Rhetorical devices
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Rhetorical devices

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ENGLCOM S18A Ms. Trina Dusaban

ENGLCOM S18A Ms. Trina Dusaban

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Rhetorical devices Rhetorical devices Presentation Transcript

  • Rhetorical Devices
  • BALANCE
  • Parallelism
      • is the presentation of several ideas of equal importance by putting each of them into the same kind of grammatical structure. Each of the ideas is phrased similarly, making for a flowing continuous sentence.
      • Example: To think carefully and to write precisely are interrelated goals.
  • Chiasmus
      • Chiasmus is a type of parallelism in which the balanced elements are presented in reverse order rather than in the same order. It's useful for creating a different style of balance from that offered by regular parallelism since chiasmus reverses the order. Example:
      • Parallelism : What is learned unwillingly is forgotten gladly.
      • Chiasmus : What is learned unwillingly is gladly forgotten.
  • Antithesis
      • Antithesis contrasts two ideas by placing them next to each other, almost always in a parallel structure. It's an effective way to clarify an idea since it shows how the idea differs from another.
      • Example: To err is human; to forgive, divine. -Alexander Pope That's one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind. -Neil Armstrong
  • EMPHASIS
  • Climax
      • Climax is the presentation of ideas in the order of increasing importance. When used for an entire essay, climax can be used to arrange the points presented to produce increasing strength and importance. The same effect can be achieved when climax is used in a sentence.
    • Example: Random order : When the bucket fell off the ladder, the paint splashed onto the small rug, the drop cloth, the Rembrandt painting, and the sofa.
    • Climactic order: When the bucket fell off the ladder, thee paint splashed onto the drop cloth, the small rug, the sofa, and the Rembrandt painting.
  • Asyndeton
      • Asyndeton consists of omitting conjunctions between words, phrases, or clauses in a list. A list of items without conjunctions gives the effect of a spontaneous account.
    • Example:
      • With conjunction : The fruit market displayed apples, peaches, pears, and nectarines.
      • Asyndeton: The fruit market displayed apples, peaches, pears, nectarines.
  • Polysyndeton
    • Polysyndetonis the use of a conjunction between each word, phrase, or clause and is the opposite of Asyndeton. Using it produces the feeling of deliberate piling up and multiplicity.
      • Example: They read and studied and wrote and drilled. I laughed and played and talked and flunked.
  • TRANSITION
  • Metabasis
      • Metabasis consists of a brief statement of what has been said and what will follow. It functions as a transitional summary that links sections of writing together. It provides clarity by keeping topics ordered and focused in the reader's mind.
      • Example: In the previous paragraphs, I have offered my analysis of the causes of this growing discontent. At this point, I would like to take up the subject of what might be done to remedy it.
  • Procatalepsis
      • Procatalepsis anticipates an objection that might be raised by a reader and responds to it, thus permitting an argument to continue moving forward while taking into account opposing points.
      • Example : But someone might say that this battle really had no effect on the outcome of the war. Such a statement could arise only from ignoring the effect the battle had on the career of General Mars, who later became a principal figure in the decisive final conflict.
  • Hypophora
      • Hypophora involves asking one or more questions and then proceeding to answer them, usually at some length. A common usage is to ask a question at the beginning of a paragraph and then use the rest of the paragraph to answer it.
      • Example: Where else can a growing region look to augment its water supply? One possibility is the deep aquifer beneath the southwestern corner...
  • CLARITY
  • Distinctio
    • Distinctio is the presentation of a specific meaning for a word in order to prevent ambiguity and confusion. Using it calls the reader's attention to the need for clarity much more deliberately than other methods of definition.
    • Example: Ambiguous: It is impossible to make methanol for twenty-five cents a gallon.
    • Clarified with Distinctio: To make methanol for twenty-five cents a gallon is impossible; by impossible I mean currently beyond our technological capabilities.
  • Exemplum
    • Exemplum provides a specific example to an idea. These examples often include the visual, concrete, specific details that a reader can see in the mind's eye.
    • Example: Snow cone flavors, such as bubblgum and mango , are often named after candy or fruit.
  • Amplification
    • Amplification consists of restating a word or idea and adding more detail. This device allows a writer to call attention to an expression that may otherwise be passed over. The effect is also one of slowing down the process of thought, then picking it up again after the word is restated.
    • Example: In my hunger after ten days of overly rigorous dieting, I saw visions of ice cream - mountains of creamy, luscious ice cream, dripping with gooey syrup and calories.
  • FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE
  • Simile
    • A simile compares two very different things that have at least one quality in common. While similes are used in poetry principally for artistic effect, in formal writing they serve not only to increase interest but also to clarify an idea in an imaginative way.
    • Example: Even after the avalanche, the climbers remained constantly attentive to their goal, as a sunflower continues to stay focused on the sun.
  • Analogy
    • An analogy, like a simile, compares two different things by identifying points of similarity. The difference is that an analogy usually identifies several points of similarity and is created for the purpose of conceptual clarity.
    • Example: Flash memory chips work like a chalkboard, in that, when information is written on it, the information remains present even when the power is turned off. Only when the information is deliberately erased will it disappear. And like the chalkboard, flash memory can be written on and erased many times.
  • Metaphor
    • A metaphor, like a simile and analogy, compares two different things. The significant difference, though, is that a metaphor identifies the subject with the image. That is, instead of saying that the subject is like the image, a metaphor asserts that the subject is the image in some sense.
    • Example: Simile: A good book is like a friend. Metaphor: A good book is a friend.
  • SYNTAX
  • Zeugma
    • Zeugma and its related forms (see the following rhetorical devices) all involve linking together two or more words, phrases, or clauses by another word that is stated in one place and only implied in the rest of the sentence.
    • Example: She grabbed her purse from the alcove, her gloves from the table near the door, and her car keys from the punchbowl.
  • Diazeugma
    • Diazeugma consists of a single subject linking multiple verbs or verb phrases. The phrases are usually put into parallel form to make the sentence easier to follow and to give it a balanced feel.
    • Example: The book reveals the extent of counterintelligence operations, discusses the options for improving security, and argues for an increase in human intelligence measures.
  • Prozeugma
    • In prozeugma, the linking word is presented once and then omitted from the subsequent sets of words or phrases linked together.
    • Example: The freshman excelled in calculus; the sophomore, in music; the senior, in drama.