2. CORRELATION<br />INTRODUCTION AND MEANING<br />DEFINITION<br />IMPORTANCE/ SIGNIFICANE<br />PRINCIPLES OF CORRELATION<br />TYPES: <br />CORRELATION WITH LIFE<br />VERTICAL/INTERNAL<br />HORIZONTAL/EXTERNAL<br />Ms Namrata Katare Saxena, Asst Prof, PCER, MES.<br />
3. INTRODUCTION: CORRELATION<br />“No subject is ever well understood and no art is intelligently practiced, if the light which the other studies are able to throw upon it is deliberately shut out.” - RAMONT<br />Ms Namrata Katare Saxena, Asst Prof, PCER, MES.<br />
4. INTRODUCTION: CORRELATION<br />Education is a co-ordinated process and the major aim of education is the ‘unification of knowledge’ existing in the different branches of learning. <br />Teaching of various subjects is hence correlated. <br />A conscious effort is made to integrate various subjects to treat the subject as a synthetic whole.<br />Ms Namrata Katare Saxena, Asst Prof, PCER, MES.<br />
5. Herbertfirst conceived the idea of correlating the teaching of various subjects. ‘All knowledge is one unit’. <br />“The power of the mind does not depend upon the amount of information accumulated in pieces, not related to one another, but is rather on well-organised system on which all these pieces of knowledge are taught, showing their relationship with one another. This is known as the principle of Correlation.”<br />INTRODUCTION: CORRELATION<br />Ms Namrata Katare Saxena, Asst Prof, PCER, MES.<br />
6. Later on Zillar made this theory of correlation more elaborate. Then De Garmo and John Dewey laid stress on the integration in the teaching of various subjects. <br />Today, correlating of teaching of different subjects is considered highly essential.<br />INTRODUCTION: CORRELATION<br />Ms Namrata Katare Saxena, Asst Prof, PCER, MES.<br />
7. CORRELATION MEANING<br />What is correlation?<br />The term ‘correlation’ in its simplest form means “connect or to be connected” .<br />To be more precise, ‘Correlation’ means mutual relations of two or more things/persons.<br />Ms Namrata Katare Saxena, Asst Prof, PCER, MES.<br />
8. But , Correlation in teaching indicates a technique which shows the reciprocal relationship between various subjects of the curriculum for making the knowledge concrete and permanent”.<br />It is the conscious effort made by teachers teaching various subjects, to show similarities or dependence of one subject on another”.<br />CORRELATION MEANING<br />Ms Namrata Katare Saxena, Asst Prof, PCER, MES.<br />
9. DEFINITION: CORRELATION<br />SIMPSON and KAFKA: “Correlation analysis deals with the association between two or more variables.”<br />FERGUSON: “Correlation is concerned with describing the degree of relation between variables.”<br />A.M. TAULE: “Correlation is an analysis of co-variation between two or more variables”.<br />Thus ‘correlation’ is just a mutual relationship between various variables, i.e., subjects of school/college curriculum.<br />Ms Namrata Katare Saxena, Asst Prof, PCER, MES.<br />
10. SIGNIFICANCE OF CORRELATION<br />The most significant development of the 21th century education is the emphasis on imparting unified, integrated and meaningful knowledge of the pupils.<br />Imparting of knowledge in the isolated facts of History, Geography, Science, Economics etc. has become obsolete. <br />A child’s mind is an integrated whole which wants to receive experiences in an integrated manner.<br />Ms Namrata Katare Saxena, Asst Prof, PCER, MES.<br />
11. Uses of Correlation are as follows:<br />1. Mind perceives knowledge as a whole. <br />Earlier: Assumed Human Minds consists of so many mental faculties and each faculty like faculty of reasoning , thinking, memorization etc, were supposed to be developed through the study of a specific subject.So each subject had an independent function. But Education Psychologists have disregarded this study.<br />Now : Mind consists as a whole and so receives knowledge as a whole. <br />All the subjects aim to develop the intellectual power of the students as a whole.<br />Therefore it becomes necessary to correlate one subject with another. No subject can be taught in isolation.<br />Ms Namrata Katare Saxena, Asst Prof, PCER, MES.<br />
12. 2. RETENTION OF EARLIER KNOWLEDGE:<br />Fragments of knowledge may accumulate at one place in the form of distinct layers. <br />Since every piece of knowledge is gained through one and the same mind.<br />Failure in establishing links between the current layers of knowledge and previous ones may be an obstacle to retention of earlier knowledge.<br />Always LINK OLD KNOWLEDGE WITH NEW.<br />Uses of Correlation are as follows:<br />Ms Namrata Katare Saxena, Asst Prof, PCER, MES.<br />
13. 3. USEFUL KNOWLEDGE:<br />Knowledge is useful when it can be applied to day to day life. Correlation of a subject with daily lifehelps to make the knowledge broad-based and makes knowledge useful.<br />4.ALL ROUND DEVELOPMENT:<br />The aim of education “to achieve the development of an all round personality”, cannot be done by teaching only a few subjects in isolation.<br />Uses of Correlation :<br />Ms Namrata Katare Saxena, Asst Prof, PCER, MES.<br />
14. Uses of Correlation :<br />5. It helps to achieve unity of knowledge and develops worthy interests and attitudes in students for acquiring knowledge, because it provides the practical and life related learning to the students. Eg. Science students hating literature.<br />6. Itdevelops the mental abilities like imagination power, logical thinking and analytical power of students, because they can easily correlate one acquired knowledge with the other.<br />Ms Namrata Katare Saxena, Asst Prof, PCER, MES.<br />
15. 7. Itstrengthens skills that students encounter in one content area but also practice in another, leading to mastery of those skills.(skill of making graph in maths and economics)<br />8. It makes learning concrete and permanent.<br />Uses of Correlation :<br />Ms Namrata Katare Saxena, Asst Prof, PCER, MES.<br />
16. Uses of Correlation :<br />9. It makes the lesson easy and clear.<br />10. It helps to enable the students to acquire knowledge in a short period of time. <br />11. Develops various human and social qualities such as co-operation, citizenship etc.<br />Ms Namrata Katare Saxena, Asst Prof, PCER, MES.<br />
17. 12. It helps to lighten the burden of curriculum. <br />(e.g. economics teacher having taught ‘the law of demand and supply’, a commerce teacher may not have to again teach it from beginning)<br />13. It helps the teacher to complete the curriculum in very short period of time.<br />Uses of Correlation :<br />Ms Namrata Katare Saxena, Asst Prof, PCER, MES.<br />
18. PRINCIPLES OF CORRELATION<br />It should be simple, natural, suited to the nature of the subject and the stage of the pupil’s mental development.<br />It should be adequate and judicious.<br />Main topic or main subject should be the main focus. Other topics/subjects should be linked to it and then revert again to the main topic.<br />Ms Namrata Katare Saxena, Asst Prof, PCER, MES.<br />
19. When doing systematic correlation, teachers could sit together and discuss how to correlate.<br />It should involve the previous knowledge of the students.<br />It should be done only where it is possible, else it leads to superficial correlation. Eg. The study of voyage of Columbus cannot lead to ocean currents, invasion of Alexander to the calculation of its expenses. The secondary topics do not help in understanding the primary ones.<br />PRINCIPLES OF CORRELATION<br />Ms Namrata Katare Saxena, Asst Prof, PCER, MES.<br />
20. Types of Correlation:<br />Correlation with Practical Life: correlation of the given subject with daily activities.<br />Vertical / Internal Correlation : correlation between the different branches of a given subject.<br />Horizontal / External Correlation: correlation between the given subject and other subjects.<br />Ms Namrata Katare Saxena, Asst Prof, PCER, MES.<br />
21. Correlation with Practical Life:<br />According to Herbert Spencer, the main aim of education is to prepare students for future life. This aim can be achieved only if education is correlated with life. Therefore, teaching of various subjects should be correlated with various aspects of life.<br />A subject is best understood when it is applicable to daily life.<br />Correlation of a subject with daily life is of the utmost importance in order to create interest in the subject.<br />Correlation with daily life makes the subject relevant instead of being only theory with no practical applications.<br />Ms Namrata Katare Saxena, Asst Prof, PCER, MES.<br />
22. Maths: Apply the formulas to calculate areas of rectangle or square to calculate area of classroom area or home.<br />Science: give evidences of the scientific phenomena. E.g. give the eg of the droplets formed in an AC car. Or Use of Al foil to pack foods, to explain it’s oxide forming property.<br />Correlation with Practical Life:<br />Ms Namrata Katare Saxena, Asst Prof, PCER, MES.<br />
23. This type of correlation indicates the relationship between different branches ( or various divisions)of a given subject.<br />It also includes correlation of different topics in the same branch of a given subject.(correlation of old knowledge with new knowledge)<br />Branches of a subject many a times are taught by different teachers, such that each branch is treated as a different entity.<br />Internal correlation is necessary for continuity of knowledge and understanding of the subject.<br />Vertical / Internal Correlation:<br />Ms Namrata Katare Saxena, Asst Prof, PCER, MES.<br />
24. Vertical / Internal Correlation:<br />A commerce teacher can take help of vertical correlation to make his students understand about trade, internal trade, external trade and export-import procedures etc.<br />An economics teacher can take help of vertical correlation to correlate production, consumption, distribution, exchange, etc.<br />A science teacher uses vertical correlation to correlate physics and chemistry or chemistry and biology and physics, or biology and physics etc.<br />Ms Namrata Katare Saxena, Asst Prof, PCER, MES.<br />
25. A mathematics teacher would use vertical correlation to correlate Arithmetic and Algebra or Algebra and Geometry etc.<br />A History teacher would use vertical correlation to correlate history of early age to ancient or medieval or modern or to correlate political history to economic history or social history or to correlate ancient history to economic history or world history to local history etc.<br />Vertical / Internal Correlation:<br />Ms Namrata Katare Saxena, Asst Prof, PCER, MES.<br />
26. Vertical / Internal Correlation:<br />A Geography teacher would use vertical correlation to correlate physical geography with human geography or economic geography with political geography or physical geography with historical geography.<br />A language teacher would use vertical correlation to correlate poetry, prose, grammar, composition.<br />Ms Namrata Katare Saxena, Asst Prof, PCER, MES.<br />
27. Horizontal/External Correlation:<br />This type of correlation is between different school subjects and a given school subject.<br />All subjects of the school curriculum contribute towards the realization of the aims of education.<br />Since they have the same purpose , study of one subject helps in the study of other subjects.<br />In horizontal correlation an attempt is made to co-ordinate the teaching of various subjects. This is done by three methods - Casual and Systematic and Concentric.<br />Ms Namrata Katare Saxena, Asst Prof, PCER, MES.<br />
28. CASUAL/INCIDENTAL CORRELATION:<br />Here, teacher plays a prominent role.<br />It is not a planned/pre-decided one, i.e., no deliberate or conscious or systematic attempt made to correlate.<br />If a learned teacher has versatile knowledge of basic elements of different subjects, this kind of correlation is bound to take place.<br />Ms Namrata Katare Saxena, Asst Prof, PCER, MES.<br />
29. ECONOMICS: A teacher who is teaching production of cloth may explain to the students the geographical factors like soil, climate that are responsible for the production of cotton.<br />History: a teacher teaching Success of Shivaji would tell about the geographical conditions of that place.<br />CASUAL/INCIDENTAL CORRELATION:<br />Ms Namrata Katare Saxena, Asst Prof, PCER, MES.<br />
30. It is planned before-hand/ consciously in a systematic manner.<br />Teacher makes deliberate attempt to teach a particular topic in such a way that he may go on explaining other things as well, along with it.<br />Previous study is made by the teacher on the points that has to be correlated with other topics in other subjects.<br />CONSCIOUS/SYSTEMATIC/PLANNED CORRELATION:<br />Ms Namrata Katare Saxena, Asst Prof, PCER, MES.<br />
31. Materials of other subjects are chose in such a manner that while teaching they can be brought in use at the time of need.<br />To overcome in some measures, all the effects of treating every subject in water tight compartments, a system of pre-planned correlation should be devised.<br />CONSCIOUS/SYSTEMATIC/PLANNED CORRELATION:<br />Ms Namrata Katare Saxena, Asst Prof, PCER, MES.<br />
32. HISTORY: I f the teacher wants to teach the history of Indus Valley Civilization, he has to explain the climate and the effect of the climate on the civilization before telling about the development and the downfall of it.<br />CONSCIOUS/SYSTEMATIC/PLANNED CORRELATION:<br />Ms Namrata Katare Saxena, Asst Prof, PCER, MES.<br />
33. CONCENTRIC CORRELATION<br />This theory was put forward by ZILLER<br />“Not only appropriate subjects could be correlated but there was probably some one subject which would form the CORE round which all others could be hinged.”<br />Ziller thought of History as a subject that could be the Core subject of all.<br />Some others recommend Science as Core, or Handicraft as core etc.<br />This is a theory of intensified correlation and termed as ‘the theory of concentration.”<br />Ms Namrata Katare Saxena, Asst Prof, PCER, MES.<br />
34. HORIZONTAL CORRELATION EXAMPLES<br />MATHS WITH OTHER SUBJECTS<br />SCIENCE WITH OTHER SUBJECTS<br />HISTORY WITH OTHER SUBJECTS<br />GEOGRAPHY WITH OTHER SUBJECTS<br />ECONOMICS WITH OTHER SUBJECTS<br />COMMERCE WITH OTHER SUBJECTS<br />HINDI WITH OTHER SUBJECTS<br />Ms Namrata Katare Saxena, Asst Prof, PCER, MES.<br />
35. MATHEMATICS WITH OTHER SUBJECTS<br />Mathematics Is Science Of All Sciences And Arts Of All Arts. MATHS AND SCIENCE<br />The math teacher can teach students about exponential notation. Once students become proficient in reading and writing numbers in exponential form, and in converting numbers between exponential form, factor form, and standard form, they can apply this knowledge to topics in science. For example, they can write the distance between the sun and each planet using scientific notation.<br />Exponential Form 22 Standard Form2 x 2 AND Factor Form 4<br />SCIENTIFIC NOTATION<br />In the number 123,000,000,000 The coefficient will be 1.23 <br />To find the exponent count the number of places from the decimal to the end of the number. <br />In 123,000,000,000 there are 11 places. Therefore we write 123,000,000,000 as: <br />Ms Namrata Katare Saxena, Asst Prof, PCER, MES.<br />
36. MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS<br />PHYSICS<br />Mathematics gives final shape to the rules of physics, it presents them in workable form. Mathematical calculations occur at every step in physics.<br />CHARLES’ LAW OF EXPANSION OF GASESIS BASES UPON MATHMATICAL CALCULATIONS<br />Numerical problems on<br />LAWS OF MOTION<br />LIQUID PRESSURE<br /> FRICTION<br />Ms Namrata Katare Saxena, Asst Prof, PCER, MES.<br />
37. MATHEMATICS AND CHEMISTRY<br />For estimation of element in organic compounds the use of percentage and ratio has to be made. <br />Molecular weights of organic compounds are calculated mathematically .<br />BALANCING EQUATIONS<br />Ms Namrata Katare Saxena, Asst Prof, PCER, MES.<br />
38. MATHEMATICS AND BIOLOGY<br />First paper that Mendel wrote on his discovery of Mendelian laws was called "Mathematics of Peas"<br />RATE OF RESPIRATION, TRANSPIRATION<br />NORMAL WEIGHT CALCULATION<br />CALORIC AND NUTRITIVE VALUE OF FOOD IS CALCULATED USING MATHS<br />THE GROWTH IN WEIGHT OF INFANTS UP TO NINE MONTHS <br />Ms Namrata Katare Saxena, Asst Prof, PCER, MES.<br />
39. MATHS AND SOCIAL SCIENCES<br />After teaching a unit on how to read, interpret, and draw graphs, you can have your students apply these skills to topics in Social Studies. For example, they can draw bar graphs to compare the Population, Per Capita Income, and Population Density of various countries.<br />Ms Namrata Katare Saxena, Asst Prof, PCER, MES.<br />
40. MATHEMATICS AND GEOGRAPHY<br />FROM THE GLOBE TO THE MAP<br />Distances on the Earth and distances on maps: what the scale is, why and how one has to preserve the proportion. <br />2. Various methods of mapping the Earth: what happens to the distances? Mapping to globe versus mappings to plane maps. <br />FORMATION OF DAYS AND NIGHTS<br />LUNAR AND SOLAR ECLIPSE<br />LATITUDE LONGITUDE<br />HEIGHT ABOVE SEA LEVEL<br />CALCULATION OF INTERNATIONAL, LOCAL , STANDARD TIME<br />MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM TEMPERATURE<br />BAROMETRIC PRESSSURE<br />SURVEYING INSTRUMENTS IN MATHS HAVE TO BE MATHEMATICALLY ACCURATE.<br /> <br />Ms Namrata Katare Saxena, Asst Prof, PCER, MES.<br />
41. MATHEMATICS AND ECONOMICS<br />STATISTICAL METHODS ARE APPLIED TO ECONOMIC FORECASTS<br />TRADE CYCLES<br />VOLUME OF TRADE<br />TREND OF EXPORTS AND IMPORTS<br />PUBLIC MONEY<br />THEORY OF PROBABILITY IS THE BASIS OF INSURANCE<br />Ms Namrata Katare Saxena, Asst Prof, PCER, MES.<br />
42. MATHEMATICS AND FINE ARTS<br />ARTS uses the mathematical ideas of ratio and proportion, including similarity and scale<br />APPRECIATION OF RHYTHM IN MUSIC, PROPORTION, BALANCE AND SYMMETRY POSTULATES A MATHEMATICAL MIND.<br />Ms Namrata Katare Saxena, Asst Prof, PCER, MES.<br />
43. MATHEMATICS AND HISTORY<br />MATHS HELPS HISTORY IN CALCULATION OF DATES.<br />ALEXANDER INVADED INDIA IN 327 B.C. TELL, HOW MANY YEARS HAVE PASSES THE OCCURRENCE OF THE SAID EVENT?<br />Ms Namrata Katare Saxena, Asst Prof, PCER, MES.<br />
44. MATHEMATICS AND LANGUAGE<br />Math and Writing<br />A MATHS TEACHER TEACHES ABOUT DRAWING A PIE CHART AND ASK THEM TO WRITE A INTERPRETATION IN THEIR OWN WORDS.<br />MATH AND READING<br />STUDENTS READ ABOUT THE WORK OF GREAT MATHEMATICIANS<br />STUDENTS MAKE POEMS ON NUMBERS<br />Ms Namrata Katare Saxena, Asst Prof, PCER, MES.<br />
45. LANGUAGE AND OTHER SUBJECTS<br />WITH HISTORY<br />ESSAY WRITING CAN BE PLANNED ON HISTORICAL THEMES TO MAKE THEM MORE MEANINGFUL, BY ASSOCIATIONG WITH PAST EVENTS LIE BUILDING OF TAJ MAHAL<br />CELEBRATE NATIONAL DAYS BY HAVING ELOCUTION AND DEBATE<br />STUDENTS CAN WRITE PLAYS, STORIES OR POEMS ON HISTORICAL EVENTS<br />Ms Namrata Katare Saxena, Asst Prof, PCER, MES.<br />
46. LANGUAGE AND GEOGRAPHY<br />GEOGRAPHICAL FEATURES HAVE BEEN SOURCE OF INSPIRATION TO INNUMERABLE POETS, EG. WORDSWOTH’S DAFFODIL<br />INCLUDE EXCUSIONS TO STUDY ENVIRONMENT AND STUDENTS WOULD GET AN INSPIRATION TO WRITE POEMS, ON CHANGING SEASONS, SCENIC BEAUTY ETC.<br />MY IDEAL DESTINATION : HAVE SUCH TOPICS FOR STUDENTS TO STUDY AND WRITE ABOUT.<br />READ BOOKS ON TRAVEL<br />Ms Namrata Katare Saxena, Asst Prof, PCER, MES.<br />
47. LANGUAGE AND SCIENCE<br />INTEREST IN SCIENCE CAN BE BEST INCULCATED BY EXPLAINING THE MIRACLES OF SCIENCE ARTISTICALLY.<br />LIVES OF GREAT SCIENTISTS <br />Ms Namrata Katare Saxena, Asst Prof, PCER, MES.<br />
48. LANGUAGE AND MATHS<br />Make a Pie Chart of time spent by you in a day and give it to your partner for interpretation.<br />(INTERPRETATON OF NON-VERBAL DATA)<br />READ ABOUT THE LIFE HISTORY OF MATHEMATICIANS<br />INVENTION OF ZERO BY ARYABHATTA<br />Ms Namrata Katare Saxena, Asst Prof, PCER, MES.<br />
49. GEOGRAPHY WITH OTHER SUBJECTS<br />Ms Namrata Katare Saxena, Asst Prof, PCER, MES.<br />
50. HISTORY WITH OTHER SUBJECTS<br />With geography<br />Why could Aurangzeb not hold South India <br />Man’s evolution cannot be told without discussing the varied geographical settings of the world<br />Growth of England due to its geographical conditions<br />History of hostility between France and Germany can be explained on the basis of the existence of river Rhine and Lorrain Coal-fields.<br />Ms Namrata Katare Saxena, Asst Prof, PCER, MES.<br />
51. With economics<br />Economic conditions play a vital role in the course of history.<br />To know the economic conditions of India during the reign of Akbar or Shahjahan , we shall have to go through the pages of history. Certain empires faced liquidation only because of economic reasons<br />Similarly, economic events have been influenced by historical circumstances.<br />MohdTughlak had certain plans, but the historical conditions of the time did not favour them, however later they were considered to be good and scientific.<br />HISTORY WITH OTHER SUBJECTS<br />Ms Namrata Katare Saxena, Asst Prof, PCER, MES.<br />
52. ECONOMICS WITH OTHER SUBJECTS<br />WITH HISTORY<br />IN EUROPE, INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION. THIS GAVE A NEW TURN TO THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. VARIOUS DEVELOPED POWERS OF EUROPE STARTED FIGHTING AMONG THEMSELVES.<br />FIRST AND SECOND WORLD WARS WERE FOUGHT ONLY ON ACCOUNT OF ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS.<br />Ms Namrata Katare Saxena, Asst Prof, PCER, MES.<br />
53. ECONOMICS WITH OTHER SUBJECTS<br />WITH GEOGRAPHY<br />ECONOMY OF A COUNTRY DEPENDS ON THE GEOGRAPHICAL CONDITIONS <br />INDIA HAS AGRICULTURAL BASED ECONOMY BECAUSE OF ITS CLIMATE, RAINFALL, RIVERS ETC<br />PUNJAB , HARYANA, U.P, VERY FERTILE, SO CONTRIBUTE TO GRAIN STORES, BUT NO MINES , SO LESS INDUSTRIES THERE.<br />Ms Namrata Katare Saxena, Asst Prof, PCER, MES.<br />
54. WITH SCIENCE<br />MANY OF PROBLEMS RELATED WITH AGRICULTURE HAVE CLOSE RELATIONSHIP WITH CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS.<br />DUE TO SCIENTIFIC INVENTIONS, LOT OF GROWTH OF ECONOMY TAKES PLACE.<br />ECONOMICS WITH OTHER SUBJECTS<br />Ms Namrata Katare Saxena, Asst Prof, PCER, MES.<br />
55. WITH COMMERCE<br />THROUGH THE KNOWLEDGE OF COMMERCE, IT IS POSSIBLE TO RUN THE ECONOMY OF THE COUNTRY<br />THE TEACHER OF ECONOMICS SHOULD TRY TO TEACH THE SUBJECT IN SUCH A WAY THAT HE MAY EXPLAIN TO THEM THE BEARING OF THE SUBJECT MATTER OF ECONOMICS ON THE COMMERCE .<br />ECONOMICS WITH OTHER SUBJECTS<br />Ms Namrata Katare Saxena, Asst Prof, PCER, MES.<br />