. Taking turns, students select two cards from the consonant stack and one card from the vowel stack.3. Place the vowel card between the two consonant cards. Say the sound of each letter, blend them, and read the word orally (e.g., ―/b//u//g/, bug‖).4. Determine if the word is real or nonsense and record it in the corresponding column on the student sheet. Return the cards to the bottom of the appropriate stacks. Select two more consonant cards and one more vowel card.5. Continue until at least ten words are recorded.References:.Denton, C., Parker, R., & Hasbrouck, J. E. (2003). How to Tutor Very Young Students with Reading Problems. Preventing School Failure. 48(1), 42-44.Flores, M. M., Shippen, M. E., Alberto, P., & Crowe, L. (2004). Teaching Letter-Sound Correspondence to Students with Moderate Intellectual Disabilities. Journal of Direct Instruction. 4(2), 173-188.Florida Center for Reading Research (2005): [On-line] Available: http://www.fcrr.org/Curriculum/studentCenterActivities.htm** Example letter cards and student sheet on the following pages
    • 82a b cd e fg h i
    • 83Real Words Nonsense Words
    • 84 Go FishOverview:Through a simple card game children will get repeated practice of letter-sound correspondence.Materials: Small plain alphabet cards of a, m, t, and iProcedure:1. Shuffle the cards and deal four cards, one at a time to each player.2. Place the remaining cards face down in the center of the table.3. Have players fan their cards by holding them in their hands.4. The first player begins by asking a child to the right for a card that will match one of the cards in his or her hand.5. The child can ask by letter name or sound.6. If the selected player has a matching card, that card must be given to the first player.7. If the selected player does not have a match he or she says ―Go fish!‖ and the first player draws a card from the remaining cards on the table.8. If the child draws the card originally requested, the card is shown to the group.9. The child places the card face up on top of the matching card, giving the name and sound of the matching letter.10. If the child draws and unwanted card, it is added to his or her hand. Either way, play then passes to the next person.11. If a child runs out of cards by making pairs, the child draws another card from the center of the table and continues to play until all of the cards are used.12. At the end of the game the players can give the name and the sound of their matches before handing the cards back to the teacher.Note:This game can be adapted and made more difficult to include more letters of the alphabet andwhole words.
    • 85References:Blachman, B. A., Wynne Ball, E., Black, R., & Tangel, D. M. (2000). Road to the code: A phonological awareness program for young children. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.Denton, C., Parker, R., & Hasbrouck, J. E. (2003). How to Tutor Very Young Students with Reading Problems. Preventing School Failure. 48(1), 42-44.Flores, M. M., Shippen, M. E., Alberto, P., & Crowe, L. (2004). Teaching Letter-Sound Correspondence to Students with Moderate Intellectual Disabilities. Journal of Direct Instruction. 4(2), 173-188.
    • 86 ConcentrationOverview:This is a simple matching game used to reinforce letters and the sounds they make.Materials: Small, plain alphabet cards of a, m, t, and i (multiple pairs of each)Procedure:1. Take the a, m, t, and i alphabet cards (without pictures) and shuffle them to make sure they are in random order.2. Then, place the cards face down in rows on the table in front of the child.3. Have the children try to find matching pairs.4. The first player turns one card and then another face up, placing them down exactly where they were when they were face down.5. The child names and gives the initial sound of the letter on each of the two cards.6. If the same letter is on both of the cards, the child keeps the cards.7. If the letters do not match, the child turns them face down once again in exactly the same spot and passes the turn to the next child.8. The players try to remember where their cards are so they can make a match on their next turn.9. After all of the cards have been matched, each player reads through their cards naming the letters and giving the initial sounds.Note:This game can be adapted and made more difficult to include more letters of the alphabet andwhole words.References:Blachman, B. A., Wynne Ball, E., Black, R., & Tangel, D. M. (2000). Road to the code: A phonological awareness program for young children. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.Denton, C., Parker, R., & Hasbrouck, J. E. (2003). How to Tutor Very Young Students with Reading Problems. Preventing School Failure. 48(1), 42-44.
    • 87 Making and Writing WordsOverview:In Making and Writing Words, students are guided through the process of using a limitednumber of letters to make a series of words. They begin by creating short words and end withlonger ones. Through the regular use of this type of word-building activity, students learn aboutthe letter-sound correspondence and decoding, therefore word recognition improvessignificantly.Materials: Making and writing words sheets scissors A teachers set of the same letters on larger cards A word list for the teacher on a separate card (one with a list of words to be made from the set of letters).Procedure:1. This strategy works best with a small group of children.2. Instruct the students to write the following letters in the appropriate boxes on their individual Making and Writing Words sheets: The vowels a, a, i, and o; and the consonants c, n, t, and v. Then ask them to write an apostrophe, placing it for convenience in the consonants box3. Then either pronounce or give clues to words, beginning with a few having only two or three letters and moving on to longer words: "In box number 1 write a two-letter word that means the opposite of out. [Students write the word in box 1.] Good. Now, words that contain in belong to a word family. In box 2 Id like you to write a three-letter word that belongs to the in word family. Heres another clue: the word is a kind of metal. [Students write tin in box 2.] "Now, in boxes 3, 4, and 5 please write three words that belong to the an word family. Remember, all an words will rhyme and you can only use the letters listed in the consonant and vowel boxes."4. Then continue with the class through other three-letter words such as not and cot for boxes 6 and 7 and oat for box 8. Then its on to longer words:
    • 88 "Great job. Now lets work on some longer words. In box 9 write the contraction for the word cannot. Its pronounced cant. Remember to put the apostrophe in the correct place. Figure it out with a partner or look here at my sheet if you run into trouble with this one."5. Work with the class through the remaining words she had planned -- coin in box 10, vain in box 11, and vacant in box 12.6. Throughout this work either pronounce the word or provide clues to help students figure out the word (e.g., "The word that goes in box 10 describes a type of money that includes pennies, nickels, dimes, and quarters")7. The final word is always the "challenge word." Tell students that it uses all the letters listed, and they are challenged to write the word in the final box. In our example, the final word is vacation, which students would write in box 13.8. Have students sorting the words they have just written by cutting out the words. Here are suggestions for sorting: Sort 1: Words that belong to the an family and words that dont Sort 2: Words that have one syllable, two syllables, and three or more syllables Sort 3: Words that contain digraphs and words that dont Sort 4: Words that contain blends and words that dont Sort 5: Words that end in n and words that dont Sort 6: Words that have words within them (e.g., ant in vacant).References:Aiken, A.G., & Bayer, L. (2002). They love words. The Reading Teacher, 56, 68–74.Cunningham, P. M., & Hall, D. P. (1994). Making words. Parsippany, NJ: Good Apple.Cunningham, P.M., Hall, D.P. & Defee, M. (1998). Nonability-grouped, multilevel instruction: Eight years later. Reading Teacher, 51, 652-664.Rasinski, T., & Oswald, R. (2005). Making and Writing Words: Constructivist Word Learning in a Second-Grade Classroom. Reading and Writing Quarterly. 21(2), 151-163.Saskatchewan Education: Early Literacy: A Resource for Teachers (2000). [On-line] Available: http://www.sasked.gov.sk.ca/docs/ela/e_literacy/graph.html**Sample making and writing words sheet on following page
    • 89 Making and Writing WordsVowels Consonants1 6 112 7 123 8 134 9 145 10 15 Making and Writing WordsVowels Consonants a,a,i,o c,n,t,v,1 6 112 7 123 8 134 9 145 10 15
    • 90 The Word Box GameOverview:The word box game is designed to help students decode words and learn the association betweenletters and the sound they make.Materials: Clear word-building boxes Lower-case letters that have been previously taught, vowels should be a distinctive color Laminated grid that students can use to make words, placing a letter on each square Pencil A sheet that students can use for writing their wordsProcedure:1. Tell students to bring a pencil and piece of paper when they play Word Boxes2. Teach the game to students, showing them how to put a letter in each box. Tell students to always put a marked vowel in the middle box.3. After students put a letter into each box, ask them to say the letter sounds quietly before blending them into a word.4. Tell students to write the word they read on their paper, reading it out loud one more time after they write it.5. Show students how to write their grand total on the page. Enthusiastically describe how, as they learn more and more words, their total numbers will get bigger and bigger.6. Monitor students carefully as they play the game.References:Bursuck, W. D., Damer, M. (2006). Reading Instruction for Students Who Are at Risk or Have Disabilities. Boston: Pearson.The Access Center (2009). [On-line] Available: http://www.k8accesscenter.org/training_resources/alphabetic_principle_module.asp** Sample grid on following page
    • 91
    • 92 Newspaper HuntOverview:By incorporating everyday objects, such as newspapers into the lesson, children will see real lifeapplications of letter-sound correspondence and be able to practice identifying letters based uponthe sounds they make.Materials: Paper and pencil for each student Chalk and chalkboard Various newspaper article headings TimerProcedure:1. Collect a pile of newspaper headings for the children to use.2. Select a sound of the day and display that sound by writing it on the chalkboard and practicing the sound with the students.3. Have students see how many times they can find the sound of the day in the newspaper headings within a certain amount of time.4. After the time is up ask several students to share with the rest of the class what they found.5. Have the class decide whether or not the findings match the sound of the day.References:Brand, S. T. (2006). Facilitating Emergent Literacy Skills: A Literature-Based, Multiple Intelligence Approach. Journal of Research in Childhood Education. 21(2), 133.Gerard, M. (2004). Whats a Parent to Do?: Phonics and Other Stuff. Childhood Education. 80(3), 159.The Access Center (2009). [On-line] Available: http://www.k8accesscenter.org/training_resources/alphabetic_principle_module.asp
    • 93 ReferencesAiken, A.G., & Bayer, L. (2002). They love words. The Reading Teacher, 56, 68–74.Armbruster, B., Lehr, F., & Osborn, J. (2001). Put reading first: The research building blocks for teaching children to read. Washington, DC: Partnership for Reading.Blachman, B. A., Wynne Ball, E., Black, R., & Tangel, D. M. (2000). Road to the code: A phonological awareness program for young children. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.Boyle, J. R. (2008). Reading Strategies for Students with Mild Disabilities. Intervention in School and Clinic. 44(1), 3-9.Brabham, E. G., Murray, B. A., & Bowden, S. H. (2006). Reading Alphabet Books in Kindergarten: Effects of Instructional Emphasis and Media Practice. Journal of Research in Childhood Education. 20(3), 219.Brand, S. T. (2006). Facilitating Emergent Literacy Skills: A Literature-Based, Multiple Intelligence Approach. Journal of Research in Childhood Education. 21(2), 133.Bursuck, W. D., Damer, M. (2006). Reading Instruction for Students Who Are at Risk or Have Disabilities. Boston: Pearson.Campbell, M. L., Helf, S., & Cooke, N. L. (2008). Effects of Adding Multisensory Components to a Supplemental Reading Program on the Decoding Skills of Treatment Resisters. Education and Treatment of Children. 31(3), 267-295.Cunningham, P. M. (1995). Phonics they use: Words for reading and writing. New York: Harper-Collins.Cunningham, P. M., & Hall, D. P. (1994). Making words. Parsippany, NJ: Good Apple.Cunningham, P.M., Hall, D.P. & Defee, M. (1998). Nonability-grouped, multilevel instruction: Eight years later. Reading Teacher, 51, 652-664.
    • 94Denton, C., Parker, R., & Hasbrouck, J. E. (2003). How to Tutor Very Young Students with Reading Problems. Preventing School Failure. 48(1), 42-44.Donnell, W. J. (2007). The Effects of Multisensory Vowel Instruction during Word Study for Third-Grade Students. Reading Research Quarterly. 42(4), 468-471.Flores, M. M., Shippen, M. E., Alberto, P., & Crowe, L. (2004). Teaching Letter-Sound Correspondence to Students with Moderate Intellectual Disabilities. Journal of Direct Instruction. 4(2), 173-188.Florida Center for Reading Research (2005): [On-line] Available: http://www.fcrr.org/Curriculum/studentCenterActivities.htmFoorman, B. R., Francis, D. J., Shaywitz, S. E., Shaywitz, B. A., & Fletcher, J. M. (1997). The case for early reading intervention. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Gerard, M. (2004). Whats a Parent to Do?: Phonics and Other Stuff. Childhood Education. 80(3), 159.Invernizzi, M. (2003). Concepts, sounds, and the ABCs: A diet for a very young reader. In D.M. Barone and L.M. Morrow (Eds.), Literacy and Young Children: Research-Based Practices (pp. 140-156). New York: Guilford Press.Justice, L. M., Kaderavek, J. N., Fan, X., Sofka, A., & Hunt, A. (2009). Accelerating Preschoolers Early Literacy Development through Classroom-Based Teacher-Child Storybook Reading and Explicit Print Referencing. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools. 40(1), 67-85.Kaminski, R. A., & Good, R. H., III (1996). Toward a technology for assessing basic early literacy skills. School Psychology Review, 25(2), 215-227.
    • 95McNair, J. (2007). Say My Name, Say My Name! Using Childrens Names to Enhance Early Literacy Development. Young Children. 62(5), 84-89.National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. (2000). Report of the National Reading Panel. Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction. (Available online) http://www.nichd.nih.gov/publications/nrp/smallbook.htmO‘Connor, R. E. (2007). Teaching word recognition: Effective strategies for students with learning difficulties. New York: Guilford Press.Rasinski, T., & Oswald, R. (2005). Making and Writing Words: Constructivist Word Learning in a Second-Grade Classroom. Reading and Writing Quarterly. 21(2), 151-163.Royce, C. A. (2009). Communicating with Pictures and Precision. Science and Children. 46(5), 16-18.Saskatchewan Education: Early Literacy: A Resource for Teachers (2000). [On-line] Available: http://www.sasked.gov.sk.ca/docs/ela/e_literacy/graph.htmlStandley, J. M. (2008). Does Music Instruction Help Children Learn to Read?: Evidence of a Meta-Analysis. Update: Applications of Research in Music Education. 27(1), 17-32.Stanovich, K. E. (1986). Matthew effects in reading: Some consequences of individual differences in the acquisition of literacy. Reading Research Quarterly, 21, 360-406.The Access Center (2009). [On-line] Available: http://www.k8accesscenter.org/training_resources/alphabetic_principle_module.aspVadasy, P. F., Sanders, E. A., & Tudor, S. (2007). Effectiveness of Paraeducator-Supplemented Individual Instruction: Beyond Basic Decoding Skills. Journal of Learning Disabilities. 40(6), 508-525.
    • 96White, T. G. (2005). Effects of Systematic and Strategic Analogy-Based Phonics on Grade 2 Students Word Reading and Reading Comprehension. Reading Research Quarterly. 40(2), 234-255.
    • 97Fluency
    • 98 What is reading fluency? Fluency is the ability to read words without noticeable cognitive or mental effort (BIGIDEAS, 2005). It is the ability to have mastered word recognition skills to the point of over-learning the concept. A skill such as this is ―automatic‖ which means it does not require anyconscious thought. When a child reads fluently, they are able to read accurately, quickly, andwith expression. Fluent readers are able to read aloud effortlessly and with expression. Theirreading sounds natural, as if they are speaking. Readers who have not yet developed fluency readslowly, word by word making their oral reading sound choppy. Reading Fluency is made up of atleast three key elements: accurate reading of connected text at a conversational rate withappropriate prosody (expression). A fluent reader can maintain this performance for long periodsof time, retains the skill after long periods of no practice, and can generalize across texts(Hudson, Lane, & Pullen, 2006, p. 702). Fluency is a skill that develops gradually over time and with repeated practice. It isimportant to note that fluency is not a stage of development for children in which they can readall words quickly and easily. A child‘s reading fluency will always change depending on thedifficulty of the text and the previous exposure to the words being read (National Institute forLiteracy, 2007). Why is it important? Reading fluency is important because it is considered a ―gateway‖ to comprehension. Itallows the student to devote more cognitive processes to the task of processing the meaning of apassage and provides the bridge between word recognition and comprehension of the text (BIGIDEAS, 2005). Non-fluent readers devote so much of their time to decoding the words that theyhave less time to work on comprehending the passages. In past research it has been found that
    • 99students who misidentify more than 5% of the words in textual material or read at a rate of lessthan 100 words per minute (for students t or above the second grade level) have decodingproblems severe enough to impair their ability to comprehend the material (Grossen & Carnine,1991). In addition to these benefits, Fluency helps learners perform a skill for an extendedperiod of time with better attention to the task and with less distraction and fatigue (Binder,Haughton, and Van Eyk, 1990). If the child struggles to read the text and it is effortful andinefficient, it will be difficult for the child to remember what has been read (National ReadingPanel, 2002). As students move through the grades in school, reading fluency will become evenmore important. Students will have greater demands placed on them for the amount, anddifficulty level of the text they read. Those students that do not have the ability to readaccurately, quickly and with expression will likely fall behind in such tasks. In addition, studentswith these difficulties are less likely to practice their reading skills (Bursuck & Damer, 2007). How is reading fluency assessed? A child‘s rate of reading fluency should be assessed through standardized measures suchas the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS). One component of theDIBELS is the Oral Reading Fluency (ORF) measure. This measure was developed based uponthe program of research and development of Curriculum-Based Measurement of Reading byDeno and colleagues at the University of Minnesota and using the procedures described in Shinn(1989). DIBLES ORF is a standardized set of passages and administration procedures designedto (a) identify children who may need additional instructional support, and (b) monitor progresstoward instructional goals. The passages are calibrated for the goal level of reading for eachgrade level. Student performance is measured by having students read a passage aloud for one
    • 100minute. Words omitted, substituted, and hesitations of more than three seconds are scored aserrors. Words self-corrected within three seconds are scored as accurate. The number of correctwords per minute from the passage is the oral reading fluency rate (DIBELS Data System [On-line]). An alternative version of CBM in reading (as opposed to the DIBELS ORF) is the Test ofReading Fluency (TORF) (Childrens Educational Services, 1987). Guidelines for teaching reading fluency For teachers to effectively teach reading fluency skills three key components arenecessary. First, appropriate instructional tasks must be selected, meaning sounds students canproduce accurately, but not fluently. Second, teachers must schedule sufficient practice acrossthe school day to give students the opportunity to work on their reading fluency skills. Finally, itis critical that teachers systematically increase the rate of response expected from their studentswhen practicing reading fluency. The picture below describes the basic practices that arenecessary to improve students‘ ability to read fluently (BIG IDEAS, 2005). When teaching reading fluency there are three particular skills that are necessary forchildren to master to become fluent readers. The first skill is letter-sound fluency which is whengiven a set of letters; the student can produce the associated sound within one second. This is a
    • 101skill that is expected to be mastered in first grade. The second skill is irregular word fluencywhich is when given a set of irregular words in a set or in a passage, can identify words in 1second or less. This skill is expected to be mastered across first and second grade. The last skillis oral reading fluency, which is assessed through the DIBELS measures. This is defined as thechild having the ability to read connected text fluently and by the end of second grade studentsare expected to be able to do this at a rate of 90-100 words per minute. The follow diagramshows the progression of these reading fluency skills across time for children (BIG IDEAS,2005). This section This part of the manual will present various intervention strategies to help children whoare struggling with reading fluency skills. This section will be divided by the three keycomponents of fluency: accuracy, rate, and prosody. When looking to intervene, you shouldfirst consider the following table to determine where the student‘s difficulties may lie:
    • 102Is the student dysfluent because he or she……is slow? …is inaccurate? …lacks prosody?– Decodes letter by letter? – Missing phonics skills? – Doesn‘t notice punctuation?– Takes too many tries to – Doesn‘t know many sight – Lacks syntacticread the words? words? knowledge?– Doesn‘t read words – Doesn‘t have the oral – Isn‘t paying attentionautomatically? vocabulary to match her to the meaning? decoding attempt to?– Doesn‘t understand what – Not using all information in – Can‘t pay attention toshe is reading? the text? meaning because of attention to decoding?– Is making a speed accuracy – Not monitoring?trade off?Adapted from Hudson, R. F., Presentation at Reading First National Conference, 2006. Once you assess where the student‘s difficulties may lie, the following interventions mayhelp to determine how to best assist this child in improving his or her reading fluency ability. Itis important to note that accuracy, rate, and prosody are all intertwined, and working on one areaoften means simultaneously working on another. For example, increasing a student‘s accuracywill also improve his or her rate because he or she can now read more words correctly, and islikely to improve prosody skills because the student can now pay attention to it rather thandecoding the words. With this in mind, each of the interventions have been placed in theappropriate section of the manual in terms of the primary skill that they are designed to address.Teachers and others using these interventions should feel comfortable adapting and modifyingeach intervention to best suit the needs of the child.
    • 103Strategies to Improve Accuracy
    • 104 Listening Passage PreviewOverview:When a child previews what they read it has been show to improve oral reading performance.The student follows along silently as an accomplished reader reads a passage aloud. Then thestudent reads the passage aloud, receiving corrective feedback as needed from the accomplishedreader.Materials: Reading Book Sheets of paper or copies of students‘ reading passages for marking errors (optional)Procedure:1. Sit with the student in a quiet location without too many distractions. Position the book so that both you and the student can easily see the text.2. Say to the student, ―Now we are going to read to together. Each time, I will read first, while you follow along silently in the book. Then you read the same part out loud.‖3. Read aloud from the book for about 2 minutes while the student reads silently. If you are working with a younger or less-skilled reader, you may want to track your progress across the page with your index finger to help the student keep up with you.4. Stop reading and say to the student, ―Now it is your turn to read. If you come to a word that you do not know, I will help you with it.‖5. Then, have the student read aloud. If the student commits a reading error or hesitates for longer than 3-5 seconds, tell the student the correct word and have the student continue reading.6. Repeat steps 3 and 4 until you have finished the selected story or passage.References:Rose, T.L., & Sherry, L. (1984). Relative effects of two previewing procedures on LD adolescents‘ oral reading performance. Learning Disabilities Quarterly, 7, 39-44.Rose, T. L. (1984). The effects of two prepractice procedures on oral reading. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 17, 544-548.Van Bon, W.H.J., Boksebeld, L.M., Font Freide, T.A.M., & Van den Hurk, J.M. (1991). A comparison of three methods of reading-while-listening. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 24, 471-476.
    • 105 Assisted Reading PracticeOverview:This is considered a simple but effective intervention in which a student reads aloud while anaccomplished reader follows along silently. If the student commits a reading error the helper isthere to correct the student‘s error. An additional benefit to this intervention is that parents cando this practice at home with their children, increasing exposure to written material.Materials: Reading bookProcedure:1. Sit with the student in a quiet location without too many distractions. Position the book so that both you and the student can easily see the text.2. Instruct the student to begin reading out loud. Encourage him or her to ―do your best reading.‖3. Follow along silently in the text as the student reads.4. If the student mispronounces a word or hesitates for longer than 5 seconds, tell the student the word.5. Have the student repeat the word correctly. Direct the student to continue reading aloud through the passage.6. Occasionally, praise the student in specific terms for good reading (e.g., ―You are doing a really great job of sounding out the words that you don‘t know!‖)References:Shany, M.T. & Biemiller, A. (1995). Assisted reading practice: Effects on performance for poor readers in grades 3 and 4. Reading Research Quarterly, 30, 382-395.
    • 106 Error Correction: Word SupplyOverview:Students struggling with reading fluency may benefit from having a more accomplished readerlisten to their reading and correct their errors immediately. Word supply is a simple error-correction technique which makes it ideal for student tutors or parents to use.Materials: Reading BookProcedure:1. Before the student begins to read, tell the student, ―If you come to a word that you do not know, I will help you with it. I will tell you the correct word while you listen and point to the word in the book. After that, I want you to repeat the word and continue reading. Try your best not to make mistakes.‖2. When the student commits a reading error (Ex. Substitution, omission, 5-second hesitation), immediately pronounce the correct word for the student.3. Have the student then repeat the word correctly and direct the student to continue reading.Note: It is important to avoid too many reading interruptions so do not correct minor reading errors.References:Intervention Central Website. (2006): [On-line] Available: www.interventioncentral.orgJenkins, J. & Larsen, D. (1979). Evaluation of error-correction procedures for oral reading. Journal of Special Education, 13, 145-156.Haring, N. G., Lovitt, T. C., Eaton, M. D., & Hansen, C. L. (1978). The fourth R: Research in the classroom. Columbus, OH: Charles E. Merrill Publishing.
    • 107 Error Correction: Sentence RepeatOverview:Students struggling with reading fluency may benefit from having a more accomplished readerlisten to their reading and correct their errors immediately. Sentence repeat allows the student tohave practice correcting the sentences in which they had difficulty.Materials: Reading bookProcedure:1. Before the student begins to read, tell the student, ―If you come to a word that you do not know, I will help you with it. I will tell you the correct word while you listen and point to the word in the book. After that, I want you to repeat the word and then read the rest of the sentence. Then, I want you to read the sentence again. Try your best not to make mistakes.‖2. When the student commits a reading error, immediately pronounce the correct word for the student and have the student repeat the word correctly.3. Direct the student to reread the entire sentence in which the error occurred. The student will then continue reading the passage. (If the student repeats the original reading error when rereading the sentence, you should again pronounce the word correctly and have the student repeat the word. Then continue on.)References:Intervention Central Website. (2006): [On-line] Available: www.interventioncentral.orgSingh, N. N. (1990). Effects of two error-correction procedures on oral reading errors: Word supply versus sentence repeat. Behavior Modification, 14, 188-199.
    • 108 Error Correction: ‗Word Attack‘ HierarchyOverview:Students struggling with reading fluency may benefit from having a more accomplished readerlisten to their reading and correct their errors immediately. In this approach, the instructorprompts the student to apply a hierarchy of word-attack skills whenever the student misreads aword. The instructor gives these cues in a descending order.Materials: Reading Book Index CardProcedure:1. Have the child begin reading and tell the child, ―If you come to a word that you do not know, I will help you with it.‖2. Once the child makes an error begin with the following ―Word Attack‖ hierarchy cues: ―Try another way.‖ This cue is given directly after a reading error and alerts the student to the fact that he or she has misread the word. ―Finish the sentence and guess the word.‖ The student is encouraged to make use of the sentence context to discover the correct word pronunciation. ―Break the word into parts and pronounce each one.‖ The student is directed to sound out the segments of a word independently. Using an index card, the teacher covers over parts of the word and asks the student to sound out only the part of the word that is visible. This approach teaches students a method for reducing the amount of visual information in each word ―What sound does ‗______‘ make?‖ As the teacher covers selected parts of the word with an index card, the student is directed to use phonics information to sound out the word. ―The word is ________.‖ If the student cannot decode the word despite other cues given by the instructor, the instructor supplies the word. The student is directed to repeat the word and to continue reading.References:Haring, N.G., Lovitt, T.C., Eaton, M.D., & Hansen, C.L. (1978). The fourth R: Research in the classroom. Columbus, OH: Charles E. Merrill Publishing.Intervention Central Website. (2006): [On-line] Available: www.interventioncentral.org
    • 109 Scallop the TextOverview:Scallop the text is a procedure that allows students to see what words are logically groupedtogether when reading text. It improves students‘ accuracy with reading text in the correctmanner by giving repeated practice of the same text; both with the scallops for assistance andwithout.Materials: A page of text that students can read accurately (2 copies; one to make the scallops on, the other to keep blank) Marker Overhead transparency of text (if done class-wide)Procedure:1. Take a page of text that students can accurately read and draw scallops connecting phrases that logically are read as a unit.2. If doing this activity with one student, give him a copy of the page so that he can follow the scallop pattern with his fingers as he reads.3. If doing this with a class, put the page on an overhead transparency so students can follow your finger scoops.4. Reread the text until the sound, the speed, and rhythm are acceptable.5. Then ask the student to read the same text without the scallop marks to see if the smooth reading transfers.References:Bursuck, W. D., Damer, M. (2006). Reading Instruction for Students Who Are at Risk or Have Disabilities. Boston: Pearson.**Sample scalloped text on the following page
    • 110Do you want some catnip?‖ said Hank. Lifting it up on his wingHe put it on the rock next to Flash. Flash held up the catnip.―No, no,‖ she said. ―I couldn‘t have itjust for myself. You and Hand and I will have the catnip.Adapted from: Rasmussen, D. & Goldberg, L. (2000)
    • 111 Flash Cards: Tap StackOverview:The student will gain speed and accuracy in letter recognition. Students will identify lettersaccurately while playing a card game.Materials: Letter cards, Choose six target letters, copy on card stock six times, and cut into cards. Time record student sheet Timer PencilsProcedure:1. Place the letter cards face down in a stack. Place the timer at the center. Provide the students with one time record sheet.2. Working in pairs, student one selects the top card from the stack as the target letter and places it face up on the table. Student two divides the remaining letter cards into two stacks and each student gets one stack.3. Student one starts the timer and says ―begin.‖ Each student turns over one card, says the letter as quickly as possible, and taps his card if it matches the target letter.4. If a match is made, the student places the card below the target letter. If a match is not made, the student places the card to the side.5. Play until each student uses all his cards. Student one stops timer and records time on sheet.6. Reverse roles and repeat the activity attempting to increase speed and accuracy.7. Continue until student sheet is complete.Optional:These flashcards can be modified to include whole words, or even phrases as well to work onword fluency and fluency of reading passages of text. Cards can be created with a variety ofwords or phrases to match the student‘s needs.References:Cates, G. L., & Rhymer, K. N. (2006). Effects of Explicit Timing on Elementary Students Oral Reading Rates of Word Phrases. Reading Improvement. 43, 148-156.
    • 112Florida Center for Reading Research (2005): [On-line] Available: http://www.fcrr.org/Curriculum/studentCenterActivities.htm Time Record Minutes Seconds 1st Try ____: _____ 2nd Try ____: _____ 3rd Try ____: _____ 4th Try ____: _____ 5th Try ____: _____
    • 113Strategies to Improve Rate
    • 114 Repeated Timed ReadingOverview:Repeated readings have been found to improve reading rate, accuracy and comprehension. Thisis a method of increasing student fluency which can be accomplished in small groups or doneindividually. It is especially useful for slow and hesitant readers. Through repeated readingstudents engage in repeated practice by reading short passages of their book or curricularmaterials until a satisfactory fluency level is achieved. It is important to note that this type ofintervention is only effective if the student has previously read the material at an accuracy rate of95% or higher.Materials: Books or passages Choose books or passages within students‘ instructional-independent reading level range. Make two copies and laminate. Indicate the number of words in text. Reading record student sheet Words correct per minute graph student sheet Choose or make a graph appropriate to the students‘ fluency level. Timer Marker PencilsProcedure:1. Provide each student with a copy of the text, reading record, and words correct per minute graph.2. Place the timer and marker at the center.3. Working in pairs, student one sets the timer for one minute and orally reads the text. Student two follows along, using a marker to mark words read incorrectly.4. Student one continues reading until timer goes off.5. Student two circles the last word read and tells student one the amount of words read correctly.6. Student one completes the reading record and words per minute graph with the assistance of student two. To complete the words per minute graph the student will use the marker to fill in the bars that correspond with the number of words read correctly in one minute.7. Student one rereads the text two more times, attempting to increase speed and accuracy.8. Reverse roles and continue until student sheet is complete.
    • 115Evaluation:Compare the reading rate for the student before and after implementation. Use only the finalmeasure of reading rate on each assessment for comparative purposes. This can be done withadults or tutors as well if implemented with a student in a one-on-one setting.References:Dowhower, S.L. (1987). Effects of repeated reading on second-grade transitional readers fluency and comprehension. Reading Research Quarterly, 22, 389-406.Florida Center for Reading Research (2005): [On-line] Available: http://www.fcrr.org/Curriculum/studentCenterActivities.htmHerman, P.A. (1985). The effects of repeated readings on reading rate, speech pauses, and word recognition accuracy. Reading Research Quarterly, 20, 553-565.O‘Shea, L. J., Sindelar, P. T., & O‘Shea, D. J. (1985). The effects of repeated readings and attentional cues on reading fluency and comprehension. Journal of Reading Behavior, 17, 129-142.Rashotte, C.A. & Torgesen, J.K. (1985). Repeated reading and reading fluency in learning disabled children. Reading Research Quarterly, 20, 180-188.Rasinski, T.V. (1990). Effects of repeated reading and listening-while-reading on reading fluency. Journal of Educational Research, 83(3), 147-150.Fuchs, D., Fuchs, L., Loulee, Y., McMaster, K., Svenson, E., Young, N., et al. (2001). Developing first-grade reading fluency through peer mediation. Teaching Exceptional Children, 34, 90-93.Samuels, S. J. (1979). The method of repeated readings. The Reading Teacher, 32, 403-408.** Reading record student sheet and words correct per minute graph student sheet on following pages** The Words Correct Per Minute page can be copied and the numbers can be filled in from 1-90on multiple sheets to indicate the different number of words which students can read and theirfluency level.
    • 116Title:______________________________________Date: ______________ Pages Read:____________ 1st ReadingNumber of words read: ______________Subtract number of errors: ______________Number of words correct per minute: _______________ 2nd ReadingNumber of words read: ______________Subtract number of errors: ______________Number of words correct per minute: _______________ 3rd ReadingNumber of words read: ______________Subtract number of errors: ______________Number of words correct per minute: ________________
    • 117 Words Correct Per Minute1st try 2nd try 3rd try
    • 118 Folding InOverview:The technique of folding in provides students with drill and practice by arranging an instructionalmatch and providing for enough repetitions for material to move from unknown status tomastery. This strategy is based on having students learn new words by never allowing more than15-30% of the material presented to be unknown.Materials: Reading passage Timer/stopwatch 3‖ x 5‖ index cards PencilProcedure:1. Select a passage that contains no more than 50% unknown material to student.2. Have the student read a portion of the passage (a paragraph or two) aloud and time the reading.3. Mark where the student was in the passage at the end of 1 minute; number of words read correctly is designated as the pre-session reading fluency.4. As the student reads note at least 3 words that the student has difficulty with or does not seem to understand.5. On 3 x 5 index cards, write the three words. These are designated as the ―unknowns.‖6. On 3 x 5 index cards, select 7 words from the passage that the student does seem to know. These words should be meaningful to the passage.7. Begin the session by presenting the first unknown word. Define the word for the student and use it in a sentence.8. Ask the student to repeat the definition and use it in a different sentence.9. Now begin folding in. After the unknown word is presented, one of the known words is presented. Ask the student to say the word aloud.10. Next, the unknown word is again presented, followed by the known word that was previously presented, and then a new known word.
    • 11911. Continue this sequence, unknowns followed by knows, until all 7 knowns and the one unknown word have been presented.12. Next, repeat steps 7 through 11 with the second unknown word, and then the third.13. After completing these steps, have the student re-read the passage.14. Again mark where the student was in the passage at the end of 1 minute. This is considered the post-session score. Graph pre- and post-session scores.15. Begin next session by having the student read the next passage and review the words that were used for study in the previous session.16. Place a mark on one of the unknown words to designate that the student knew the word without hesitation during this session.17. As each new unknown word is added to the drill, one of the original known words is removed from the list. Continue to graph results.References:Gickling, E., & Havertape, J. (1981). Curriculum-based assessment. Minneapolis, MN: National School Psychology Inservice Training Network.Gickling, E. E., & Rosenfield, S. (1995). Best practices in curriculum-based assessment. In A. Thomas & J. Grimes (Eds.), Best practices in school psychology III (pp. 587-595). Washington, DC: National Association of School Psychologists.Tucker, J. A. (1989). Basic flashcard technique when vocabulary is the goal. Unpublished teaching materials, Berrien Springs, MI.
    • 120 Neurological Impress MethodOverview:The Neurological Impress Method is a form of paired reading in which a student and tutor readthe same text almost simultaneously. Sitting side-by-side, the tutor reads a text slightly faster andlouder than the student while both follow the text with their fingers.Materials: Reading bookProcedure: 1. Select an instructional-level text (or better yet, ask the student to select the text). 2. Sit next to the student so that you can speak into the students ear. 3. Move your finger under each word as you read it. The student rests his or her finger on top of yours. 4. As you read the text aloud together, set the pace by reading slightly faster than the student. Model fluency and expression, chunking words in meaningful phrases and pausing for punctuation. 5. Repeat the reading of the text several times. As you continue to practice, gradually release the "lead" to the student as he or she becomes more comfortable with the text.References:Feazell, V. S. (2004). Reading Acceleration Program: A Schoolwide Intervention. Reading Teacher. 58(1), 66-72.Flood, J., Lapp, D., & Fisher, D. (2005). Neurological impress methods plus. Reading Psychology, 26, 147-150.Rasinski, T. V. (2003). The fluent reader: Oral reading strategies for building word recognition, fluency, and comprehension. New York: Scholastic. Revised April 17, 2006
    • 121 Page RacesOverview:This is a variation of student speed drills which works well with partners. The purpose of thisintervention is to help students learn to read text quickly and with accuracy.Materials: A stopwatch for each pair of students A reading record student sheet One page of independent-level readingProcedure:1. Give each pair of students a timer which you have taught them how to use, two reading record student sheets, and a page of independent-level reading.2. Tell the students that they will each be timed while reading a page (or passage) from the material.3. Have the students time each other as they read the designated page.4. The partner should then tell the student reader the time it took so the reader can record it on the student sheet.5. If a teacher or assistant observer is present, review any words read inaccurately.6. The reader‘s goal is to beat that time on the second reading. If any words are skipped or missed, the reader starts again.7. This can be repeated three times until the student record sheet is filled out. Partners should then switch roles.**This is another intervention that can be done in a one-on-one setting with the teacher orassistant as the partner.References:Bursuck, W. D., Damer, M. (2006). Reading Instruction for Students Who Are at Risk or Have Disabilities. Boston: Pearson.University of Texas Center for Reading and Language Arts. (2001). Essential reading strategies for the struggling reader: Activities for an accelerated reading program — Expanded edition. Austin, TX: Author.
    • 122Title:______________________________________Date: ______________ Pages Read:____________ 1st ReadingNumber of words read: ______________Subtract number of errors: ______________Number of words correct per minute: _______________ 2nd ReadingNumber of words read: ______________Subtract number of errors: ______________Number of words correct per minute: _______________ 3rd ReadingNumber of words read: ______________Subtract number of errors: ______________Number of words correct per minute: ________________
    • 123 Fluency Letter WheelOverview:The student will gain speed and accuracy in recognizing letter-sounds. Students will say soundsof letters on a spinner in a timed activity.Materials: Letter wheel spinner Copy on card stock and cut. Brad Attach arrow to the spinner with the brad. Letter-sound graph student sheet Cup Counters Timer PencilsProcedure:1. Place the letter wheel spinner, cup, counters, and timer at the center. Provide the students with one letter-sound graph student sheet.2. Working in pairs, student one sets the timer for one minute and says ―begin.‖ Student two spins the arrow on the spinner, names the letter, and says its sound (e.g., ―t, /t/‖).3. If correct, student one places one counter in the cup. If incorrect, no counter is placed in the cup.4. Reverse roles and continue until the timer goes off. Count and graph the number of counters in the cup.5. Repeat the activity attempting to increase speed and accuracy.6. Continue until student sheet is complete.References:Florida Center for Reading Research (2005): [On-line] Available: http://www.fcrr.org/Curriculum/studentCenterActivities.htm** Sample Letter wheel and letter-sound graph student sheet on following pages
    • 124
    • 1253231302928272625242322212019181716151413121110 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 Round
    • 126 Speedy Rime WordsOverview:The student will gain speed and accuracy in recognizing letter-sounds. Students quickly readwords with the same rime in a timed activity.Materials: Rime word practice sheets; Select target practice sheet, make two copies, and laminate. Words correct per minute graph student sheet; Choose or make a graph appropriate to students‘ fluency level. Timer Wipe off markers PencilsProcedure:1. Place two copies of the target rime word practice sheet, timer, and a marker at the center. Provide each student with a words correct per minute graph.2. Taking turns, students practice reading the rimes and words aloud to each other before beginning the timing.3. Student one sets the timer for one minute and tells student two to ―begin.‖ Student two reads down the page while student one follows on his copy and uses a marker to mark any words that are read incorrectly. If all the words on the sheet are read, student two goes back to the top and continues reading.4. When the timer goes off, student one circles the last word read. He or she counts the number of rimes and words read correctly.5. Student two graphs the number of rimes and words read correctly on his words correct per minute graph.6. Reverse roles and repeat the activity attempting to increase speed and accuracy.7. Continue until student sheet is complete.
    • 127References:Conrad, N. J. (2008). From Reading to Spelling and Spelling to Reading: Transfer Goes both Ways. Journal of Educational Psychology. 100(4), 869-878.Florida Center for Reading Research (2005): [On-line] Available: http://www.fcrr.org/Curriculum/studentCenterActivities.htmWeekes, B. S., Castles, A. E., & Davies, R. A. (2006). Effects of Consistency and Age of Acquisition on Reading and Spelling among Developing Readers. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal. 19(2), 133-169.** Example Sheets on following page** The Words Correct per Minute page can be copied and the numbers can be filled in from 1-90on multiple sheets to indicate the different number of words which students can read.
    • 128-at -in -otcat bin dotbat fin cothat pin lotfat tin notmat win potrat chin hot-an -it -appan bit capfan sit lapcan hit napman fit maptan lit tapran pit gap
    • 129-ake -et -ockcake bet sockrake wet rockbake set locklake get dockmake met clocktake let block -op -ug -iphop bug sip top hug ripmop dug tippop rug hipshop tug lipstop jug dip
    • 130 Words Correct Per Minute1st try 2nd try 3rd try
    • 131 I Read, You PointOverview:The student will gain speed and accuracy in reading words. Students will quickly identify wordsas they are read to them by a partner.Materials: High frequency word cards List of words Note: There are 16 words that are repeated on this sheet. Time record student sheet Timer PencilsProcedure:1. Place high frequency word cards face up in rows on a flat surface. Place the list of words and timer at the center. Provide each student with a time record student sheet.2. Working in pairs, student one picks up the list of words and student two sits in front of the word cards.3. Student one starts the timer and reads the first word on the list of words. Student two looks for and points quickly to the corresponding word card.4. If correct, student one reads the next word. If incorrect, student one provides assistance.5. Continue until all words are read and identified. Student one stops the timer and student two records the time on his student sheet.6. Reverse roles and repeat the activity attempting to increase speed and accuracy.7. Continue until student sheet is complete.References:Florida Center for Reading Research (2005): [On-line] Available: http://www.fcrr.org/Curriculum/studentCenterActivities.htm**High Frequency word cards, list of words and time record student sheet on following pages
    • 132 Time Record Minutes Seconds1st Try ____: _____2nd Try ____: _____3rd Try ____: _____4th Try ____: _____5th Try ____: _____
    • 133like himinto timehas looktwo morewrite gosee number no waycould people
    • 134like him into timehas look two morewrite go see number no way could peoplesee time like writehim no way numberinto people look hasmore two Could go
    • 135Strategies to Improve Prosody
    • 136 Paired ReadingOverview:The student reads aloud in tandem with an accomplished reader. The student will then give asignal which indicates to the helping reader to stop reading, while the student continues to readon. When the student commits a reading error, the helping reader resumes reading in tandem. Itis important to note that the teacher, parent, or peer working with the student should be trainedhow to use the paired reading approach before engaging in this technique.Materials: Passage, book, or text; Choose books or passages within students‘ instructional- independent reading level range. Sticky notes; Divide the text into passages using sticky notes to indicate the length of text to be read.Procedure:1. Rank students by reading ability from highest performing to lowest performing. Split the class in half and pair the top ranked high-performing student with the top ranked low- performing student. Continue pairing in that order.2. Provide each student with a copy of the text.3. Taking turns, student one (the higher-performing student) reads the assigned length of text aloud. Student two (the lower-performing student) reads along silently, providing assistance when needed.4. Student two rereads the same text while student one assists.5. Continue until the entire text has been read.6. Reread the text several times attempting to increase speed and accuracy.Alternative:The students might go into the hall or designated spot and take turns reading. They can decidethemselves how they will divide the tasks. Some pairs choose to alternate after every page, somechoose to alternate after each paragraph, etc. One reads and the other follows along, supportingeach other as necessary.References:Topping, K. (1987). Paired reading: A powerful technique for parent use. Reading Teacher, 40, 608-614.
    • 137 Reader‘s TheaterOverview:Reader‘s Theater is a highly motivational reading strategy that provides a context for purposefulreading. Overall it is an interactive process where students are expected to respond to andinterpret literature. It reinforces the social nature of reading, provides an occasion for students towork together and helps students‘ understand and transform text. It also helps children to readorally and work on using natural expression. Students have been found to develop better speechhabits and participate in self-expressive activities through this program.Materials: Readers‘ Theater script Optional: Choose stories with dialogue-rich text and develop scripts within students‘ instructional-independent reading level range or locate appropriate scripts on the Internet.Procedure:1. Choose a pre-written script or adapt your own from a narrative, expository passage, poem, speech or other interesting text that is rich in dialogue. Make sure the script is at the right reading level for your students and adapt as needed.2. Read aloud the text on which the script is based and discuss characters‘ feelings and how they might sound as they speak.3. Provide scripts for each student with his or her character highlighted in a specific color.4. Have students take turns reading assigned parts of the script while providing assistance to one another with unknown words and/or phrasing, intonation and expression. Students can play both character and narrator roles.5. Provide scripts for each student with his or her character highlighted in a specific color.6. Have students rehearse the script together and perform a play for their peers by reading through the script with proper intonation and phrasing.** Example of Process for Reader‘s Theater and Partial Script on following pages
    • 138Example of Process for Reader’s Theaterfrom a study by Millin & Rinehart (1999)Day 1:• Teacher reads story the script is derived from and then leads discussion focused onthe characters, setting, plot, and student responses.• Students put script in a ring binder.• Teacher reads script to students, modeling reading with expression and attention tophrasing while students follow along.Day 2:• Students practice reading scripts while listening to tape recording of the script.• Students read their parts multiple times in pairs or small groups to give and receivefeedback.• Teacher circulates and provides instruction as needed.Day 3• Teacher listens to whole group performance with focus on volume, expression,phrasing, and transition from one part to another and offers advice and help asneeded.• Group rereads script again.• Students take script home to practice.Day 4:• Dress rehearsal of story script with whole group.• Individual practice of parts with tape, peer, or teacher.Day 5:• Students performed readers‘ theater script for entire grade level.Subsequent Days:• Each script is added to the same binder, and students are encouraged to rereadprevious scripts at home or during independent reading time.References:Coger, L., & White, M. (1967). After decoding: What? Language Arts, 53, 288-314.Florida Center for Reading Research (2005): [On-line] Available: http://www.fcrr.org/Curriculum/studentCenterActivities.htmHarris, A. J., & Sipay, E. R. (1990). How to increase reading ability: A guide to developmental and remedial methods (9th ed.). White Plains, NY: Longman.Stayter, F. Z., & Allington, R. (1991). Fluency and the understanding of texts. Theory Into Practice, 30, 143-148.
    • 139 The Three Bears Characters: Narrator Baby Bear Momma Bear Papa Bear GoldilocksNarrator: Once upon a time there were three bears that lived in ahouse in the woods.Baby Bear: One of them was Baby Bear.Momma Bear: One was Momma Bear.Papa Bear: And the other was Papa Bear.Narrator: They each had a bowl for their porridge.Baby Bear: The Baby Bear had a little wee bowl.Momma Bear: The Momma Bear had a medium-sized bowl.Papa Bear: And the Papa Bear had a great big bowl.Narrator: They each had a chair to sit in.Baby Bear: The Baby Bear had a little wee chair.Momma Bear: The Momma Bear had a medium-sized chair.Papa Bear: And the Papa Bear had a great big chair.Narrator: And they each had a bed to sleep in.Baby Bear: The Baby Bear had a little wee bed.Momma Bear: The Momma Bear had a medium-sized bedPapa Bear: And the Papa Bear had a great big bed.Narrator: One morning, the three bears made porridge for breakfast,but it was too hot to eat! So they decided to go for a walk in thewoods until it cooled.While the three bears were walking, a little girl named Goldilockscame to their house. First, she looked in at the window, and then shepeeked through the keyhole.Goldilocks turned the handle of the door. The door was not locked,so Goldilocks opened the door and went right in.There was the porridge on the table. It smelled very, very good! Shewent straight to it.First, she tasted the porridge of the Papa Bear.Goldilocks: Um, this is too hot.
    • 140Narrator: Then she tasted the porridge of the Momma Bear.Goldilocks: Um, this is too cold.Narrator: Then she tasted the porridge of the Baby Bear.Goldilocks: Oh, this is just right. I like it so much I think I’ll eat it all up!Narrator: Then Goldilocks went into the living room to see what elseshe could find. There were the three chairs.First, she sat down in the chair of the Papa Bear.Goldilocks: Um, this is too hard.Narrator: Then she sat down in the chair of the Momma Bear.Goldilocks: Um, this is too soft.Narrator: Then she sat down in the chair of the Baby Bear.Goldilocks: Oh, this is just right. I like it so much I think I’ll rock androck!Narrator: BUT, the bottom of the chair fell out! Down she went ontothe floor with a CRASH!Goldilocks went into the bedroom where the three bears slept.First, she lay upon the bed of the Papa Bear.Goldilocks: Um, this bed is too high at the head for me.Narrator: Then she lay upon the bed of the Momma Bear.Goldilocks: Um, this bed is too high at the foot for me.Narrator: Then she lay down upon the bed of the Baby Bear.Goldilocks: Oh, this is just right! I like it so much I think I’ll go to sleep!Narrator: By this time, the three bears thought their porridge wouldbe cool enough. So they came home for breakfast.Goldilocks had left the spoons of the bears in their porridge bowlsand they all noticed right away!Papa Bear: Somebody has been eating my porridge!
    • 141 Radio ProgramOverview:Radio Program is a variation of Reader‘s Theater for older students that adds sound effects tomake the performance sound like an old-time radio show. Groups of students can create recordedversions of their ―radio shows‖ that can become listening center readings for their classmates.Students can even generate questions to pose to listeners at the end of the recording. Radioreading reinforces the importance of prosody, because so much information from the story mustbe communicated through vocal variation.Materials: Readers‘ Theater script (Adapted for older readers) Optional: Choose stories with dialogue-rich text and develop scripts within students‘ instructional-independent reading level range or locate appropriate scripts on the Internet.Procedure:1. Follow the same directions for the Reader‘s Theater intervention, except tailor the readings to the appropriate age level.2. Allow students to add sound effects to their script to make it sound like an old time radio show.3. Groups of students can create recorded versions of their ―radio shows‖ that can become listening/read-along center readings for their classmates.References:Florida Center for Reading Research (2005): [On-line] Available: http://www.fcrr.org/Curriculum/studentCenterActivities.htmHudson, R. F., Lane, H. B., & Pullen, P. C. (2005) Reading fluency assessment and instruction: What, why and how? International Reading Association, 702-714.Millin, S. K., Rinehart, S. D. (1999). Some of the benefits of readers theater participation for second-grade Title I students. Reading Research and Instruction, 39, 71-88.
    • 142 Choral ReadingOverview:Choral reading is reading aloud in unison with a whole class or group of students. After hearingthe teacher read and discuss a selection, students reread the text together. Reading and rereadingshared texts may have the additional benefit of building a sense of community in the classroom.Choral reading provides support for students who may ordinarily feel self-conscious or nervousabout reading aloud in class. Reading along with more fluent readers enables less proficientreaders to be successful with a shared text. Choral reading may provide the support necessary toencourage struggling readers to take risks and build their confidence. When students participatein choral reading on a regular and repeated basis, students will internalize the fluent reading ofthe text being read and begin to transfer their developing fluency to other texts.Materials: Reading book or passage; Choose books or passages within students‘ instructional- independent reading level range. Poetry (optional) Short song (optional)Procedure:1. Conduct choral reading in a small group setting. Provide each student with a copy of the text.2. Taking turns, student one begins reading.3. The other students of the group choral read along with student one.4. Continue until the text is complete.5. Change roles, allowing each student to lead the group, and reread.See the following website for ideas for poetry, song and passages to assist in implementingchoral reading:http://www.edb.utexas.edu/readstrong/choralreading.html
    • 143References:Cunningham, P. (2005) Phonics they use: Words for reading and writing. Boston, MA: Pearson.Florida Center for Reading Research (2005): [On-line] Available: http://www.fcrr.org/Curriculum/studentCenterActivities.htmRasinski, T. V. (2003). The fluent reader: Oral reading strategies for building word recognition, fluency, and comprehension. New York: Scholastic.Rasinski, T. V. & Padak, N. (2004). Effective reading strategies: Teaching children who find reading difficult (3rd ed.). Columbus, OH: Pearson.Strickland, D. S., Ganske, K., & Monroe, J. K. (2002). Supporting struggling readers and writers: Strategies for classroom intervention 3-6. Portland, ME: Stenhouse.
    • 144 Echo ReadingOverview:In echo reading, the learner imitates or ‗echoes‘ a skilled reader. This type of activity helpsreaders gain confidence in reading aloud, learn sight words, learn material that may be toodifficult to read alone, and practice proper phrasing and expression.Materials: Reading bookProcedure:1. Read one sentence of text aloud with appropriate intonation and phrasing.2. Ask the student to read the same portion of text and imitate the appropriate intonation and phrasing.3. Continue this pattern of reading until the student can imitate more than one sentence at a time.4. When students are reading with some degree of fluency, you may choose to alternate taking the lead in echo reading.References:Caldwell, J. S. & Leslie, L. (2005). Intervention strategies to follow informal reading inventory assessment: So what do I do now? Boston: Pearson.Cunningham, P. (2005) Phonics they use: Words for reading and writing. Boston, MA: Pearson.Mathes, P. G., Torgesen, J. K., & Allor, J. H. (2001). The effects of peer-assisted literacy strategies for first-grade readers with and without additional computer-assisted instruction in phonological awareness. American Educational Research Journal, 38, 371- 410.Rasinski, T. V. (2003). The fluent reader: Oral reading strategies for building word recognition, fluency, and comprehension. New York: Scholastic.
    • 145 Taped Reading/audiotape modelOverview:Ask the student to read silently a short passage that he or she can read with at least 95% accuracybefore allowing her to read the passage into a tape recorder. Have the child replay the tape so heor she can follow along with the text in order to listen to how his or her reading sounds.Encourage the child to record the passage again and listen to the improvement.Materials: Book or paper copy of reading passage Tape player Place a green sticker on play, red sticker on stop, and yellow sticker on rewind. Headphones Cassette tape Choose or make tapes of a book or passage on students‘ instructional reading level.Procedure:1. Place the tape player, headphones, and cassette tape at the center. Provide the student with a copy of the text.2. The student listens to the tape and follows along in the text tracking under the words with a finger.3. Rewinds and reads with the tape, emphasizing phrasing, intonation, and expression.4. Practices reading the text without the tape, emphasizing phrasing, intonation, and expression.5. Continues until able to read the passage fluently.Note: This method can also be used with vocabulary words to help increase fluency of sightvocabulary.References:Florida Center for Reading Research (2005): [On-line] Available: http://www.fcrr.org/Curriculum/studentCenterActivities.htmFreeman, T. J., & McLaughlin, T. F. (1984). Effects of a taped-words treatment procedure on learning disabled students‘ sight-word reading. Learning Disability Quarterly, 7, 49-54.** See following page for a method for recording books on tape
    • 146 The Carbo MethodProcedure:1. Decide which pages you will record on each cassette side.2. Because every tape cassette has about 5-8 seconds of lead time, let the tape run for that amount of time before starting to record.3. Speak into the microphone from a distance of approximately 6-8 inches.4. Convey your interest in the book through your voice.5. Begin by reading the story title, providing a brief introduction, pausing, and then telling the student which page to turn to. Pause long enough so that the reader has enough time to turn pages and look at the pictures.6. Tell the student when to turn the page. In order not to distract from the content, soften your voice slightly when stating a page number.7. Read the story in logical phrases, slowly enough so that most students can follow along but not so slowly that they may become bored.8. End each tape with, ―Please rewind the tape for the next listener. That ends this recording.‖ This prevents students from continuing to listen to a blank tape.For general guidelines, record 5-15 minutes at a typical pace for instructional level material andhave the student listen to the tape once. For difficult material, record no more than 2 minutes at aslow pace with good expression and have the student listen to the passage two or three times.After listening, have the student read the passage aloud.References:Carbo, M. (1989). How to Record Books for Maximum Reading Gains. National Reading Styles Institute, P.O. Box 39, Roslyn Heights, NY 11577.
    • 147 Different but the SameOverview:Different but the same is mean to show students how punctuation at the end of a sentence canchange the way a sentence is read orally.Materials: Chalkboard Chalk Paper and pencil for studentsProcedure:1. Show your students how the same sentence is read differently depending on the final punctuation.2. First, write a sentence on the board three times, ending each with a different punctuation mark: Lynne runs fast. Lynne runs fast? Lynne runs fast!3. After modeling each sentence by over-exaggerating your intonation, ask your students to read and mirror your inflection.4. Do this type of activity until your students no longer need your modeling to phrase new sentences.References:Bursuck, W. D., Damer, M. (2006). Reading Instruction for Students Who Are at Risk or Have Disabilities. Boston: Pearson.
    • 148 Think about Your ReadingOverview:This strategy helps students to understand the difference in the sound of reading with goodexpression and phrasing versus choppy reading. It is designed to help a child with their prosodyskills in reading.Materials: Clipboards The last book the child read accurately Pencils Reading Fluency ChartProcedure:1. Give students a copy of the last book they read accurately, clipboards and a pencil.2. Demonstrate how a good reader uses expression and phrasing by reading a selected passage from the students‘ book.3. Then demonstrate how a choppy reader reads the same pages.4. Tell students that everyone will have a turn to be a listener and a reader and explain what they will be looking for when their partners read, such as good expression and phrasing.5. After students are divided into pairs, explain that the first reader begins reading.6. During the first read through, the listener identifies any words that have been omitted or misread.7. The second time the story is read, the listener checks off each quality on the checklist.8. Before switching roles, the listener shows the checklist to the reader and explains the markings.References:Bursuck, W. D., Damer, M. (2006). Reading Instruction for Students Who Are at Risk or Have Disabilities. Boston: Pearson.**Reading fluency chart on following page
    • 149 Reading Fluency ChartMy Partner ________________________________.After the 2nd reading:Yes No Read every word correctlyYes No Read without skipping any wordsYes No Read fasterYes No Read with more expression
    • 150 Express It!Overview:The student will read with proper phrasing, intonation, and expression in connected text.Materials: Sentence strips; copy on card stock, laminate, and cut.Procedure:1. Place the sentence strips face up in a stack at the center.2. Working in pairs, student one selects the top sentence strip and reads it silently. Reads the sentence(s) again, this time orally, using proper phrasing, intonation, and expression.3. Student two then reads the same sentence(s) aloud. If the sentence(s) is read with different phrasing, intonation, or expression, students discuss why.4. Reverse roles and continue until all sentences are read.References:Florida Center for Reading Research (2005): [On-line] Available: http://www.fcrr.org/Curriculum/studentCenterActivities.htm** Example sentence strips on following pages
    • 151Little Red Riding Hood said, “Grandmother, what bigeyes you have!” The wolf replied in a high voice, “Thebetter to see you with, my dear.”“This bowl of porridge is too cold! This one is too hot!But this one is just right,” said Goldilocks.“Little pig let me come in or I’ll huff and puff andblow your house down!” yelled the wolf.The lion roared loudly, “Mouse, please help me getthis thorn out of my paw!”TRIP! TRAP! TRIP! TRAP! “Who’s that trip-trappingover my bridge?” shouted the troll.The mouse was very afraid. “Please let me go,” themouse begged.“Oh, Turkey-Lurkey, the sky is falling! We are going totell the king,” cried Goosey-Loosey.
    • 152“Somebody has been sitting in my chair!” growledPapa Bear.“Somebody has been sitting in my chair and theybroke it!” whined Baby Bear.“Run, run as fast as you can! You can’t catch me! I’mthe Gingerbread Man!”The goose said, “Stop Gingerbread Man! I would liketo eat you!”The first little pig shouted, “Not by the hair on mychinny, chin, chin!”“Grandmother, what big teeth you have!” said LittleRed Riding Hood.The third goat had a big voice. “IT IS I, THE BIGGESTBILLY GOAT GRUFF!” he bellowed.
    • 153 Reading in ChunksOverview:The student will read with proper phrasing, intonation, and expression in chunked text. Studentsread text which has been divided into meaningful phrases by slash marks.Materials: Passage, book, or text; Choose passages within students‘ instructional-independent reading level range. Divide text into one-to-five word chunks (phrases) by placing slash marks where students should pause. Single slashes may denote short pauses within sentences and double slashes may denote longer pauses at the end of sentences.or Chalkboard Chalk Passage, book, or textProcedure:1. Rank students by reading ability from highest performing to lowest performing. Split the class in half and pair the top ranked high-performing student with the top ranked low- performing student. Continue pairing in that order.2. Provide each student with a copy of the text.3. Working in pairs, student one (higher performing student) reads the entire text pausing briefly between chunks (or phrases) as denoted by slash marks.4. Student two (lower performing student) repeats the reading by chunks, emphasizing the pauses at slash marks.5. Continue until able to read the passage fluently. or1. Write a sentence on the board or on student worksheets in chunks of text that match how one would read it aloud. Poems and song lyrics work well for this activity too.2. Model how you read the sentence, pausing at the end of lines, before having everyone read it in unison with you.3. Practice reading text like the following with the students, until you are all reading with one voice:
    • 154―Help! Help!‖Cried the PageWhen the sun got hot.―King Bidgood‘s in the bathtub,And he won‘t get out!Oh,Who knows what to do? (Wood & Wood, 1985)References:Bursuck, W. D., Damer, M. (2006). Reading Instruction for Students Who Are at Risk or Have Disabilities. Boston: Pearson.Florida Center for Reading Research (2005): [On-line] Available: http://www.fcrr.org/Curriculum/studentCenterActivities.htmGray, C. (2004). Understanding Cognitive Development: Automaticity and the Early Years Child. Child Care in Practice. 10(1), 39-47.
    • 155 ReferencesBIG IDEAS (2005): [On-line] Available: http://www.reading.uoregon.eduBinder, C., Haughton, E., & Van Eyk, D. (1990). Increasing endurance by building fluency: Precision teaching attention span. Teaching Exceptional Children, 22 (3), 24–27.Bursuck, W. D., Damer, M. (2006). Reading Instruction for Students Who Are at Risk or Have Disabilities. Boston: Pearson.Carbo, M. (1989). How to Record Books for Maximum Reading Gains. National Reading Styles Institute, P.O. Box 39, Roslyn Heights, NY 11577.Caldwell, J. S. & Leslie, L. (2005). Intervention strategies to follow informal reading inventory assessment: So what do I do now? Boston: Pearson.Cates, G. L., & Rhymer, K. N. (2006). Effects of Explicit Timing on Elementary Students Oral Reading Rates of Word Phrases. Reading Improvement. 43, 148-156.Chafouleas, S. M., Martens, B. K., Dobson, R. L., Weinstein, K. S., & Gardner, K. B. (2004). Fluent reading as the improvement of stimulus control: Additive effects of performance- based intervention to repeated reading on students‘ reading and error rates. Journal of Behavioral Education, 13, 67-81.Coger, L., & White, M. (1967). After decoding: What? Language Arts, 53, 288-314.Conrad, N. J. (2008). From Reading to Spelling and Spelling to Reading: Transfer Goes both Ways. Journal of Educational Psychology. 100(4), 869-878.Cunningham, P. (2005) Phonics they use: Words for reading and writing. Boston, MA: Pearson.DIBELS Data System [On-line] Available: https://dibels.uoregon.edu/measures/orf.phpDowhower, S.L. (1987). Effects of repeated reading on second-grade transitional readers fluency and comprehension. Reading Research Quarterly, 22, 389-406.
    • 156Feazell, V. S. (2004). Reading Acceleration Program: A Schoolwide Intervention. Reading Teacher. 58(1), 66-72.Flood, J., Lapp, D., & Fisher, D. (2005). Neurological impress methods plus. Reading Psychology, 26, 147-150.Florida Center for Reading Research (2005): [On-line] Available: http://www.fcrr.org/Curriculum/studentCenterActivities.htmFreeman, T. J., & McLaughlin, T. F. (1984). Effects of a taped-words treatment procedure on learning disabled students‘ sight-word reading. Learning Disability Quarterly, 7, 49-54.Fuchs, D., Fuchs, L., Loulee, Y., McMaster, K., Svenson, E., Young, N., et al. (2001). Developing first-grade reading fluency through peer mediation. Teaching Exceptional Children, 34, 90-93.Gickling, E., & Havertape, J. (1981). Curriculum-based assessment. Minneapolis, MN: National School Psychology Inservice Training Network.Gickling, E. E., & Rosenfield, S. (1995). Best practices in curriculum-based assessment. In A. Thomas & J. Grimes (Eds.), Best practices in school psychology III (pp. 587-595). Washington, DC: National Association of School Psychologists.Gray, C. (2004). Understanding Cognitive Development: Automaticity and the Early Years Child. Child Care in Practice. 10, 39-47.Grossen, B., & Carnine, D. (1991). Strategies for maximizing reading success in the regular classroom. In G. Stoner, M. R. Shinn, & H. M. Walker (Eds.), Interventions for achievement and behavior problems (pp. 333-355). Silver Spring, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.
    • 157Harris, A. J., & Sipay, E. R. (1990). How to increase reading ability: A guide to developmental and remedial methods (9th ed.). White Plains, NY: Longman.Herman, P.A. (1985). The effects of repeated readings on reading rate, speech pauses, and word recognition accuracy. Reading Research Quarterly, 20, 553-565.Hudson, R. F., Lane, H. B., & Pullen, P. C. (2005) Reading fluency assessment and instruction: What, why and how? International Reading Association, 702-714.Intervention Central Website. (2006): [On-line] Available: www.interventioncentral.orgMathes, P. G., Torgesen, J. K., & Allor, J. H. (2001). The effects of peer-assisted literacy strategies for first-grade readers with and without additional computer-assisted instruction in phonological awareness. American Educational Research Journal, 38, 371- 410.Millin, S. K., Rinehart, S. D. (1999). Some of the benefits of readers theater participation for second-grade Title I students. Reading Research and Instruction, 39, 71-88.National Institute for Literacy (2007). [On-line] Available: http://www.nifl.gov/partnershipforreading/explore/fluency.htmlNational Reading Panel. (2002). Report of the National Reading Panel: Teaching Children to Read. Bethesda, MD: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.O‘Shea, L. J., Sindelar, P. T., & O‘Shea, D. J. (1985). The effects of repeated readings and attentional cues on reading fluency and comprehension. Journal of Reading Behavior, 17, 129-142.Rashotte, C.A. & Torgesen, J.K. (1985). Repeated reading and reading fluency in learning disabled children. Reading Research Quarterly, 20, 180-188.
    • 158Rasinski, T.V. (1990). Effects of repeated reading and listening-while-reading on reading fluency. Journal of Educational Research, 83(3), 147-150.Fuchs, D., Fuchs, L., Loulee, Y., McMaster, K., Svenson, E., Young, N., et al. (2001). Developing first-grade reading fluency through peer mediation. Teaching Exceptional Children, 34, 90-93.Rasinski, T. V. & Padak, N. (2004). Effective reading strategies: Teaching children who find reading difficult (3rd ed.). Columbus, OH: Pearson.Rasinski, T. V. (2003). The fluent reader: Oral reading strategies for building word recognition, fluency, and comprehension. New York: Scholastic.Samuels, S. J. (1979). The method of repeated readings. The Reading Teacher, 32, 403-408.Shinn, M. R. (Ed.) (1989). Curriculum-based measurement: Assessing special children. New York: Guilford.Stayter, F. Z., & Allington, R. (1991). Fluency and the understanding of texts. Theory Into Practice, 30, 143-148.Strickland, D. S., Ganske, K., & Monroe, J. K. (2002). Supporting struggling readers and writers: Strategies for classroom intervention 3-6. Portland, ME: Stenhouse.Topping, K. (1987). Paired reading: A powerful technique for parent use. Reading Teacher, 40, 608-614.Tucker, J. A. (1989). Basic flashcard technique when vocabulary is the goal. Unpublished teaching materials, Berrien Springs, MI.University of Texas Center for Reading and Language Arts. (2001). Essential reading strategies for the struggling reader: Activities for an accelerated reading program — Expanded edition. Austin, TX: Author.
    • 159Weekes, B. S., Castles, A. E., & Davies, R. A. (2006). Effects of Consistency and Age of Acquisition on Reading and Spelling among Developing Readers. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal. 19(2), 133-169.
    • 160Vocabulary
    • 161 What is vocabulary? Vocabulary is a collection of words used in a language that can be explained or defined.There are four types of vocabulary that we acquire. Listening vocabulary includes words that wehear and understand, speaking vocabulary is made up of words we use when we speak, readingvocabulary are those words which we identify and understand while reading, and writingvocabulary includes words that we use when writing (Reutzel & Cooter, 2004). Why is it important? Being able to decode words does not equate to reading words. It is essential that studentsbe able to not only recognize and decode words, but be able to understand their meaning as well.The more words that students are able to understand, the better readers they become (Beck,McKeown, & Kucan, 2002; Reutzel & Cooter, 2004). Starting in the third grade, discrepanciesin vocabulary knowledge can lead to problems in comprehension, and are likely to persist,leading affecting overall academic progress (Rathvon, 2008). How is reading vocabulary assessed? Vocabulary assessment has historically been done through a multiple choice format inwhich the student is shown the word in isolation and is asked to choose the correct definition.This type of assessment indicates a student‘s range of vocabulary knowledge and is correlatedwith reading comprehension. However, multiple choice assessments do not really capture astudent‘s depth of understanding of a particular word. Alternatively, students can be assessedorally by asking them what a word means, by having students create examples of using the wordin various contexts, and by asking students to distinguish between examples and non-examplesof word meanings (Beck, McKeown, & Kucan, 2002). Additionally, students can be assessed byanalyzing observational data from conversations, word journals, discussions, and vocabulary
    • 162games. Teachers should pay close attention to the various metacognitive strategies students useto determine word meanings so that deficits can be addressed through instruction (Reading First:Ohio, 2006). What types of interventions exist to improve student vocabulary? Most effective methods of vocabulary instruction include information about wordmeanings, showing vocabulary in a variety of contexts, and exposing the new word multipletimes (Reutzel & Cooter, 2004). Vocabulary instruction should be limited to 5-10 minutes perlesson and should focus on less than 10 words at a time. Therefore, words taught should bechosen carefully. Sight words, key vocabulary, and discovery words are three categories ofvocabulary that should be taught. Sight words are words that occur at a high frequency and thatstudents should be able to immediately recognize by sight. The Fry list (2000) is a researchsupported list of sight words in the English language that can be used as a resource. Keyvocabulary includes words that come from the student‘s own experiences. Students can come tothe teacher and indicate what word he or she would like to learn for the week. The teacher givesthe student the meaning of the word on an index card and the student is to share the word asmuch as possible for the day and later added to their word bank. The student often remembersthis word easily because there it is often linked with a strong emotional attachment. Discoverywords are words that the student is exposed to during the school day in their reading class or inother content classes such as science and social studies. For students with learning disabilities, independent word-learning strategies may not beenough support. They have a limited vocabulary compared to peers and therefore need to beengaging and explicit. Students should receive multiple exposures to vocabulary words in
    • 163different contexts in order to develop a deeper understanding (Bryant, Goodwin, Bryant, &Higgins, 2003). Although children learn a vocabulary indirectly through conversations, reading, andlistening, it is very effective to use direct instruction methods to teach specific word meaningsand word-learning strategies. It is helpful to preteach vocabulary words before reading,especially content area materials such as science and social studies text books (Carnine, Silbert,Kame‘enui, & Tarver, 2004).Big Ideas (2005) suggests these guidelines for vocabulary instruction: Direct instruction that teaches specific vocabulary to be read. Pre-instruction of vocabulary in reading lesson. Multiple exposures Task restructuring Active engagement Computer technology Incidental learning through reading. Multiple methods versus single methods. Use of context to learn unfamiliar word meanings.
    • 164 Word BankOverview:Words are written on index cards with the definition and stored in a small box or can be writtenin a word bank notebook. This strategy is used to help students collect and review new wordsand can be thought of as personal dictionary.Grade: AllMaterials: Index cards and small box or notebookProcedure:1. When a student is exposed to a new vocabulary word, pass out index cards or their word bank notebook.2. Students write the word on one side of the card and the definition on the back or if using a notebook words and definitions can be written next to each other in a column format. Cards are stored in a small box.3. Word banks should be kept some place that the student has access to so that they can review and the use the words when speaking and writing.*Younger students can decorate their own shoeboxes. Upper grades can use a recipe or indexcard box or a notebook for a more adult appearance. Alphabetic dividers can be used for quickrelocation and to reinforce the alphabetical order.References:Reutzel, D.R. & Cooter, R.B. (2004). Teaching Children to Read: Putting the Pieces Together (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
    • 165 Function Words Drastic StrategyOverview:Some words are hard for students to learn because they do not have a definable meaning and arereferred to as function, four-letter, or glue words. Examp0les include with, were, what, andwant. This strategy is used to teach students function words with no clear definition.Grade: PrimaryMaterials: Index cards with vocabulary words written on themProcedure:1. Select a function word and write in on an index card for each student.2. Choose a story or create one that uses the function word many times.3. Pass out index cards to students and instruct them to hold up their card every time they hear the word in the story.4. Read the story, pausing briefly each time you come to the word in the story.5. Have students volunteer to make up a short story using the function word. Other students continue to raise the card when they hear it in the story.6. Tell students to look at the word on the card. Have them cut the word into letters (or do it for them), mix up the letters, and make the word again several times. When finished, put the letters in an envelope labeled with the function word.7. Write the word on the chalkboard and tell students to ―take a picture of the word and keep it in their mind.‖ Tell students to close their eyes, imagine the word, and check the board to see if they are correct. Do this three times.8. Write several sentences on the board containing a blank in the place of the function word. As you read the sentence, have students come up to the board to write in the missing word.9. Give students real text in which the word is used. Tell students to read story (or read it to them) and have them raise their hand or underline the function word. Reread the text and have students read the function word chorally.10. Add the word to the student‘s word bank.
    • 166References:Reutzel, D.R. & Cooter, R.B. (2004). Teaching Children to Read: Putting the Pieces Together (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
    • 167 Semantic MapOverview:A graphic organizer is used to display a word‘s meaning. This strategy helps students makeconnections between a word and its meaning.Grade: AllMaterials: Graphic OrganizerProcedure:Activity 1-Word Map1. Present a new vocabulary word to the class and discuss its meaning.2. Have students write the word in the middle of a piece of paper and circle it.3. Have students draw out 3 branches from the vocabulary word.4. Have students label the branches: 1). What is it? 2). What is it like? 3). What are some examples?5. Have students write down at least three answers to each question.6. Teach method using direct instruction.*Teachers can use a premade graphic organizer, make their own, or have students make one.Activity 21. Write vocabulary connected to content area concepts on index cards.2. Have students read a selection from their textbook that contains the vocabulary words.3. After students read the selection, have them arrange vocabulary word cards into categories.Activity 3-Word Box1. Present a new vocabulary word to the class and discuss its meaning.2. Hand out the vocabulary word box.3. Have students write the vocabulary word in the middle box.
    • 1684. Have students add the definition/synonym and antonym in the two upper boxes.5. Have students write a sentence using the word in the lower left box.6. Have students draw a picture of the word in the lower right box.More word maps can be found online:http://forpd.ucf.edu/strategies/stratWordB.htmlhttp://t4.jordan.k12.ut.us/teacher_resources/inspiration_templates/http://www.educationoasis.com/curriculum/GO/vocab_dev.htmReferences:Bryant, D.P., Goodwin, M., Bryant, B.R., & Higgins, K. (2003). Vocabulary instruction for students with learning disabilities: A review of the research. Learning Disabilities Quarterly, 26, 117-128Foil, C.R. & Alber, S.R. (2002). Fun and effective ways to build your students‘ vocabulary. Intervention in School and Clinic, 37, 131-139.Reutzel, D.R. & Cooter, R.B. (2004). Teaching Children to Read: Putting the Pieces Together (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.Stahl, S. A. & Stahl, K.A.D. (2004). Word wizards all! Teaching word meanings in preschool and primary education. In Baumann, J.F. & Kame‘enui, E.J. (Eds.), Vocabulary Instruction: Research to Practice (pp. 59-78). New York: The Guilford Press.http://www.educationoasis.com/curriculum/GO/vocab_dev.htmhttp://forpd.ucf.edu/strategies/stratWordB.html
    • 169 Word Map**http://www.educationoasis.com/curriculum/GO_pdf/word_map.pdf
    • 170 Word Map 2-Vocabulary Box** http://forpd.ucf.edu/strategies/stratWordB.html
    • 171 The Keyword MethodOverview:Students are taught a mnemonic strategy to help them to make connections between the wordand its definition by recoding, relating, and retrieving. This strategy helps make vocabularyword meanings more concrete and meaningful.Grade: AllMaterials: Index cards or paperProcedure:1. Choose a mnemonic.2. Choose a keyword for each vocabulary word or have students choose their own keyword.3. Use direct instruction methods to teach strategy.4. After they have practiced using the strategy tell them to think back to the keyword.5. Tell students to think back to the picture.6. Tell students to remember what was happening in the picture.7. Have students give the definition.IT FITS mnemonic (Foil & Alber, 2002): Identify the term Tell the definition Find a keyword Imagine the definition doing something with the keyword and draw it if possible Think about definition as it relates to the keyword Study what you imagined until you know the definitionLINCS mnemonic (Foil & Alber, 2002): List the parts. Write the word on an index card and list the most important parts of the definition on the back. Imagine a picture. Create a mental picture and describe it. Note a reminding word. Think of a familiar word that sounds like the vocabulary word. Construct a LINCing story. Make up a short story about the meaning of the word that includes the reminding word. Self-Test. Test your memory.
    • 172References:Foil, C.R. & Alber, S.R. (2002). Fun and effective ways to build your students‘ vocabulary. Intervention in School and Clinic, 37, 131-139.Bryant, D.P., Goodwin, M., Bryant, B.R., & Higgins, K. (2003). Vocabulary instruction for students with learning disabilities: A review of the research. Learning Disabilities Quarterly, 26, 117-128.
    • 173 Vocabulary Picture CardsOverview:Words are written on index cards with the definition on the front and student generated picturedrawn on the back. This strategy is used to help students remember the definition of a word byconnecting it with a visual image they create.Grade: AllMaterials: Index cards, markersProcedure:1. Present the vocabulary word.2. Discuss the meaning of the word.3. Provide examples of how the word is used.4. Have students use the word in a sentence.5. Pass out index cards and markers.6. Have students write the word and sentence on one side of the card7. Have students draw a picture of the sentence on the back of the card.8. Students can practice by using these cards as response cards during instruction, flash cards with partners, and keeping it in their word banks.References:Foil, C.R. & Alber, S.R. (2002). Fun and effective ways to build your students‘ vocabulary. Intervention in School and Clinic, 37, 131-139.
    • 174 Classwide Peer TutoringOverview:Students work in pairs and tutor each other in vocabulary. This strategy is used to help learn andpractice new vocabulary words by acting as a tutor and tutee with another student.Grade: Upper elementary-High schoolMaterials: 1 folder for each student with two pockets inside: One marked ―go‖ and the other marked ―stop‖ 1 set of vocabulary index cards for each student (word on front, definition on back; can be taken from their word banks)Procedure:1. Divide students up into pairs.2. Hand out materials.3. Designate who starts as a tutor.4. Have the tutor show each vocabulary word to the other student and prompt them to say the definition. Use vocabulary words from the student‘s ―go‖ pocket.5. Tutors should praise for correct answers and give the correct answer when the tutee is wrong.6. After 5 minutes, have students switch roles.7. After each student takes a turn as a tutor, have students test each other 1 more time with each word.8. Have students mark down the words they got correct.9. When the student has stated the correct definition for 3 consecutive days, the vocabulary index card is placed in the ―stop‖ pocket.10. Students graph the number of words they have mastered on a chart taped inside the pocket.11. Periodically review the vocabulary words in the ―stop‖ pocket for maintenance.
    • 175References:Foil, C.R. & Alber, S.R. (2002). Fun and effective ways to build your students‘ vocabulary. Intervention in School and Clinic, 37, 131-139.
    • 176 Vocabulary ClusterOverview:Teachers lead students through predicting an unknown vocabulary word by identifying contextclue words in the text and graphically displaying them in a cluster around the vocabulary word.This strategy is used to help students learn the meaning of a word through context clues in thetext.Grade: AllMaterials: multiple copies of the text overhead transparency of text erasable markers vocabulary cluster map (transparency and student copy)Procedure:1. Select vocabulary words.3. Choose a passage from text with sufficient context clues about the vocabulary word.4. Identify context clue words in the passage.5. Create vocabulary cluster map Draw a circle in the middle of a blank piece of paper. Draw lines extending out from the circle (1 line for each context clue word) Draw a circle at the end of the line.4. Delete and replace with a blank line (or cover up) vocabulary words in text on overhead transparency.5. Direct student attention to overhead.5. Read the passage and discuss what the unknown word could be by identifying context clue words.6. Add the context clue words to the vocabulary cluster map in the outer circles.7. Lead students to predict what the unknown vocabulary word is through discussion of context clue words.8. Tell students vocabulary word and add it to the center circle.
    • 177References:Reutzel, D.R. & Cooter, R.B. (2004). Teaching Children to Read: Putting the Pieces Together (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
    • 178 Example Vocabulary Cluster** Reutzel, D.R. & Cooter, R.B. (2004). Teaching Children to Read: Putting the Pieces Together (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
    • 179 Word of the Week-Word WizardOverview:This strategy encourages and reinforces children to use student selected vocabulary in theirspeaking.Grade: AllMaterials: Word of the Week (WOW) sheet poster containing student names and weekly words rewardProcedure:1. Choose a Word Day (possibly Wednesday).2. Have students choose an interesting or unfamiliar word they heard or read from the week before.3. Have students complete the WOW sheet using their chosen word. The WOW sheet should contain the interesting word the student chose, where the student had seen or heard the word, the meaning of the word, and the word used in a sentence.4. Create a poster with the students‘ names down the side and the weekly words along the top5. Give checks on the poster each time a student uses the word while speaking or writing or identifies it in a reading.6. The student at the end of the week (following Wednesday) with the most check marks for using a word and the student who contributed the word most often used earn a reward, such as lunch with the teacher and are referred to as the Word Wizard for that week.*Weekly words can also be chosen from the text.References:Stahl, S. A. & Stahl, K.A.D. (2004). Word wizards all! Teaching word meanings in preschool and primary education. In Baumann, J.F. & Kame‘enui, E.J. (Eds.), Vocabulary Instruction: Research to Practice (pp. 59-78). New York: The Guilford Press.
    • 180 Wide ReadingOverview:Students read self-selected material independently each day. This strategy gets students topractice reading independently by allowing them to choose their own reading material. Themore students are exposed to reading, the better their reading ability becomes and the moreopportunities they have to learn new vocabulary. *Using wide reading by itself is not aneffective intervention, but when used in conjunction with other strategies it is helpful.Grade: AllMaterials: Interest Inventory Individual Interest Sheets (ISS)Procedure:1. Administer an interest inventory to the class at the beginning of the year to students to learn more about them.2. Start an individual interest sheet for each student based on the results of interest inventory. The ISS lists basic topics that the student is interested in and suggests available books that the student may like to read based on those topics.3. Students can continue to add to the sheet throughout the school year and check off books they have read on the list.4. Set aside at least 15 to 20 minutes each day for individual student reading.5. Have students self-select books to read. Refer them to their ISS for suggestions.References:Reutzel, D.R. & Cooter, R.B. (2004). Teaching Children to Read: Putting the Pieces Together (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
    • 181 Interest Inventory**Reutzel, D.R. & Cooter, R.B. (2004). Teaching Children to Read: Putting the Pieces Together (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
    • 182 Example Individual Interest Sheet* Chapter 5 Individual Interest Sheet Mrs. Bradys Fifth Grade Class Aston School Name: Ryan Catania Things I am interested in knowing more about or topics that I like: Topics Soccer Football Dogs Survival Stories Books to consider from our library Soccer Shock (Donna Jo Napoli) Crash (Jerry Spinelli) Stone Fox (John Reynolds Gardiner) Stones in Water (Donna Jo Napoli)* Reutzel, D.R. & Cooter, R.B. (2004). Teaching Children to Read: Putting the Pieces Together (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
    • 183 Vocabulary Overview: Vocabulary Self-selection StrategyOverview:Students lead mini-lessons with the teacher on new vocabulary words. This strategy helpsstudents decide which words they want to learn from their own reading.Grade: AllMaterials: NoneProcedure:1. When student read independently (such as during wide reading time) have them select one word they think the class should learn.2. Have students define the word based on the context clues and their own prior knowledge. Give feedback regarding the definition.3. During the next lesson have students take turns explaining where they found their word, their own context-determined definition, and reasons why the class should learn the word.References:Foil, C.R. & Alber, S.R. (2002). Fun and effective ways to build your students‘ vocabulary. Intervention in School and Clinic, 37, 131-139.
    • 184 Vocabulary Rule & Word-part RuleOverview:Students use a rule that incorporates morphemic and contextual analysis to help them figure outword meanings while reading independently.Grade: AllMaterials: Rule PosterProcedure:1. Create a Rule Poster to hang in the classroom that states The Vocabulary Rule and The Word-part rule.2. Teach students to use The Word-Part rule first by using direct instruction on prefixes and suffixes3. Teach students how to identify context clues (such as synonyms) using direct instruction.4. Teach students to use The Vocabulary Rule using direct instruction.5. Remind students to use the rule when reading independently.The Vocabulary RuleWhen you come to a word and you don‘t know what it means use:1. CONTEXT CLUES: Read the sentences around the word to see if there are clues to its meaning2. WORD-PART CLUES: See if you can break the word in to a root word, prefix, or suffix to help figure out its meaning.3. CONTEXT CLUES: Read the sentences around the word again to see if you have figured out its meaning.To help students learn how to do step 2, teach The Word-Part Rule1. Look for the ROOT WORD: a single word that cannot be broken into smaller words or word parts. See if you know what the root means.2. Look for a PREFIX: a word part added to the beginning of a word that changes its meaning. See if you know what the prefix means.
    • 1853. Look for a SUFFIX: a word part added to the end of a word that changes its meaning. See if you know what the suffix means.4. Put the meanings of the ROOT WORD, PREFIX, and SUFFIX together and see if you can build the meaning of the word.References:Edwards, E.C., Font, G., Baumann, J. F., & Boland, E. (2004). Unlocking word meanings: Strategies and guidelines for teaching morphemic and contextual analysis. In Baumann, J.F. & Kame‘enui, E.J. (Eds.), Vocabulary Instruction: Research to Practice (pp. 59-78). New York: The Guilford Press.
    • 186 Storybook InterventionOverview:Students learn new vocabulary through repeated readings and vocabulary activities. Students aretaught the meaning of new words within the context of a storybook and related activitiesGrade: PrimaryMaterials: 2 classic or recent award winning picture booksProcedure:1. Select two classic or recent award winning picture books.2. Identify 3 target vocabulary words from each book that are important to understand for the story and likely to be unfamiliar to students.3. Follow the intervention 6 day schedule: Book 1 read on days 1 & 3, Book 2 read on days 2 & 5, integrate and apply vocabulary words on days 5 & 64. Practice reading the story with expression and pencil in pauses to make in the story (after vocabulary word is introduced).Day 11. Introduce the first story: Point to the title on the cover.2. Show the cover and ask, ―What do you think this story is about?‖ Emphasize characters and problem.3. Tell students that ―Stories we read have characters, problems, and settings. Thinking about these will help you remember what happens in the story.‖4. ―When I read this story, I am going to read and say a lot of words. I want you to listen for three magic words in the story. Here they are (show the vocabulary words and say each word). Have students repeat the word.5. Tell students to raise their hand when they hear it in the story.6. Read story and pause at designated pausing points. Say to students: ―Great job raising your hands! What word did you hear? Yes, (firm).‖ Give students the definition of the word (choose a synonym; e.g. ―Firm is hard‖) and repeat the sentence in which the vocabulary words appears.
    • 1877. After reading, ask students questions about the points in the story involving the vocabulary words (e.g. ―Why did Peter pack his snowball round and firm? Have you ever made a snowball? Did you pack the snow firm? Is this table firm? Are you socks firm?‖).Day 21. Repeat Day 1 procedures with Book 2.Day 31. Reread the story using same procedures.2. Emphasize discussing target vocabulary Show students illustration in story depicting target word. Have student supply the definition at pausing points.Day 41. Repeat Day 3 procedures with Book 2.Day 51. Say to students: ―Here is the story ________. Let‘s talk about the new words we learned in the book.‖2. Show students the pages in the book using the target words. Reread the sentence but substitute the target word with a synonym used in Day 1 (e.g. ―Peter made the snowball hard. What‘s our magic word for hard? Yes, firm.‖).3. Tell students: ―We are going to play a game using the magic words. This is the ―Guess the Word Game.‖ You are going to tell me which word goes with another word.‖4. Ask students which words go with the target word. Give two words, one that matches and one that does not (e.g. ―Which word goes with firm? Sloppy or hard?‖).5. Have students retell the story using the illustrations and target words with scaffolded prompts.Day 61. Say to students: ―Here is the story_________. Let‘s remember the words we talked about in this book. I‘m going to say some sentences, and I want you to use our magic words to finish them.‖2. Say the sentence and have students select the correct target word (e.g. ―The dirt was packed down very hard. The dirt was…(firm)‖).
    • 1883. Tell students they are going to play a game using the words, the ―What am I Talking about Game.‖ Tell students to give the correct magic or target word (e.g. ―Mother packed the cookie dough into a pan. She made the dough hard. What is our magic word for hard? Yes, firm.‖ If students are incorrect, give a choice between two words (e.g. ―Cozy or firm? Mother made the cookie dough firm. Say that‖).4. Have students retell the story using the illustrations and target words with scaffolded prompts.*On days 5 & 6 follow the previous procedures for all target words for both Book 1 and Book 2.References:BIG IDEAS (2005): [On-line] Available: http://www.reading.uoregon.eduCoyne, M.D., Simmons, D.C., & Kame‘enui, E.J. (2004). Vocabulary instruction for young children at risk for experiencing reading difficulties: Teaching word meanings during shared storybook readings. In Baumann, J.F. & Kame‘enui, E.J. (Eds.), Vocabulary Instruction: Research to Practice (pp. 59-78). New York: The Guilford Press.
    • 189 Concept Thinking MatrixOverview:Uses four levels of understanding to present the meaning of vocabulary words in a graphicdisplay. This strategy helps students anticipate new information and organize informationrelated to vocabulary words.Grade: Middle & High SchoolMaterials: Concept Thinking MatrixProcedure:1. Choose vocabulary words.2. Create a blank concept thinking matrix.3. Hand out thinking matrix to students4. Teach students to use concept thinking matrix using direct instruction procedures.*Works well with content area vocabulary words. Concept Thinking Matrix (Example)Vocabulary Dictionary Synonyms Connotations Other Uses of the Definition Antonyms Characteristics Word Examples NonexamplesWord 1 Syn Connot: Ant Ex Nonex Char:Word 2 Syn Ant Ex NonexWord 3 Syn Ant Ex NonexReferences:Reutzel, D.R. & Cooter, R.B. (2004). Teaching Children to Read: Putting the Pieces Together (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
    • 190 DramaOverview:Students learn the meanings of words by acting them out. This multisensory strategy helpsstudents have a deeper understanding of word meanings with the use of drama.Grade: AllMaterials: Vocabulary word listProcedure:Activity 11. Directly teach students chosen vocabulary words.2. Write the vocabulary words on small strips of paper and place them in a hat.3. Have students take turns selecting a word from the box and pantomiming the meaning.4. The rest of the students should guess what word is being pantomimed.Activity 21. Have students form four teams.2. Give each team a list of vocabulary words.3. Members of the team take turns silently acting out one of the words on the list.4. The first team to identify the word earns a point.5. The team with the most amount of points is the winner.Activity 31. Write a list of vocabulary words connected with a story the students will read.2. Directly teach the definitions by providing the meaning and examples used in context.3. Have students read the story.4. Form students into teams.5. Give each team a portion of the story and tell them to create a skit using the vocabulary words.
    • 1916. Have each team act out their skit.7. After each skit, have students discuss the vocabulary and how they were used in context.References:Foil, C.R. & Alber, S.R. (2002). Fun and effective ways to build your students‘ vocabulary. Intervention in School and Clinic, 37, 131-139.
    • 192 Flip-a-Chip: Examining Affixes and Roots to Build VocabularyOverview:In this lesson, students are introduced to the Flip-a-Chip activity and have an opportunity to buildtheir own packets. Each packet contains word parts that are printed on poker chips. Studentswrite paragraphs leaving blanks for the four words that can be flipped from their chips. Studentsthen exchange their packets to see if the context clues in the paragraphs are strong enough toenable other classmates to fill in the words correctly. Students are taught the meaning of newwords within the context of a storybook and related activities.Grade: Middle SchoolMaterials: Computer with internet access Flip-a-Chip interactive activity Dictionary.com General classroom supplies (paper, markers, pens Indelible or dry-erase markers Overhead with transparency or chalkboard Plastic bags with closures White poker chips (or other hard chips suitable for flipping)Procedure:Preparation:Prepare a sample Flip-a-Chip packet to introduce your students to the activity. On the first chip,print pro on the front and re on the back. On the second chip, print duce on the front and voke onthe back. Flipping the chips can make four words: provoke, produce, revoke, and reduce. Preparean overhead transparency or write the following paragraph on the chalkboard:Ms. Jones was angry. She said, ―My students _____ me when they are tardy. They _____ oneexcuse after another. I want to ____ the number of tardies, so I‘ll ____ the privileges of anystudent who is late.Instruction and ActivitiesNote: Depending on your students‘ grade level and abilities, you may need to conduct a preliminarylesson on affixes and roots as meaningful parts of words. However, most students in grades 6–8 havealready encountered morphemic analysis in their reading, vocabulary, and spelling programs.1. Introduce Flip-a-Chip to your students by saying, ―Let me show you how you can start with four syllables and flip these chips to make four words.‖ Start flipping the chips, and write each word you make on the board. Hand the chips to a student and say, ―No matter
    • 193 how you flip these chips, you will make a word. Try it.‖ Let students keep trying until they flip all four words: produce, provoke, reduce, and revoke.2. Next, encourage students to talk about the meanings of the four words. Discuss the word elements as meaningful chunks. Ask students to think of other words that they know that have the same affix or root. What do these other words mean? Can words they know help them figure out the meanings of these new words? Students can also use Dictionary.com or a print copy of the dictionary to look up the definitions of the four words. [Note: Be sure students select the correct part of speech for a word like produce when they study the definition. In this case, produce is being used as a verb.]3. Show students the fill-in-the-blanks paragraph, in which the built-in context clues can give students a conceptual network for the words. Tell students, ―The words you flipped can fit in this paragraph. Figure out from the context where each word belongs." Ms. Jones was angry. She said, ―My students _____ me when they are tardy. They _____ one excuse after another. I want to ____ the number of tardies, so I‘ll ____ the privileges of any student who is late.‖4. Have students read the paragraph aloud after placing the words in the right blanks. Also have them explain their thought process for placing the words in the paragraph. How does the context of the sentence (i.e., the semantic and syntactic cues) call for one word and not another? Ms. Jones was angry. She said, ―My students provoke me when they are tardy. They produce one excuse after another. I want to reduce the number of tardies, so I‘ll revoke the privileges of any student who is late.‖5. Go through a few more examples together in class or have students work in pairs using the online version of Flip-a-Chip. Students will see how different affixes and roots can be combined to make words and then placed into a context-rich paragraph. They should print their work after each example to check whether they placed the words in the paragraph correctly.6. Next, have students work in pairs to create their own Flip-a-Chip packets, to include a set of chips and a paragraph with fill-in-the-blanks. You might consider modeling the process for creating a Flip-a-Chip packet or having the class create one together before having students work on this activity in pairs. Give each pair of students a marker or pen, two white poker chips, and a plastic bag. Instruct students to print four syllables on the chips that can be combined to make four words. When students start working in pairs, caution them about spelling. For example, they should not use words like rude and easy on Chip 1 if they mean to put the suffixes er and est on Chip 2. Flip-a-Chip packets cannot include words that drop a final e or change a final y to an i before adding a suffix. The word parts on Chips 1 and 2 must mix-match into four correctly spelled words.
    • 194 Students should be encouraged to access Dictionary.com or a print copy of the dictionary to look up the definitions of the four words they decide to use. Then have students type paragraphs adding blanks for the four words and making sure to include context clues that will help others know where the words belong. Circulate the room while students are working to assist them in developing their paragraphs or to point out how to strengthen their context clues, especially for blanks where two of the words would fit. When finished, have each pair place their materials in a small plastic bag and label the bag with their names.7. Ask students to trade their packets with another pair of students to see if their classmates can figure out how the words fit in the paragraph.8. Students can then meet with the pair of students that tried their Flip-a-Chip packet and revise their paragraph if additional context clues were needed to place the words correctly.9. Keep the student-created Flip-a-Chip packets in an area of the classroom and encourage students to try some of the others when they have time. Students can share their feedback with the original authors of the packet or create a dueling paragraph to add to the packet (i.e., another paragraph that uses the same four words).As cited on www.readwritethink.org: Mountain, L. (2002). Flip-a-Chip to build vocabulary.Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 46, 62–68.
    • 195 Viewing Vocabulary: Ten Important Words PlusOverview:This strategy uses is the Ten Important Words Plus strategy in conjunction with internet websitesand vocabulary prompt cards to deepen students understanding of informational vocabulary.Grade: Middle School & High School.Materials: Classroom resources Butcher paper Computers with Internet access Sticky notes Index cards Viewing Vocabulary Rubric, Student handouts Vocabulary Prompts Find the Word!Procedure:Preparation1. Familiarize yourself with the Ten Important Words Plus strategy: Distribute a text and 10 sticky notes to each student. Introduce the text. Ask students to read it and, while reading, to identify and record on the sticky notes 10 words in the text that they consider key to the content. Have students construct a class bar graph with their sticky notes. As identical words are contributed, vertical columns are constructed. Each different word begins a new column. Engage students in a discussion of the graph. Have students each write a single-sentence summary of the content. Ask students to share their sentences with one another. Distribute prompt cards that have students engage in further exploration of the words, such as identifying synonyms, noting contexts in which the words may be found, telling other forms of the word, or acting out the word.2. Visit the Uncovering Chameleons website or another informational website of your choosing. Bookmark the website on your computers so that it is easily accessible for students during research time. If you do not have classroom computers with Internet access, reserve two sessions in your school‘s computer lab. You should also visit the other listed websites and bookmark them on the computers students will be using.3. Gather 10 sticky notes for each student. Hang a six-foot piece of butcher paper or clear your white board so that it may be used to post sticky notes.
    • 1964. Prepare colored index cards or card stock with text from the Vocabulary Prompts handout. Begin by printing several copies of the prompts and cutting them apart. Glue copies of the same prompt onto the same color card, so that all cards of the same color have the same prompt. For example, paste copies of the first prompt on a blue card, copies of the second prompt on a yellow card, etc. If you choose, laminate the cards so they are more durable as you may want to use them many times and with many texts. Select three or four prompts to use with this lesson.5. Select several words from the article to use in Session 1, Steps 9 and 10. Suggestions are provided below in Session 1.6. Make copies of the Find a Word! handout for each student in your class. Fill out your own handout to use as a model in Session 2, Step 2. After completing it, post the handout in the room where it will be visible to all students.Instruction and Activities1. Explain to students the purposes of Ten Important Words Plus. Tell them that knowledge of the specialized vocabulary of a content area will support their understanding of the content. Inform students that they are about to participate in a strategy that will help them think about the ideas in the text and learn the words used to convey those ideas.2. Show students the Uncovering Chameleons website or the website chosen and distribute 10 sticky notes per student. Introduce the article by locating Madagascar on a class map or globe and telling students that the article is about an individual who studies life in this region.3. Ask students to read the article silently. Tell them that as they read, they are to look for 10 words they consider most important to the content of the selection and record one word on each of the 10 sticky notes. Advise students to record their words in pencil as they will likely change their minds as they read.4. After all students have read the article and recorded their words, invite two volunteers to begin developing a class graph. The first volunteer posts his or her words in a horizontal line along the bottom of the butcher paper or white board. The second volunteer places duplicate words directly above the first volunteer‘s words, creating vertical columns. New words—those not already selected by the first student—are placed along the horizontal line, beginning new columns.5. Have the remainder of students, a few at a time, add to the graph. Encourage students to comment informally on the graph as it is being constructed. Depending upon the size of the class, you may wish to have table groups combine and sort their words so that posting on the class graph is more efficient.6. Allow students to study the graph after all words have been posted. Engage students in a discussion of the words. Which words were selected most frequently by the class? What
    • 197 do these words mean? Why were they selected by so many readers? Which words were selected less frequently? How are they related to the topic? (Note that students do not put their names on the sticky notes and anyone may offer an explanation of why words were selected.)7. After discussion of the word meanings and their relevance to the topic, ask students to individually write a single sentence that summarizes the article. The words on the graph will likely prove useful in the summary sentence; however, do not require students to include them in their summary statement.8. Ask students to read their sentences to a partner. Encourage several volunteers to share their sentences with the entire class. Discuss the summary writing process. Questions to ask include: Was it easy or difficult to write your sentence? What made it easy? Did thinking and talking about the words help? What made it difficult? Often, students will comment that their attention to big ideas in the text and the words that convey those big ideas made summarization easy.9. Explain the Vocabulary Prompts. Distribute the colored prompt cards, and tell students you have selected a word from the article for further exploration. The word is diversity. (The word may or may not appear on the class graph.) Give students a few minutes to individually respond to their prompt, and then ask students to meet with two or three classmates who have the same prompt. Students will be able to identify peers who have the same prompt by the color of their card. Ask students to share their responses in their small groups..10. Ask each group to share its prompt and response with the entire class. Have all groups with the same prompt share before calling on groups with a different prompt.11. Repeat Steps 9 and 10 with the word population, or word of your choice.12. Have students exchange their prompt cards for one of a different color.13. Repeat Steps 9 and 10 with the words species and rare, or words of your choice14. As students‘ needs or interests dictate, repeat Steps 9 and 10 with two or three of the following word: unique, isolation, extinction, worth, decide, herpetologist, and hypothetically, or words of your choice.Session 2: Finding Important Words1. Revisit the graph displaying class selections of important words and share again some of the summary sentences that students wrote. Review the components of the Ten Important Words Plus strategy.2. Have students work in pairs to explore one of the related websites you have bookmarked (see Preparation, Step 2). Although each pair may have some freedom in choosing its website from the list, be sure that all websites are selected—assigning websites to pairs if
    • 198 need be. Choose 10 to 15 words from the class graph and assign three words to each pair of students. Each word will be investigated by more than one pair, ideally by pairs with different websites. Have students use the Find function to search for the words and complete the Find the Word! handout. Show students your own Find a Word! handout as a model.3. Engage students in a discussion about whether and how many times each of their assigned words appears in their website. Have students share the sentences they recorded on the Find a Word! handout and talk about how and the extent to which the words were used.4. Talk about how the words in a content area are crucial to understanding the subject matter. Questions to guide the discussion might include: Were some of the words we placed on our class graph also found in these related websites? Could the authors have communicated the content as clearly or accurately had they not used these words? Did the words contribute to your understanding of the content? Why do you think it is important to learn the words in a content area? Could you understand the topic as well if you did not know the specialized vocabulary?References:As cited on www.readwritethink.org: Yopp, R.H., & Yopp, H.K. (2007). Ten Important Words Plus: A strategy for building word knowledge. The Reading Teacher, 61, 157–160.
    • 199 Fry‘s New Instant Word List**Fry, E. (2000). 1000 Instant Words. Westminster, CA: Teacher Created Materials.
    • 200 ReferencesBeck, I. B.,McKeown, M. G., & Kucan, L. (2002). Bringing words to life: Robust vocabulary instruction. New York: The Guilford Press.BIG IDEAS (2005): [On-line] Available: http://www.reading.uoregon.eduBryant, D.P., Goodwin, M., Bryant, B.R., & Higgins, K. (2003). Vocabulary instruction for students with learning disabilities: A review of the research. LearningDisabilities Quarterly, 26, 117-128Education Oasis (2009): [On-line] Available: http://www.educationoasis.com/curriculum/GO/vocab_dev.htmEducation Oasis (2009): [On-line] Available: http://www.educationoasis.com/curriculum/GO_pdf/word_map.pdfFry, E. (2000). 1000 Instant Words. Westminster, CA: Teacher Created Materials.Foil, C.R. & Alber, S.R. (2002). Fun and effective ways to build your students‘ vocabulary. Intervention in School and Clinic, 37, 131-139.Jordan School District (2009): [On-line] Available: http://t4.jordan.k12.ut.us/teacher_resources/inspiration_templates/Just Read, Florida! (2004): [On-line] Available: http://forpd.ucf.edu/strategies/stratWordB.htmlRathvon, N. (2008). Effective School Interventions: Evidence-Based Strategies for Improving Student Outcomes (2nd ed.). New York: The Guilford Press.Read, Write, Think. (2009): [On-line] Available: http://www.readwritethink.org/lessons/lesson_view.asp?id=253Read, Write, Think. (2009): [On-line] Available:
    • 201http://www.readwritethink.org/lessons/lesson_view.asp?id=1081Reading First: Ohio. (2006). [On-line] Available: http://www.readingfirstohio.org/Reutzel, D.R. & Cooter, R.B. (2004). Teaching Children to Read: Putting the Pieces Together (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.Stahl, S. A. & Stahl, K.A.D. (2004). Word wizards all! Teaching word meanings in preschool and primary education. In Baumann, J.F. & Kame‘enui, E.J. (Eds.), Vocabulary Instruction: Research to Practice (pp. 59-78). New York: The Guilford Press.
    • 202Comprehension
    • 203 What is reading comprehension? Reading comprehension is an interactive process in which a person both ―extracts andconstructs‖ meaning from written language. This process involves the reader taking informationfrom a text and creating meaning based on the purpose for reading (RAND Reading StudyGroup, 2002). Why is it important? Reading comprehension is the ultimate goal of reading instruction. Reading for meaningis the manner in which people get information in every facet of life. Comprehending writtenlanguage utilizes all of the big skill areas so in order for students for be effective comprehenders,they must also be proficient in phonemic awareness, alphabetic principle, fluency, andvocabulary. Instruction of reading comprehension strategies is necessary because many studentsdo not develop them on their own. If students are directly taught how to use strategies and theyare consistently enforced, students can make great gains in reading (Baker, Gersten, & Grossen,2002). How is reading comprehension assessed? Reading comprehension is typically assessed using questions and retellings. Students areasked to read a passage and teachers ask them to retell the story in their own words. Teachersshould take note of how many story elements students are able to recall. Teachers can use theQuantification of Retelling for Narrative Text from Shapiro (2004) to guide them.What types of interventions exist to improve student reading comprehension? According to the National Reading Panel (2000), reading comprehension interventionsmost effective are cognitive strategies directly taught to students. They suggest using strategiesthat involve question answering and generating, comprehension monitoring (metacognitive),
    • 204cooperative learning, the use of graphic organizers including semantic and story maps, andsummarization. Kameenui & Simmons (1990) provide reasons for reading comprehensionfailure. Included are inadequate instruction, insufficient exposure and opportunities to practice,inadequate self-monitoring and self-evaluation skills, and inadequate cognitive development andreading experiences. In order to overcome that failure, BIG IDEAS (2005) offers some criticalfeatures of comprehension instruction: BIG IDEAS (2005)
    • 205 Previewing Informational TextOverview:This strategy is often used when beginning a new chapter or section in a textbook such as historyor science. It involves previewing major sections of the chapter such as the title, headings, andsummaries. It should be teacher guided when the reading is complex, the material is new, andwhen students struggle with expository information. After the student becomes more familiarwith the text and strategy, students can be given a structured activity to complete by themselvesor with a partner. The student will gain an overview of the content and organization of thereading material and develop a framework for the reading material.Grade: Can be adapted for all gradesType: Pre-Reading/InformationalMaterials: Student worksheetProcedure:1. Introduce the strategy: ―Today we will learn how to warm up before reading a chapter in a book. People often warm up before doing an activity. If you go to a baseball game, you see players throwing the ball back and forth. Before you read a chapter in a textbook, you need to warm up your mind. When you warm up for reading, you find out what the chapter is about‖.2. Hand out the warm-up steps to each student. Read the steps in the warm-up: ―We will preview the beginning of the chapter by looking at the title and introduction. Preview the middle of the chapter by looking at the headings and subheadings, and preview the end of the chapter by looking at the summary and questions.‖3. Tell students to take out their book and turn to the appropriate chapter and page. Use the warm-up to preview the chapter. Read the title of the chapter and write it on the board. Ask: ―What will this chapter be about‖?4. Read the introduction and have students follow along.5. Look at the middle of the chapter. Find the first heading and ask students ―what will this section of the chapter be about‖? Write the heading on the chalkboard. Continue reading all headings and subheadings in this manner.
    • 2066. Look at the end of the chapter. ―Next, we read the summary. Follow along as I read the summary. Tell me some important ideas in this chapter. As we read the chapter, we would want to learn more about these ideas‖.7. Find the questions at the end of the chapter and read the questions. Ask students: ―Why is it important to read the questions before we read the whole chapter‖? (Answer: to help us focus on what is really important information in this chapter that we need to know).8. Ask students: ―Tell me what this chapter is going to be about. What are some things you will learn by reading this chapter?‖9. After students have learned how to use this strategy, students can be given the student worksheet to complete.*A similar framework can be applied for previewing narrative texts. For older students previewthe title, chapter titles, and any pictures in the book and make predictions. For younger studentspreview the title and pictures in the book and make predictions.References:Blachowicz, C. & Ogle, D. (2001). Reading Comprehension: Strategies for Independent Learners. New York: The Guilford Press.Carnine, D.W., Silbert, J., Kame‘enui, E.J., & Tarver, S.G. (2004). Direct Instruction Reading (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall. Student Worksheet*
    • 207* Carnine, D.W., Silbert, J., Kame‘enui, E.J., & Tarver, S.G. (2004). Direct Instruction Reading (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
    • 208 K-W-LOverview:This strategy builds on background knowledge by graphically displaying what they know about atopic, what they want to learn, and what they have learned which is essential for promotingreading comprehension. This strategy has been found to work best with older readers for usewith informational texts.Grade: Middle School & High SchoolType: Pre and Post Reading/InformationalMaterials: K-W-L chart (student and teacher versions; teacher version can include a big version written on the board, on a big piece of paper, or on an overhead projector).Procedure:1. Hand out the K-W-L chart to each student. Set up teacher version on board or overhead.2. The strategy starts with step K, for what I Know. Ask students to brainstorm independently about the topic. For example, if the new topic in science class is about bats, ask students to list what they know about bats under the ―K‖ column of the chart.3. When students have finished doing this, ask or call on students to volunteer what they know about bats. Write their answers on the teacher version for the class to see.4. Next, ask students to look for ways to organize the list into categories such as ―looks‖ what a bat looks like. Teacher may need to help students come up with categories.5. Ask students to think about what they want to learn about the topic and have them volunteer their answers as a whole class. Write it down under the ―W‖ column on the teacher version. Help point out gaps and inconsistencies in the brainstorming list (K column) in order to help generate questions about the topic.6. Based on the class list of questions, tell students to write down personal questions or concepts they would like to learn about the topic on their individual sheet.7. While reading, have students refer to their sheets periodically to review what they want to learn so that they can focus while reading.8. After reading, pass out K-W-L sheets. Tell students to write down what they learned from reading under the ―L‖ column. They can answer specific questions they had from the ―W‖ column or write a summary.
    • 2099. As a class, answer questions that were asked on the teacher version in the ―W‖ column and discuss what students have learned from the reading.*This strategy can be used with pairs instead of whole class once student have learned how touse this strategy.References:Blachowicz, C. & Ogle, D. (2001). Reading Comprehension: Strategies for Independent Learners. New York: The Guilford Press.Reutzel, D.R. & Cooter, R.B. (2004). Teaching Children to Read: Putting the Pieces Together (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
    • 210 KWL Chart K W LWhat I Know What I Want to Know What I learned
    • 211 Reciprocal TeachingOverview:This strategy was developed to improve reading comprehension and monitoring of studentsscoring low on standardized tests of reading ability. It involves teachers and students exchangingroles. This strategy improves reading comprehension and comprehension monitoring ofinformational or narrative texts. To use with narrative texts, focus the discussion on majorelements of the story such as character, plot, setting, etc.Grade: Upper Elementary-High SchoolType: Pre-reading & During reading/Informational & NarrativeMaterials: Reciprocal Teaching Cards Reciprocal Recording SheetProcedure:1. Predetermine the segments of text to be used.2. Model reciprocal teaching process: a. Have students predict what the text will be about by looking at the title, pictures, and headings of the text. b. Read the predetermined segment of text. Teacher or student may read aloud or silently. c. Have students identify any part of the text that is unclear or confusing so that they can clarify what they read. Fix-up strategies can be used during this step to help them with comprehension. d. Have students generate questions about the text they have just read and ask them to the class. Have other students answer them. e. Have students write or say a brief summary of what they just read.3. Teach students to lead the reciprocal teaching process using the reciprocal teaching cards.4. Assign a student to assume the role of the teacher and guide the process described above and the teacher assumes a student role.5. Have students break into groups and use reciprocal teaching process.
    • 2126. The teacher should still continue to provide feedback.References:Blachowicz, C. & Ogle, D. (2001). Reading Comprehension: Strategies for Independent Learners. New York: The Guilford Press.Carnine, D.W., Silbert, J., Kame‘enui, E.J., & Tarver, S.G. (2004). Direct Instruction Reading (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.Reutzel, D.R. & Cooter, R.B. (2004). Teaching Children to Read: Putting the Pieces Together (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
    • 213 Reciprocal Teaching Cards**Cards found at: http://www.asdk12.org/MiddleLink/HighFive/Reciprocal/*Additional Cards can be made in a similar fashion to suit your needs.
    • 214 Reciprocal Teaching Recording Sheet**Recording Sheet found at: http://www.asdk12.org/MiddleLink/HighFive/Reciprocal/
    • 215 Directed Reading-Thinking ActivityOverview:The teacher works with a small group of students while reading and guides them to predict andthink about the selection at predetermined stopping points. This strategy helps students to thinkactively and become engaged while reading.Grade: AllType: Pre/During/Post & FictionMaterials: NoneProcedure:1. Choose a story no one in the class has read. Preview the selection and predetermine stopping points. Be sure there is enough information between stopping points for which students can base a prediction on.2. Break students up into groups of 8-12 students.3. Explain the rules of participation to students: a. Students read only the assigned sections of the story and no further. b. When they have finished reading they should bookmark the page and wait for other students to finish. While waiting they can begin thinking of a prediction and evaluate whether their previous prediction was correct. Students can write down these thoughts or draw out ideas while waiting. c. There are no wrong answers. d. Everyone in the group should listen to each other‘s idea.4. If starting at the beginning of the story, preview text by looking at title, chapters, pictures, etc and have students make predictions. If this is a continued reading, ask students to make predictions about what will happen next in the story.5. Have students read (can be silently or aloud as a group) to designated stopping point. Tell them to pick out information to prove or disprove predictions.6. At designated stopping point, review and discuss original predictions. Make new predictions based on the reading.
    • 216References:Blachowicz, C. & Ogle, D. (2001). Reading Comprehension: Strategies for Independent Learners. New York: The Guilford Press.
    • 217 Story Problem SolvingOverview:This strategy engages students in reading while slowing down their reading to allow time forthinking about the story criticallyGrade: AllType: During & FictionMaterials: Story Problem Think Sheet 1 or 2Procedure:1. Preread selection.2. Identify stopping points in the story right after the characters, setting, and problem have been introduced.3. Create the Think Sheet. The think sheet has 7 steps: a. Identify the main characters and setting of the story. b. Identify the main problem to be solved. c. Identify information the author has given that might be important. d. Identify any additional information that would be helpful for solving the problem. e. Draw an illustration of considerations. f. Identify 3 ways to solve the problem. g. Choose the best way to solve the problem and tell why.3. Teach students how to use the Story Problem Think Sheet using direct instruction.4. Put students into pairs and have them read the selection. Pause at the stopping points and have student complete the corresponding sections of the Think Sheet.References:Blachowicz, C. & Ogle, D. (2001). Reading Comprehension: Strategies for Independent Learners. New York: The Guilford Press.
    • 218 Problem-Solving Think Sheet** Blachowicz, C. & Ogle, D. (2001). Reading Comprehension: Strategies for Independent Learners. New York: The Guilford Press.
    • 219 Problem-Solving Think Sheet 2** Blachowicz, C. & Ogle, D. (2001). Reading Comprehension: Strategies for Independent Learners. New York: The Guilford Press.
    • 220 Graphic OrganizersOverview:Graphic organizers are ―visual representations‖ that organize or outlines concepts and ideas forstudents. They can be used for a variety of situations, such as activating prior knowledge,organizing key concepts or main ideas, and learning new vocabulary. Examples includesemantic map and concept diagram for use with expository text and story maps for use withnarrative text. Graphic organizers help students to visually organize and understand conceptsand relationships from the text.Grade: AllType: AllMaterials: Graphic OrganizerProcedure:General1. Choose a type of graphic organizer based on what is being instructed. Semantic and concept maps work well for older students reading expository text such as a science or history books. Story maps and discussion webs work well for younger students reading narrative texts. However, graphic organizers can be created or adapted for many situations and students.2. Decide whether to use a pre-made graphic organizer or create one of your own.3. Teach students to use the graphic organizers using the direct-instruction format.4. Provide graphic organizers to students before they begin reading, have them use it during reading, and review the information after reading.Semantic Map: provides an overview of key concepts and vocabulary presented in a spider-webor bubble format.1. Have students preview the reading or topic area. Activate background knowledge and provide some cues to the topic.2. Write the main topic in the middle of the board or paper and put a circle around it.3. Brainstorm with students key words that come to mind about the topic. Depending on students, this can be done independently, in groups, or as a class. Key words should be encircled and connected by lines to the main idea.
    • 2214. Read the text and discuss with teacher.5. Revisit semantic map and make changes (add concepts or take away). Example Semantic Map** Mastropieri, M.A., Scruggs, T.E., & Graetz, J.E. (2003). Comprehension Instruction for Secondary Students: Challenges for struggling students and teachers. Learning Disability Quarterly, 26, 103-116.Concept Map: Visually represents concepts by identifying key ideas and characteristics ofconcepts.1. Identify major concepts/critical content of reading selection such as vocabulary words, concepts, ideas, details, facts, and events.2. Organize concepts visually to reflect the structure of the content (hierarchy, diagram, timeline, etc).3. Design a completed map (filled in with correct information).
    • 2224. Design a partially completed map that includes the diagram and major terms.5. Design a blank concept map with just the structure or diagram, leaving off the information.6. Distribute the partially completed map to students. 7. Place a transparency of completed map on an overhead projector and show only the areas needed at the time.8. Introduce the information on the map in a logical order, pointing out relationships.9. Students complete the map during instruction.10. Periodically and at the end of the lesson review concepts by using the blank concept diagram and asking students questions about the content. Example Concept Map*
    • 223* Mastropieri, M.A., Scruggs, T.E., & Graetz, J.E. (2003). Comprehension Instruction for Secondary Students: Challenges for struggling students and teachers. Learning Disability Quarterly, 26, 103-116.Story Map: visually shows that elements such as the title, setting, problem, and events in thestory. Good for use with narrative pieces.1. Preread the story.2. List the sequence of events that make up the plot.3. Put the story title in the middle of the story map and draw a circle or box around it.4. Draw enough boxes around the title to accommodate the setting, problem, goal, events, and resolution of the story. Connect the boxes with arrows. Draw an arrow from the title of the story to the starting point box. Fill in the boxes will the story elements going clockwise.5. Introduce the story by viewing a copy of the story map (can be on overhead projector, board, or large chart paper).6. Focus on the title of the story and ask students what they think the story will be about.7. Continuing clockwise on the story map, focus on the setting, problem, goal, events, and resolution. Read each box and ask students to make predictions.8. Have students read the story.9. During reading, refer back to the story map to review the elements of the story.10. After reading, give students an incomplete story map and ask them to fill it in as a way to assess their understanding of the story. Example Story Map*
    • 224* Reutzel, D.R. & Cooter, R.B. (2004). Teaching Children to Read: Putting the Pieces Together (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.More graphics organizers can be found on the internet at the following sites:http://www.eduplace.com/graphicorganizer/www.readwritethink.comwww.scholastic.comhttp://www.teachervision.fen.com/graphic-organizers/printable/6293.htmlReferences:Baker, S., Gersten, R., & Grossen, B. (2002). Interventions for students with reading comprehension problems. In M. R. Shinn, H. M. Walker, & G. Stoner (Eds.), Interventions for Academic and Behavior Problems II (pp. 731-754). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.Carnine, D.W., Silbert, J., Kame‘enui, E.J., & Tarver, S.G. (2004). Direct Instruction Reading (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.Mastropieri, M.A., Scruggs, T.E., & Graetz, J.E. (2003). Comprehension Instruction for Secondary Students: Challenges for struggling students and teachers. Learning Disability Quarterly, 26, 103-116.Reutzel, D.R. & Cooter, R.B. (2004). Teaching Children to Read: Putting the Pieces Together
    • 225 (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.Vaughn, S. & Edmonds, M. (2006). Reading comprehension for older students. Intervention in School and Clinic, 41, 131-137.
    • 226 Peer/Partner Mediated InstructionOverview:Pairing students to work together during reading helps struggling readers while enhancingcomprehension of all students. In a specific and structured partner activity, Peer-AssistedLearning Strategies in Reading (PALS-R), a series of activities are completed by pairs ofstudents while reading. This strategy improves reading comprehension and fluency throughstructured activities completed by pairs of studentsGrade: Upper Elementary-High SchoolType: AllMaterials: Reading materials (1 set per pair) stopwatches (1 per pair) procedure prompt cards (1 per pair) error prompt cards (1 per pair) weekly score cards (1 per pair) *Prompt cards are index cards with the appropriate procedures written on them.Procedure1. Pair students heterogeneously so that one student is a stronger reader. The stronger reader will be Partner 1 and the weaker reader will be Partner 2.2. Assign each pair of students to one of two teams.3. Have student move into pairs and distribute materials.4. Demonstrate first activity with a student.5. Guide a pair of students through procedures while class observes.6. Implement activities. Each session takes 35-minutes with 10 minutes designated for each activity and an additional 5 minutes for preparation, retelling, transitioning, and cleaning up.7. During sessions award bonus points for cooperative behavior and following procedures accurately.8. At the end of the week have students report highest number slashed on their score card. The team with the most points wins.
    • 227Activity 1: Partner Reading with Retell1. Partner 1 reads for 5 minutes while Partner 2 follows along and corrects errors. If a student finishes the passage before the 5 minutes is up, they reread the selection from the beginning. At the end of 5 minutes, Partner 2 reads while Partner 1 follows along.2. The partner following along corrects errors: misread words, omitted words, added words, and pauses of more than 4 seconds. Error correction procedures: a. For misread and omitted words and pauses of more than 4 seconds the partner says: ―Stop. You missed that word. Can you figure it out?‖ If the student cannot figure it out the partner says: ―That word is______. What word?‖ and instructs the student to reread the sentence. If neither partner knows the word they are to raise their hand for help. b. For added words the partner says, ―Stop. You added a word. Can you figure out what word you added?‖ If the reader cannot figure it out, the partner tells the word and instructs the student to reread the sentence.3. After both students read, Partner 2 retells what they read for 2 minutes (1 minute for earlier grades). Partner 1 can prompt by asking ―What did you learn first?‖ and ―What did you learn next?‖ Partner 1 can provide information if Partner 2 forgets.4. Points are recorded by slashing consecutive numbers on the score cards. Students earn 1 point for every correctly read sentence. If an error correction was used, students earn 1 point for after reading the sentence correctly. Students earn 10 points for retelling the story correctly.Activity 2: Paragraph Shrinking1. Partner 1 starts by reading the text where they left off from the previous activity.2. Reading errors are corrected, but not scored.3. At the end of each paragraph the other partner asks: ―What was the paragraph mainly about‖ and ―Tell the most important things about who or what the paragraph was about.‖ The reader must respond in 10 or fewer words.4. If the reader has made a summary error the tutoring partner says. ―That‘s not quite right. Skim the paragraph and try again.‖ The tutor provides the answer if the reader cannot provide it. If the reader answers in more than 10 words, the tutor says, ―Shrink it‖.5. After 5 minutes, students switch roles.
    • 2286. Students earn 1 point for correctly identifying the subject of each paragraph, 1 point for saying the main idea of each paragraph, and 1 point for shrinking summary statements to 10 words or less.Activity 3: Prediction Relay1. Partner 1 starts by making a prediction about what will happen in the next half page of text.2. Partner 1 reads the half of page while Partner 2 follows along and corrects reading errors.3. At the end of the half of page, the reader confirms or disconfirms the prediction.4. The reader summarizes the half page they have just read in 10 words or less.5. The reader makes a new prediction about the next half page. If the other partner does not think the prediction is possible he or she says, ―I don‘t agree. Think of a better prediction.‖6. Students switch roles after 5 minutes.7. Students earn 1 point for a reasonable prediction, 1 point for reading each half of page, 1 point for accurately confirming or disconfirming each prediction, and 1 point for each summary component: identifying who or what, identifying the most important thing of who or what, summarizing in 10 or fewer words.References:Baker, S., Gersten, R., & Grossen, B. (2002). Interventions for students with reading comprehension problems. In M. R. Shinn, H. M. Walker, & G. Stoner (Eds.), Interventions for Academic and Behavior Problems II (pp. 731-754). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.Carnine, D.W., Silbert, J., Kame‘enui, E.J., & Tarver, S.G. (2004). Direct Instruction Reading (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.Mastropieri, M.A., Scruggs, T.E., & Graetz, J.E. (2003). Comprehension Instruction for Secondary Students: Challenges for struggling students and teachers. Learning Disability Quarterly, 26, 103-116.Rathvon, N. (2008). Effective School Interventions: Evidence-Based Strategies for Improving Student Outcomes (2nd ed.). New York: The Guilford Press.
    • 229 Story Grammar/Story MapsOverview:Students use story grammar to map out components of narrative text. It teaches students theelements of a story such as characters, setting, problem, and resolution which helps them to thinkmore critically about the content and better understand it.Grade: Upper Elementary-High SchoolType: During/Post& NarrativeMaterials: Story Map Worksheet (for older students) Story Map Worksheet (for younger students)Procedure:1. Choose a premade story map worksheet or create one based on the reading.2. Introduce the concept of Story Grammar (characters, setting, problem, goal, events, resolution, theme) to students using the story map worksheet as a guide.3. In four separate lessons, introduce the major components of the Story Grammar by ―thinking aloud‖ as you model examples of identifying each component in a passage. Identify important characters and their characteristics Identify main problem and plot development or events Identify attempts to solve problem Identify overall theme4. Fill out a Story Map Worksheet on an overhead and have students write on their own copies5. Have students read a passage independently.6. Pause at pre-determined points to ask questions about the story and have students write their answers on the Story Map Worksheet.7. Review Story Map Worksheet when students have finished reading the story.8. Have students use their Story Maps to answer comprehension questions.
    • 230References:Baker, S., Gersten, R., & Grossen, B. (2002). Interventions for students with reading comprehension problems. In M. R. Shinn, H. M. Walker, & G. Stoner (Eds.), Interventions for Academic and Behavior Problems II (pp. 731-754). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.Carnine, D.W., Silbert, J., Kame‘enui, E.J., & Tarver, S.G. (2004). Direct Instruction Reading (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.Wright, J. (2001). The Savvy Teachers Guide: Reading Interventions that Work. Retrieved from: www.interventioncentral.orgRathvon, N. (2008). Effective School Interventions: Evidence-Based Strategies for Improving Student Outcomes (2nd ed.). New York: The Guilford Press.Reutzel, D.R. & Cooter, R.B. (2004). Teaching Children to Read: Putting the Pieces Together (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.Shapiro, E. S. (2004). Academic Skills Problems (3rd ed.). New York: The Guilford Press.
    • 231 Story Map*Advanced Story Map Worksheet (Adapted from Gardill & Jitendra, 1999)------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Student: ______________________________ Date: ______________ Class: _____________Story Name: _________________________________________________________________------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1. Who is the central character? ____________________________________________2. What is the main character like? (Describe his/her key qualities or personality traits).________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________3. Who is another important character in the story? _____________________________4. What is this other important character like? _____________________________________________________________________________________________________5. Where and when does the story take place? _____________________________________________________________________________________________________6. What is the major problem that the main character is faced with? ____________________________________________________________________________________7. How does the main character attempt to solve this major problem? __________________________________________________________________________________8. What is the twist, surprise, or unexpected development that takes place in the story?________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________9. How is the problem solved or not solved?________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________10. What is the theme or lesson of the story?_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________*Wright, J. (2001). The Savvy Teachers Guide: Reading Interventions that Work. Retrieved from www.interventioncentral.org
    • 232 Story Map 2 (for younger students)** http://www.fcrr.org/SCASearch/PDFs/K-1C_012.pdf
    • 233 Self-Check & Fix-Up StrategiesOverview:Effective readers check their understanding of the text while reading. However, students need tobe taught directly to regulate their own reading, identify problems or difficulties, and fix them.Self-check or metacognitive strategies allow students to monitor their own reading. Fix-upstrategies are useful when students are self-regulating their own reading and encounter problemswith comprehension. This strategy helps students identify when they have a problem withcomprehending text and helps them repair their comprehension problems.Grade: Upper Elementary-High SchoolType: During/Post & InformationalPurpose: Materials: My Reading Check Sheet transparency My Reading Check Sheet student copy Fix-up strategy poster for wall Fix-Up bookmarks for students fix-up strategy t-chartProcedure:Click and Chunk: Self-Check Strategy1. Hand out copies of Check Sheet2. Review fix-up strategies on the handout.3. Teach students to use the My Reading Check Sheet using direct instruction.4. Tell students that during reading, at the end of each sentence they should ask themselves, ―Did I understand this sentence?‖ At the end of paragraph say, ―Did I understand this paragraph?‖ At the end of the page, ―What do I remember?‖5. If they understand they say, ―Click‖ and if they do not they say ―Chunk‖ and refer to the fix-up strategies listed on the sheet.6. Practice this strategy using sample passages with the class and modeling the steps.7. Have students use the strategy independently.Fix-up Strategies
    • 2341. Create a fix-up strategy poster to be hung in classroom and a reminder sheet or checklist for students.2. Use direct instruction model to teach students how and when to use strategies and the fix- up strategy t-chart.3. Have student record the fix-up strategies they used on the t-chart. The t-chart can be used as a reference for students to use while reading as a reminder of when to use which fix-up strategies.4. Remind and prompt students to use fix-up strategies while reading.Fix-up Strategies: Suspend judgment for now and continue reading Form a tentative hypothesis using text information and continue reading Look back or reread the previous sentence Stop and think about the previously read passage; reread if necessary Seek help from the environment, reference materials, or others in the classroom notice when understanding is lost stop and go back to clarify thinking reread to enhance understanding read ahead to clarify meaning identify and talk about what is confusing about the text recognize that all questions about a text have value sound it out speak to another reader read the text aloud go slowReferences:Reading Lady Website. (2009). Retrieved from: http://www.readinglady.com/Reutzel, D.R. & Cooter, R.B. (2004). Teaching Children to Read: Putting the Pieces Together (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.Wright, J. (2001). The Savvy Teachers Guide: Reading Interventions that Work. Retrieved from www.interventioncentral.org
    • 235 Fix-up Strategy T-Chart*Student Name_________________ Date_________________ Fix-Up Strategies T-Chart While I was reading… I used the Fix-Up Strategy…*Reading Lady Website. (2009). Retrieved from: http://www.readinglady.com/
    • 236 Fix-Up Strategy Bookmarks* Fix-Up Strategies Questions to Ask When I Don‘t Understand What I Read When it doesn’t sound right, Ask Yourself: �Do I need to sound out the words? �Do other words in the text give me clues to an unknown word? �Does this sound like language? �Do I need to slow down and reread? �What is the author trying to tell me? �What is happening here? �What do I already know that is like what the author is saying? �What do I know about this kind of text? �What is my purpose for reading? �What is important for me to understand?*Reading Lady Website. (2009). Retrieved from: http://www.readinglady.com/
    • 237 My Reading Check Sheet* Name: __________________ Class: _____________Sentence Check… “Did I understand this sentence?”If you had trouble understanding a word in the sentence,try… Reading the sentence over. Reading the next sentence. Looking up the word in the glossary (if the book or article hasone). Asking someone.If you had trouble understanding the meaning of the sentence,try… Reading the sentence over. Reading the whole paragraph again. Reading on. Asking someone.Paragraph Check… “What did the paragraph say?”If you had trouble understanding what the paragraph said, try… Reading the paragraph over.Page Check… “What do I remember?”If you had trouble remembering what was said on this page, try… Re-reading each paragraph on the page, and asking yourself, “Whatdid it say?”*Wright, J. (2001). The Savvy Teachers Guide: Reading Interventions that Work. Retrieved from
    • 238 www.interventioncentral.org Questioning-Generating & AnsweringOverview:Students learn about different types of questions and how they are answered which helpsstudents to critically think about what they are reading and better understand it.Grade: AllType: AllMaterials: NoneProcedure:Question and Answer Relationships (QAR‘s): this strategy teaches students to recognizequestion-answer relationships and identify the source needed to find the answer.1. Tell students that there are two places they can get information about their reading and answers to questions they are asked about their reading: in the book or in their head.2. Practice the concept with students by reading aloud, asking questions, and showing students where the answer can be found.3. Tell students that answers located ―in the book‖ can be found either ―right there‖ or by ―putting it together.‖ Practice as above but direct students to look in sentences to find their answer (right there) or focus on structure of the text such as cause-effect, problem- solutions, or explanation (putting it together).4. Tell students that answers located ―in my head‖ can be found by either thinking about the ―author and you‖ or by thinking ―on my own.‖ Some answers to questions are found by thinking about what the author tells you and what you already know and some questions are answered based on your own experience.5. Tell students that some questions are asked before reading and some are asked after reading. Questions asked before reading usually require students to activate background knowledge so they will be ―on my own‖ questions. Questions asked after reading usually involve the information they have just read so they could be ―putting it all together‖, ―right there‖, or ―author and you‖ questions.6. Have students practice reading different types of text and have them identify the type of questions and where to find the answers.7. Have students practice writing questions for each type of question-answer relationship.
    • 2396. Students can refer to the QAR poster while reading.References:Reading Lady Website. (2009). Retrieved from: http://www.readinglady.com/Reutzel, D.R. & Cooter, R.B. (2004). Teaching Children to Read: Putting the Pieces Together (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.Question Generation: students learn to enhance their comprehension by locating the main ideasof a passage and generating questions about them. This is best used with informational texts.1. Locating Explicit Main Idea: Tell students that some passages have a sentence that states the main idea or ―gist‖. Use examples of passages with explicit main ideas and train students to locate and underline the main idea sentence.2. Finding Key Facts: Tell students that some passages do not have a main idea sentence and that you may have to use the information in the text to figure out the main idea. Use examples of passages with implied main ideas and train students to locate and circle key ideas or facts.3. Writing a ―gist‖ sentence: Tell students that it is helpful to create their own main idea or ―gist‖ sentence by using the main ideas or facts found in the text. Use examples of passages with implied main ideas and locate and circle key ideas. Write a ―gist‖ sentence using the circled key ideas or facts that summarizes the reading.4. Generating questions: Use examples of passages with explicit main ideas and implied main ideas. Show students how to turn a main idea sentence or a student created ―gist‖ sentence into a question by starting with ―signal words‖ such as who, what, where, where, when, why, how.5. Have students practice the full strategy with additional passages.6. Use generated questions on quizzes or as a study aid for students. Students can work in pairs to independently create questions and then have their partner answer them as a comprehension check.References:Wright, J. (2001). The Savvy Teachers Guide: Reading Interventions that Work. Retrieved from: www.interventioncentral.org
    • 240Elaborative Interrogation: this strategy helps students to relate their own experiences to thefacts read in the text. It is best used with informational texts.Teach steps using direct instruction method.1. Read each page carefully.2. Stop at the end of each page and pick a statement.3. Write a ―why‖ question for the statement you pick.4. Think about an answer to ―why‖ question using your own knowledge and experiences.5. If you can, write an answer to your ―why‖ question.6. Read the pages again looking for an answer. Read on to another page to look for the answer.7. If you can, write an answer to your ―why‖ question.8. If you can‘t write an answer to your ―why‖ question, save it for a group discussion after reading.References:Reutzel, D.R. & Cooter, R.B. (2004). Teaching Children to Read: Putting the Pieces Together (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
    • 241 Collaborative Strategic ReadingOverview:Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR) integrates multiple reading comprehension strategies intoone process. Students work in groups and have various roles to fill while reading.Grade: SecondaryType: During/Post & InformationalMaterials: Clunk cards, cue cards, CSR LogProcedure:1. Present strategies to the entire class by modeling. Ensure students understand how to use each strategy. a. Preview text: Review related known concepts and make predictions. b. Click and chunk: Monitor comprehension by finding difficult words and concepts and using fix up strategies to address problems. Clunk cards contain fix-up strategies students can use when they reach a difficult section of the text. c. Get the gist: While reading, restate the most important or main idea d. Wrap-up: After reading, summarize what has been read and generate questions about text.2. Divide students into heterogeneous groups and assign roles. Hand out a set of clunk cards and cue cards to each group. There is one cue card for each role which describes their responsibilities and prompts them on how to fill the role. Leader: Tells the group what to read next and what strategy to use next. Clunk Expert: Uses clunk cards to remind the group of the steps to follow when trying to figure out the meaning of their clunk(s). *Clunk cards can be made by writing fix up strategies on index cards. Gist Expert: Guides the group toward getting the gist and determines that the gist contains the most important idea(s) but no unnecessary details. Announcer: Calls on group members to read a passage or share an idea. Note-Taker/Timekeeper: Ensures learning logs are completed and that text is read within the specified time.
    • 2423. Have students read and complete the CSR learning log. They can be done individually or as a group. If done as a group, the note-taker takes responsibility for filling it out*Find more ideas and materials at:http://www.readwritethink.org/lessons/lesson_view.asp?id=95References:Vaughn, S. & Edmonds, M. (2006). Reading comprehension for older students. Intervention in School and Clinic, 41, 131-137.
    • 243 CSR Roles*Cue cards can be created using the CSR roles below:
    • 244*Vaughn, S. & Edmonds, M. (2006). Reading comprehension for older students. Intervention in School and Clinic, 41, 131-137. CSR Log**Vaughn, S. & Edmonds, M. (2006). Reading comprehension for older students. Intervention in School and Clinic, 41, 131-137.
    • 245 SummarizationOverview:Students learn how to identify the main idea of a passage by being taught to look for the mainperson and what the person is doing.Grade: Early PrimaryType: Post /NarrativeMaterials: NoneProcedure:1. Teach students a rule writing a main idea sentence: Name the person and tell the main thing the person did in all sentences.2. Have students read the passage.3. Ask the students to figure out a main idea sentence by naming the person and telling what the person did in all the sentences.4. Call on a student to say the sentence. If the student is wrong, correct the student.5. Repeat steps with additional passages.6. Have students write the main idea sentence for each paragraph.7. As students master creating a main idea sentence, introduce passages that contain distracter sentences and tell students to write main idea sentences that name the person and tell the main thing the person did in most of the sentences.References:Carnine, D.W., Silbert, J., Kame‘enui, E.J., & Tarver, S.G. (2004). Direct Instruction Reading (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
    • 246 Guided Comprehension: Previewing Using an Anticipation GuideOverview:Strategic reading allows students to monitor their own thinking and make connections betweenthis lesson. It also introduces students to the comprehension strategy of previewing. Students usean anticipation guide to preview and make predictions about the storyGrade: Late Primary-High SchoolType: Pre & AllMaterials: Anticipation GuideProcedure:1. Choose a text. (This strategy works well with most expository texts. It works particularly well with texts that present ideas that are somewhat controversial to the readers.)2. Write several statements that focus on the topic of the text. Next to each statement, provide a place for students to indicate whether they agree or disagree with the statements.Tips for writing statements: Write statements that focus on the information in the text that you want your students to think about. Write statements that students can react to without having read the text. Write statements for which information can be identified in the text that supports and/or opposes each statement Write statements that challenge students‘ beliefs Write statements that are general rather than specific3. Have students complete the anticipation guide before reading. The guide can be completed by students individually, or in small groups. Remind students that they should be prepared to discuss their reactions to the statements on the anticipation guide after they have completed it.4. Have a class discussion before reading. Encourage students who have differing viewpoints to debate and defend their positions.5. Have students read the text. Encourage students to write down ideas from the text that either support their initial reaction to each statement, or cause them to rethink those reactions.
    • 2476. Have a class discussion after reading. Ask students if any of them changed their minds about their positions on each statement. Ask them to explain why. Encourage them to use information from the text to support their positions.References:As cited on www.readwritethink.org: McLaughlin, M., & Allen, M.B. (2002). Guided Comprehension: A teaching model for grades 3–8. Newark, DE: International Reading Association. Hall.University of Indiana (2006): [On-line] Available: http://www.indiana.edu/~l517/anticipation_guides.htm Example Anticipation Guide* Directions: Read each statement. If you believe that a statement is true, place a check in the Agree column. If you believe the statement is false, place a check in the Disagree column. Be ready to explain your choices. Agree Disagree _____ _____ 1. The average worker in the United States spends more than 2 hours a day using computers in the workplace. _____ _____ 2. It is OK for companies to monitor its employees’ use of the Internet. _____ _____ 3. Most companies do not expect their new employees to be computer literate until after the company trains them. _____ _____ 4. As a result of computers, more employers are allowing employees to work from home. _____ _____ 5. Health problems that some employees experience as a result of working at a computer all day should not be a concern of the employer.*University of Indiana (2006): [On-line] Available: http://www.indiana.edu/~l517/anticipation_guides.htm
    • 248 ReferencesBaker, S., Gersten, R., & Grossen, B. (2002). Interventions for students with reading comprehension problems. In M. R. Shinn, H. M. Walker, & G. Stoner (Eds.), Interventions for Academic and Behavior Problems II (pp. 731-754). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.BIG IDEAS (2005): [On-line] Available: http://www.reading.uoregon.eduBlachowicz, C. & Ogle, D. (2001). Reading Comprehension: Strategies for Independent Learners. New York: The Guilford Press.Carnine, D.W., Silbert, J., Kame‘enui, E.J., & Tarver, S.G. (2004). Direct Instruction Reading (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.Florida Center for Reading Research (2005): [On-line] Available: http://www.fcrr.org/activities/Kameenui, E. J. & Simmons, D. C. (1990). Designing instructional strategies: The prevention of academic learning problems. Columbus, OH: Merrill Publishing Company.Mastropieri, M.A., Scruggs, T.E., & Graetz, J.E. (2003). Comprehension Instruction for Secondary Students: Challenges for struggling students and teachers. Learning Disability Quarterly, 26, 103-116.National Reading Panel (2000). Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implication for reading instruction. Washington, DC: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.RAND Reading Study Group (2002). Reading for understanding: Toward a R&D program in reading comprehension. Science & Technology Policy Institute, Santa Monica, CA: RAND.Rathvon, N. (2008). Effective School Interventions: Evidence-Based Strategies for Improving Student Outcomes (2nd ed.). New York: The Guilford Press.Read, Write, Think. (2009): [On-line] Available:
    • 249 http://www.readwritethink.org/lessons/lesson_view_printer_friendly.asp?id=226Reading Lady (2009): [On-line] Available: http://www.readinglady.com/Reutzel, D.R. & Cooter, R.B. (2004). Teaching Children to Read: Putting the Pieces Together (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.Shapiro, E. S. (2004). Academic Skills Problems (3rd ed.). New York: The Guilford Press.University of Indiana (2006): [On-line] Available: http://www.indiana.edu/~l517/anticipation_guides.htmVaughn, S. & Edmonds, M. (2006). Reading comprehension for older students. Intervention in School and Clinic, 41, 131-137.Wright, J. (2001). The Savvy Teachers Guide: Reading Interventions that Work. Retrieved from: www.interventioncentral.org
    • 250StandardProtocol
    • 251 Fundations Overview Fundations, an adaptation of the Wilson Reading System, is a comprehensive readingprogram focused on helping students K-3 develop their decoding skills. Although emphasis is onphonemic awareness, phonics, and study of word structure, instruction in the areascomprehension, vocabulary, and fluency is also provided. Fundations can be used in threedifferent ways, depending on the needs of the school. First, the program can be used for wholeclass instruction in the general education setting. This use is warranted when the core readingprogram lacks a systematic phonics approach. Implemented in this way, instruction would bedelivered through 25-30 minute lesson every day. Those students who still struggle wouldreceive small group instruction in addition to the whole class instruction. Anotherimplementation of Fundations is for students in the lowest 30th percentile. Fundations would thenbe considered an intervention program, which students would receive for 40-60 minutes each day(20-25 minutes for instruction plus supplemental activities). Fundations can also be used withstudents who have a language learning disability. This program is a good match for such studentsbecause of its explicit, multi-sensory nature. In this situation, Fundations is delivered as a 20-25daily lesson, 25-30 minutes of small group instruction, as well as literature-based comprehensionand decodable text instruction. No matter the use, Fundations is always used in addition toliterature-based instruction.
    • 252 Fundations is based on several key instructional principles. First, due to its interactivenature, instruction is visible and explicit. Skills are taught through modeling and active learning.Owl puppets, named Echo and Baby Echo, are used to encourage students to model and repeatsounds and sentences. Students also are taught to blend and segment sounds using finger-tapping. Magnetic boards with magnet letters are also used by the students to learn to manipulatesyllables, form words, and basic sentence structure. Next, instruction is systematic, meaning thatis sequential and cumulative. Fundations is comprised of four levels: Level K, Level 1, Level 2,and Level 3. In order to progress to the next level, the student must complete the previous level.Level K, however, could be skipped if the student begins at Level 1. The skills are presented inUnits, which build on previously taught skills. Efforts are made to link new concepts topreviously learned ones, in order to help students make connections. In Level K, emphasis is onletter names and sounds, as well as the blending and writing of words. In Level 1, the basicphonological skills continue to be emphasized, with the introduction of digraphs, long vowelsounds, two syllable words with short vowels, base words and suffixes, vocabulary, fluency, andcomprehension. Level 2 builds on these skills with the use of more difficult material, while alsointroducing the different types of syllables, vowel teams, and how to divide multisyllabic words.Level 3 builds on previous skills but also incorporates more challenging skills such as cursivewriting and the use of homophones. All of the skills are taught in small increments to ensuremastery. Another key principle is that Fundations promotes motor-memory learning. This is donethrough ―sky writing‖ letters (outstretching their arm, students make letters in the air with theirfinger), tracing letters, and tapping out sounds. Because the same skills are presented frequentlyand in different ways, students have multiple opportunities to practice and master the skills.
    • 253Students also receive immediate positive feedback so that they can learn from their mistakes in anon-critical manner. The teacher‘s manual is divided into units, which is made up of a lesson activity plan foreach week. Each unit has an introduction which includes the concepts that will be learned in thatunit, how much time should be planned to cover the unit, what materials will be needed, andwhich activities should be reviewed. Each week is structured, identifying which activities shouldbe done on which days. For daily instruction, the activities are more detailed and sometimesinclude examples. The program comes with a multitude of materials to aid in effectiveinstruction, including magnetic board with magnetic letters, teacher CD, sound cards, a homesupport packet, dry erase board, classroom posters, and decodable books for the higher levels. Aprogress monitoring tool is also available to evaluative if students are responding to theinstruction in Fundations, as well as to help with targeting areas in need of improvement, and todetermine when instructional modifications may be needed. Research Support Research on the specific effectiveness on Fundations could not be found, however thereis much research on the Wilson Reading System. Since Fundations was developed with the sameprinciples for students in Kindergarten through third grade, research findings are likely to besimilar. The Wilson Learning Training Center examined data from 220 students diagnosed withlearning disabilities. These students were chosen for the study because they had not shownprogress in previous programs using small group or 1:1 instruction. Out of the total participants,92 of these students were in grades 3-4 while the remaining 128 students were in grades 5-12.
    • 254The purpose of the study was to see if the Wilson program was effective in improving readingand spelling performance for these students in the pull-out program. The data from pre- and posttests were analyzed in the areas of word attack, reading comprehension, and total reading. All ofthe students had a score of at least two years below placement on the Woodcock ReadingMastery Test- Revised or the Woodcock Reading Master Test. The teachers implementing theintervention had formal training and were observed several times to ensure fidelity. By the end ofthe implementation, 62 lessons had been completed. The post test results revealed an averagegain of 4.6 grade levels in word attack, 1.6 grade levels in passage comprehension, 1.9 gradelevels for total reading gain (Education Commission of the States, 1999; O‘Connor and Wilson,1995). Another study that found similar results was conducted in 1997-1998. Teachers from 55locations participated in the Wilson training. They administered the Woodcock Reading MasteryTest as the pre- and post test measure with 168 students grades 2-5. The participants wereselected because they had poor word-attack and spelling skills, as well as a reading score of atleast one year below placement. After receiving the Wilson System intervention for 64 lessons,the students made an average grade-level gain of 3.8 in the word-attack subtest and an averagegain of 1.6 in total reading (Education Commission of the States, 1999). Data were also collected by Wilson Language Training and were analyzed by Dr. FrankWood in 2002. Wilson tutors from various sites gathered data from pre- and post tests on theWoodcock Reading Mastery Test across two years 1999-2000 and 2000-2001. A total of 374students, with an average age of 10-11 years, made up the sample. The results found that therewas a significant difference in the scores on word identification, word attack, passagecomprehension, basic skills, and total reading from pre- to post test. The results also showed that
    • 255IQ did not seem to be a factor in the effectiveness of the intervention and that students in allgrade levels (3-7) benefitted from the intervention (Florida Center for Reading Research, 2004;Wood, 2002). The Lynn Public School District in Massachusetts conducted a study on the WilsonSystem and its effect on spelling performance for students K-3. The majority of those studentswho were participants in the Wilson Reading System performed above grade level. In first gradeit was 96% above grade level, with the average grade being 2.8. Similarly, second grade resultsshowed that 92% of students were above grade level with an average of 3.9, while third gradehad 88% of students test above grade level, with the average of 4.9 (Florida Center for ReadingResearch, 2004; Lynn Public Schools, 2001). More recently, a study done by Torgesen et al. (2006), evaluated the effect of the WilsonReading System on alphabetics, fluency, and comprehension. In alphabetics, results on theWoodcock Reading Mastery Test- Revised subtests of word attack and word identification showa significant difference. However, in the areas of comprehension and fluency, there was nostatistically significant difference between the pre- and post test scores.
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    • 259 Read Naturally Overview Read Naturally is a research-based reading program designed to improve students‘fluency. Although a fluency-based program, all of the five core elements of reading (phonemicawareness, phonics, vocabulary, comprehension, and fluency) are reinforced (WEBSITE). Thecore of the program is based on three strategies: teacher modeling, repeated reading, andprogress monitoring. In teacher modeling, fluent and correct reading is modeled for the student.Fluent refers to reading that has appropriate speed, accuracy, and proper expression. In ReadNaturally, modeling is done by having students read the story along with the recording. Repeatedreading is also important in developing fluency. This program has students practice readingstories with a timer until they reach a targeted goal rate of fluency. Progress monitoring is also animportant component of Read Naturally. With the program comes tools such as graphs, timers,and quizzes which help keep track of students‘ progress. Students are actively involved incharting their progress; while the tools help the teachers determine appropriate placements andgoals. Read Naturally can be used as a supplement to provide more opportunities to practicereading, for English Language Learners, and/or as an intervention for struggling readers (FCRR,2006). Implementation is recommended 3-times a week for 30 minutes. Students K-12 canbenefit from this program. The program comes in two formats, an audiotaped version (MastersEdition) and a software version (Software Edition). There is also a Group and Tutoring Editionthat helps with those students who need extra practice with phonics and phonemic awareness.
    • 260 The first step in the Read Naturally program is to assess the students‘ current level ofperformance, which will determine the initial level and goal for the student. The PlacementPacket that accompanies the program is an essential tool for this step. In it there are samplestories for each level, as well as guidelines for determining placement and goals. The goal levelis the number of words that the student needs to accurately read in one minute. Within eachplacement there are multiple levels in which the student can be tested. After placement and goalsetting has been done, the instructional process can begin. First, the student reads the keys wordsand definitions that appear at the beginning of the story. Then the student is to make a predictionabout what they will happen in the story. Once a prediction is written, the student sees theteacher to complete a ―cold read‖, which is an unpracticed read through of the story for oneminute. The teacher then sets the goal with the student of how many words need to be read inone minute. The student then goes to the listening center to practice reading orally as they listento the story on a CD. Using a timer, the student then practices reading the story at least threetimes, until the goal is reached. The student then sees the teacher for a ―hot read‖ and the numberof words correct per minute is recorded. Once the minute is up, the student continues to read thestory. Lastly, the student completes a written summary, as well as any questions that accompanythe story. The Florida Center for Reading Research listed the following as strengths of the ReadNaturally program: ―Teacher‘s manual provides clear and concise information for how to implement the program effectively. Research is well linked to practice • Students receive explanations of why they perform various aspects of the strategy: cold timing, reading along with a proficient model, individual repeated reading. • Progress monitoring drives instructional practice, helps in making instructional decisions and alerts teachers to reading problems.
    • 261 • Comprehension questions and written retell are part of every story, reminding students that their ultimate goal is to achieve understanding of the reading. • Students are instructionally engaged in the act of reading and their time on-task is high. • Activities are structured such that students work in a self-directed manner, freeing the teacher to work with other students. Teacher assistance is required in only one step of the process. • Timed readings and graphing the words correct per minute can be very motivating for students‖ (Florida Center for Reading Research, 2006, p. 5) Research Support Read Naturally has been found effective in several studies. Hasbrouck, Ihnot, and Rogers(1999) conducted a study with 22 students. The Read Naturally program was implemented alongwith the classroom curriculum. Results indicate that 7 students classified as special educationhad an average gain of 2.35 words correct per minute (wcpm) per week after 7 weeks. Theremaining students showed an average gain of 2.15 wcpm per week after 13 weeks. Althoughthe results were positive, there is no way of knowing if the improvement was due to the ReadNaturally program exclusively. The same school examined data over six years from 122 secondgraders and 92 3rd graders (Hasbrouck, Ihnot, & Rogers, 1999). Average Oral Reading Fluency(ORF) for each grade was below the 25th percentile in the fall. After use of Read Naturally, their thspring ORF scores had increased to the 50 percentile. In Michigan, a study evaluated Read Naturally and its effectiveness with SpecialEducation students in grades 3-8. Results indicate that those students receiving Read Naturally asan intervention made greater gains than those who did. Further, those students in SpecialEducation for whom the intervention was effective made more gains than students in regulareducation who did not use Read Naturally. It is important to note that the baseline test scores
    • 262were not comparable across groups, which may affect how the results are interpreted (FloridaCenter for Reading Research, 2006). A study in Georgia evaluated the Read Naturally program and its effectiveness with firstgrade students. Six students received the intervention while another six served as the control,receiving typical classroom instruction. Both the experimental and control group were matchedfor age and reading ability. The students in the control group received Read Naturally for forty-five minutes a day, four days a week for three weeks. Results indicate that those receiving theintervention made greater gains than those in the control group. A similar study was conducted in Minnesota in 2003-2004. In this study, 156 students ingrade 3-5 participated. Like the previous study, students receiving the intervention were matchedwith students in the control group. Participant selection was not random, however. Teachersnominated students who were likely to have difficulties on the state-wide assessment. Resultsindicate that those students in the intervention group made greater gains on the NorthwestAchievement Levels Test (NALT) than who did not receive Read Naturally instruction. Further,there was an increase in scores from the Reading Fluency Monitor. Those students receivingRead Naturally were matched with students from the Read Naturally growth norm sample, whichconsists of 100 students in each grade level from Minnesota, Texas, California, Virginia,Michigan, Iowa, and Pennsylvania. In two other schools, students made statistically significantreading gains on the Reading Fluency Monitor. This study attests to the ability of Read Naturallyto effect fluency levels.
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    • 264 ReferencesEducation Commission of the States (1999). Denver, Co.Florida Center for Reading Research (2004). Fundations. Retrieved February 20, 2009, http://www.fcrr.org/FCRRReports/PDF/FundationsMW.pdfFlorida Center for Reading Research (2006). Read Naturally. Retrieved February 25, 2009 http://www.fcrr.org/FCRRReports/PDF/ReadNaturally.pdfHasbrouck, J. E., Ihnot, C., & Rogers, G. H. (1999). "Read Naturally": A Strategy To Increase Oral Reading Fluency. Reading Research and Instruction. 39(1), 27-38.Lynn Public Schools (2001). Wilson Spelling Results 2000-2001. Published in Wilson Literacy Solutions: Evidence of Effectiveness.O‘Connor, J.R. & Wilson, B.A. (1995). Effectiveness of the Wilson Reading System used in public school training. In McIntyre, C. & Pickering, J. (eds.) Clinical Studies of Multisensory Structured Language Education (pp. 247-254). Salem, OR: International Multisensory Structured Education Council.Torgesen, J., Myers, D., Schirm, A., Stuart, E., Vartivarian, S., Mansfield, W., et al. (2006). National assessment of Title I interim report—Volume II: Closing the reading gap: First year findings from a randomized trial of four reading interventions for striving readers. United States Department of Education: Institute of Education Sciences.Wood, F. (2002). Data analysis of the Wilson Reading System. Published in Wilson Literacy Solutions: Evidence of Effectiveness.