Suprarenal glands, ovary and testis


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introduction to the endocrine glands ( suprarenal gland, testis and ovary)

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Suprarenal glands, ovary and testis

  1. 1. Suprarenal glands, ovary and testis Dr Laxman Khanal MS- Human Anatomy Date-27-04-2012
  2. 2. Pretest1. Which ICS is related with the suprarenal gland ???2. Which histological layer of the adrenal cortex is thickest ??3. What is the origin of middle suprarenal artery ?4. What is the anterior boundary of ovarian fossa ??
  3. 3. Pretest5 Which ligament contain the blood vessels supplying the ovary ??6 What is the embryological source of spermatogonia and oogonia ??7 What is the difference between secondary follicles and graffina follicles ??8 What is pouch of Douglas ??9 What is the fxn of sustentacular cells ?
  4. 4. Pretest10 What is the functioin of corpus luteum ??
  5. 5. Suprarenal gland• LOCATIONPosterior abdominal wall, behind peritoneumAt epigastrium, in front of the 11th ICSIn front of the right and left crus of the diaphragmCovered by renal fascia
  6. 6. Suprarenal gland• GENERAL STRUCTURE AND DEVELOPEMENT5 gm weightCortex(90%) and medulla(10%)Cortex develops from embryonic mesodermMedulla develops from neural crests cells
  7. 7. Suprarenal gland• ARTERIAL SUPPLY3 suprarenal arteriesSuperior-B/O inferior Phrenic arteryMiddle-B/O abdominal aortaInferior-B/O renal artery• VENOUS DRAINAGERight side- to IVCLeft side- to left renal vein
  8. 8. Suprarenal gland• HISTOLGY AND FUNCTIONS3 layers can be seen in cortex with distinct functions1. Zona glomerulos- mineralocorticoid2. Zona fasiculata- glucocorticoid3. Zona reticulosa- sex corticoid Rich in smooth ER
  9. 9. Suprarenal glands• HISTOLGY AND FUNCTIONSAdrenal medulla cells are modified postganglionic sympathetic neurons.Medulla cells + chromium salt gives yellow granules in cytoplasm called as chromaffin reaction.High in rough ERIncluded in APUD system or neuroendocrine system.
  10. 10. Suprarenal glandsAdrenal medulla secrets catecholamines like epinephrine , nor-epinephrine and Dopamine.These acts as neurotransmitters for the postganglionic sympathetic fibers.Directly can stimulate the adrenergic receptor during sympathetic activity
  11. 11. Suprarenal gland• CLINICAL IMPORTANCEAddison’s disease- decreased ACTHCushing syndrome- increased cortosolCommonest cause is iatrogenicConn’s syndrome- increased AldosteroneAldosterone secreting adenomaIncreased angiotensin
  12. 12. Suprarenal glandMasculinization( virilism)- sex hormoneFeminization- sex hormonePheochromocytomaIncreased adrenalineAssociated with MEN2(+hyperparathyroid and medullary ca of thyroid)
  13. 13. OVARY• Female gonads- produce female gamets and sex hormones(oestrogen and progesterone).• 3cm in diameter• LOCATION Ovarian fossa on lateral pelvic wallAnt- obliterated umbilical arteryPost- ureter and internal iliac artery Nulliparous- long axis vertical Multiparous- long axis horizontal
  14. 14. Ovary• Gross features 2 pole or extremities--- upper or tubal pole& lower or uterine 2 borders– anterior or mesovarian, posterior or free borders 2 surfaces– lateral & medial
  15. 15. Ovary• Almost entirely covered by peritoneum except along anterior border (mesovarian)• 2 ligaments1. Ligament of ovary2. Suspensory ligament – contain vessels and nerves.• Arterial supplyOvarian artery- L1 level
  16. 16. Ovary• Venous drainageRight side- to IVCLeft side – to left renal vein• Lymphatic drainageLateral aortic and pre-aortic nodes
  17. 17. Ovary• HistologyOuter lining - germinal epithelium Cuboidal epitheliumTunica albugineaSubstance of ovaryCortex(stroma)- ovarian follicles of diff stagesMedulla- CT and blood vessels
  18. 18. Ovary• Ovarian cycleFrom formation of ovarian follicles to degeneration of the corpus luteum. Primordial follicle Primary follicle Secondary follicle Graafian follicle
  19. 19. Ovary Rupture of graafian follicle and release of the ovum( secondary oocyte) Formation of corpus luteum Degeneration of the corpus luteum14 wk if ovum get fertilized14 day without fertilization
  20. 20. Ovary• Clinical relation Prolapse of ovary- laxness of braod ligament and mesovarium( into the pouch of Douglas). Follicular cyst- in unruptured graafian follicles. Luteal cyst- around C.luteum Commonest site of endometrial cyst also called as chocolate cyst. Agenesis – in Turner’s syndrome
  21. 21. TESTIS• One of the internal male reproductive organ• Produce male germ cells and male sex hormones.• Developed in the posterior abdominal wall . Around 2 month of IUL they leave the peritonial cavity and come out of body through inguinal canal to the scrotum.• Lies in the skin pocket called as Scrotum.
  22. 22. Testis• External featureSuspended in scrotum by the spermatic cord.Left testis lower than right one.2 poles, 2 borders and 2 surfaces.Upper border give attachment to the spermatic cord.Epididymis lies along the lateral border of the posterior border.
  23. 23. Testis• Histology Lies in double layer T. vaginalis except for its posterior border. Covered by T. albuginea and T. vasculosa. Around 200 lobules are present separated by CT ,which contains interstitial cell or cells of Leydig Made up of large number of semineferous tubules , which contain male germ cells and sustentacular cells or cells of sertoli.
  24. 24. Testis• Arterial supplyTesticular artery- at the level of L2Enter the spermatic cord• Venous drainageVein first form the pampiniform plexus , pass through the inguinal canal and finally drain to the IVC and left renal vein.
  25. 25. Testis• Lymphatic drainagePreaortic and paraortic group of lymph node• Nerve supply T10 segment of spinal cord
  26. 26. Testis• Clinical relationVasectomy- b/l cutting of vas deferens for male sterility.Hermaphroditism- true and falseHydrocoeleVaricocoele – common in left side