WizIQ Introduction to the Scientific Study of Psychic Phenomena Class 3 April 2013

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Overview lecture on the out-of-body and near-death experiences

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  • WizIQ Introduction to the Scientific Study of Psychic Phenomena Class 3 April 2013

    1. 1. Studying Out-of-Body and Near-Death Experiences Nancy L. Zingrone, PhD www.theazire.org The AZIRE Learning Center in Second Life SLURL: http://maps.secondlife.com/secondlife/Madhupak/153/89/60
    2. 2. Tips for this Class … O Don’t forget to check your device settings as soon as the class starts. Icons at the top right of the frame give you the option to get back in there and check. O If I disappear, I’ve had a crash and will be logging on as fast as possible on another computer in my house. THANKS FOR YOUR PATIENCE!
    3. 3. Plan of the course: O Today: Introduction to the Scientific Study of Psychic Phenomena O April 25th , 3pm Eastern: Ghosts, Poltergeists and Hauntings Research O May 2nd , 3pm Eastern: Studying Out of Body and Near-Death Experiences O May 9th , 3pm Eastern: Reincarnation Research in Scientific Parapsychology
    4. 4. Terms Out-of-body experience Astral projection Astral travels Doubling Bilocation Extracorporeal Experience Near-Death Experience
    5. 5. Pliny. The Natural History of Pliny (Vol. 2, Bostock & H. T. Riley, trans.) London: George Bell, 1890. (Originally published between 70 and 79 CE) “With reference to the soul of man, we find, among other instances, that the soul of Hermotinus of Clazomenae was in the habit of leaving his body, and wandering into distant countries, whence it brought back numerous accounts of various things, which could not have been obtained by any one but a person who was present. The body, in the meantime, was left apparently lifeless … At last, however, his enemies … burned the body, so that the soul, on its return, was deprived of its heath, as it were” (p. 210) 17th Century edition of Pliny’s Work
    6. 6. OBE Experiencers
    7. 7. Robert Monroe’s first OBE http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4MHBM8prTP8 Uploaded to YouTube by The Monroe Institute www.tmi.org
    8. 8. Characteristics of Out-of-Body Experiences  Movement  Sensation of leaving the body  Traveling  Auditory perceptions  Conversations  Strange sounds  Physical sensations  Vibrations/sense of energy Shock to the physical body upon return to the body  Visual Perceptions  Seeing friends and acquaintances in other places while out  Seeing one’s own body  Emotions  Peace  Happiness
    9. 9. Estimate of Out-of-Body Experiences in the US Population Population: 313,232,044* 16%: 50, 117, 127 10%: 31, 323, 204 5%: 15, 661, 602 1%: 3, 132, 320 (http://www.indexmundi.com/united_states/demographics_profile.html) *Projection for July 2011
    10. 10. Explanations All in the Mind? Does Something Go Out?
    11. 11. Methods of Study O Personal Exploration O Case collections O Single individual or many individuals O Survey Research O Experiments
    12. 12. OBE Researchers
    13. 13. OBE Researchers & Experiencers Karlis Osis and Alex Tanous http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cubGrPT0q20 Uploaded to YouTube by SabrosFabres
    14. 14. OBE Researchers Charles T. Tart & Stanley Krippner http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UwmZ1JohClc Uploaded to YouTube by PostmortemSurvival
    15. 15. Laboratory Study Conducted by Charles T. Tart (1968). A psychophysiological study of out-of-the body experiences in a selected subject. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research.
    16. 16. Prevalence of Out-of-Body Experiences in Studies Using Randomly Selected Samples Researcher Country Group N % Haraldsson et al (1977) Iceland Residents 863 8 Institutet för marknadsunder- sökninger (1978) Sweden Residents 751 6 or 10* Palmer (1979) US Residents 354 14 Murray (1983) Phillipines Residents capital city -- 10 Blackmore (1984) England Residents Bristol 320 12 Ohayon (2000) United Kingdom Germany Italy Residents 13,057 6 Alvarado, Zingrone US Residents 253 38 & Agee Zingrone, Alvarado, US Residents 261 37 & Agee N = 8; Range=6-38; Mean = 16%; Median = 11 / *Depending on definition used.
    17. 17. Features of OBEs in Students at Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (250 participants, 31 OBEs)* Feature Percentage Saw physical body 53% Went to place away from physical body 31% Obtained information 25% Saw link with body 20% Influenced things and people 18% *J.F. Brelaz de Castro (1998). Experiencias fuera del cuerpo: Una encuesta sobre estudiantes universitarios en Brasil. Revista Argentina de Psicologia Paranormal. Jalmir Freire Brelaz de Castro
    18. 18. Frequent OBE Features (Scotland OBE Study) _________________________________________________________________ _______ Feature N Percentage ________________________________________________________________________ Floating sensations 78 71% Stayed in usual surroundings 74 69% Saw physical body 81 65% Saw surroundings from above 81 63% Sensation of rising leaving body 81 56% Could not move physical body before OBE 75 35% Aware of sensations of returning to body 79 35% Aware of sensations of leaving body 84 33% Saw lights around or at a distance 80 33%
    19. 19. Infrequent OBE Features (Scotland OBE Study)___________________________________________________________________________________________________ Feature N Percentage ____________________________________________________________________________________ Consciousness oscillated between OB location and physical body 80 1% Saw ray of light, cord, ribbon or rope connecting OB self to physical body 83 2% Heard clicking or snapping sounds 77 3% Saw images of events or actions of person’s earlier life 80 3% Sensation of falling leaving body 74 4% Could see around corners 71 4% Heard music 83 4% Sensation of second OBE while OB 82 5%
    20. 20. Circumstances During Which OBEs Occur Relaxation Meditation Resting Sleeping Falling Asleep Drugs Spontaneous____________________________Voluntary Induction Accidents Physical Abuse Surgery Illness Near death Physical Activity Tension
    21. 21. Case of Al Sullivan Investigated by Bruce Greyson: 56 Year-Old truck Driver, Left Body During Heart Surgery “I was able to see my surgeon . . . I thought he was flapping his arms as if trying to fly.” To keep gloves sterile the surgeon had the habit of putting his hands on his chest and flap his elbows pointing out things. The surgeon could not confirm that he had flapped his arms on this instance but said this was a regular habit of his. Near-death Experiences …
    22. 22. Comparison of OBE Features in Near-Death vs. Non-Near-Death Circumstances Following Gabbard et al. (1981) Feature Near Death (N) Non Near-Death (N) Saw physical body 86% (21)* 57 (56)* Passed through dark tunnel, enclosure, or place when leaving 28% (18) 16% (57) Heard sounds when leaving 33% (18) 25 (54) Saw lights 55 (20)* 25% (56)* Saw spiritual entities or beings 25% (20) 15% (53) *statistically significant differences Alvarado, C.S. (2001). Features of out-of-body experiences in relation to perceived closeness to death. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease.
    23. 23. Changes in Attitudes and Beliefs After an OBE: Alvarado & Zingrone (2003). Exploring the factors related to the aftereffects of out-of-body experiences. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research. Sense of Identity Meaning of Life Meaning of Death Nature of Human Beings God, Religion Property Society 61 51 51 42 39 21 15
    24. 24. OBEs from Survey Studies Associated with: *Lucid Dreams *Dream Recall *Absorption Experiences *Dissociative Experiences *Hypnotic Susceptibility *Fantasy Proneness *Parapsychological Experiences
    25. 25. Correlations Between OBEs and Dream and Psi Experience Variables Alvarado & Zingrone (2007-2008). Interrelationships of Parapsychological Experiences , Dream Recall and Lucid Dreams in a Survey with Predominantly Spanish Participants. Imagination, Cognition and Personality. Variable Spearman r Dream Recall .071 Lucid Dreams .325* ESP Dreams .202* Waking ESP .227* Apparitions .342* Auras .324* *Significant at the .001 level, after correction for multiple analyses.
    26. 26. OBEs and Reports of Imaginary Companions Zingrone & Alvarado (unpublished imaginary companions Bial funded project) Study Companion Yes Companion No χ2 Random Study OBEs Yes 50% 34.7% 3.1 Web-based Study OBE Yes 78.9 58.7% 19.2*
    27. 27. Assignment: O In the course feed: O Write a story about your own OBE O Upload a link to a video about OBEs O Do you believe something goes out or it is all in the mind?
    28. 28. Selected OBE Research Work: Carlos S. Alvarado & Nancy L. Zingrone (1998-1999) A study of the features of out-of-body experiences in relation to Sylvan Muldoon’s claims. European Journal of Parapsychology O Alvarado, C.S., & Zingrone, N.L. (1998-1999). A study of the features of out-of-body experiences in relation to Sylvan Muldoon’s claims. European Journal of Parapsychology. O Alvarado, C.S., Zingrone, N.L., & Dalton, K. (1998-1999). Out-of-body experiences: Alterations of consciousness and the Five-Factor Model of personality. Imagination, Cognition and Personality. O Alvarado, C.S., & Zingrone, N.L. (1999). Out-of-body experiences among readers of a Spanish New Age Magazine. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research. O Alvarado, C.S., & Zingrone, N.L. (2003). Exploring the factors related to the aftereffects of out-of-body experiences. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research. O Zingrone, N.L., Alvarado, C.S., & Cardeña, E. (2010). Out-of-body experiences, physical body activity and posture: Responses from a Survey conducted in Scotland. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease.
    29. 29. Thanks for your Attention! See you next week! email: nancy@theazire.org www.theazire.org The AZIRE Learning Center in Second Life SLURL: http://maps.secondlife.com/secondlife/Madhupak/153/89/60

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