The region is mainly agricultural, corn being the dominant field crop. Tea is grown in the eastern coastal strip, hazelnuts around Giresun and Ordu and tobacco in Samsun and Trabzon.
Its agriculture is varied, including tobacco, wheat, rice, sunflower, corn, olives, grapes and natural silk. On the straits and coasts of the Marmara Sea fishing is well developed.
Ottoman Empire, empire created by Turkish tribes in Anatolia . One of the most powerful states in the world during the 15th and 16th centuries, it spanned more than 600 years and came to an end only in 1922, when it was replaced by the Turkish Republic and various successor states in southeastern Europe and the Middle East .
The Kurds are people of Indo-European origin who live mainly in the mountains and uplands where Turkey, Iraq, and Iran meet, in an area known as "Kurdistan" for hundreds of years. The Blue Mosque is arguably the most famous landmark in Turkey and the only mosque with six minarets. It is called the Blue Mosque because of its beautifully hand-painted Iznik tiles inside the mosque. Built in 1609, and completed in 1617, by architect Sedefkar Mehmet Agha. A truly exceptional traditional Islamic architecture and considered to be the last great mosque in the classical period.
Turkey (Turkiye in Turkish) is a country located at a point where the 3 continents of the old world (Asia, Africa and Europe) are closest to each other and where Asia and Europe meet.
o Because of its geographical location, Anatolia has always been important throughout history and is the birthplace of many great civilizations.o The surface area of Turkey including the lakes is 814,578 km² / 314,503 sq miles. It is much larger than many European countries or even Texas (18%) in the US. Out of the total land, 97% is in Asia and this part is called Anatolia or Asia Minor; 3% is in Europe which is called Thrace.
o Although 97% of Turkey is located in Asia, in many respects it is accepted as a European country and as a result, Turkey takes its place in nearly all European contests and associations.o Turkey is rectangular in shape with a length of 1,660 km / 1,031 miles and a width of 550 km / 341 miles.
The Black Sea Region o a mountainous area in the north o It has a steep and rocky coast and rivers cascade through the gorges of the coastal ranges. o As the Northern Anatolian Mountains run parallel to the coastline access inland from the coast is limited to a few narrow valleys, so the coast therefore has always been isolated from inland areas. It is densely wooded; comprising more than one-fourth of Turkey’s forested areas.
The Marmara Region o covers the European part as well as the northwest of the Anatolian plain.o Although it is the smallest region after Southeastern Anatolia, it has the highest population density.o The Marmara region is economically the most developed area of Turkey.
The Aegean Region o extends from the Aegean coast to the inner parts of Western Anatolia.o Forest lands and fertile plains carrying the same names as its rivers are dominant.o Its wealth rests on the production of several export crops, including tobacco (more than 50% of Turkey’s total production), cotton (30% of the total), high-quality grapes suitable for drying, olives (more than 50% of the Turkish output) and figs.
The Mediterranean Region o located in the south of Anatolia. o The region has several subregions: the sparsely populated limestone plateaus of Taseli in the middle; the lake district in the west with its continental climate, where grain is grown; and the intensively cultivated, densely populated coastal plains.
The Central Anatolia Region o exactly in the middle of Turkey and is less mountainous when compared to the other regions. o This region varies in altitude from 600-1,200 m (1,970- 3,940 ft) west to east. o Steppes are common. o For the most part, the region is bare and monotonous and is used for grazing.
The Eastern Anatolia Region o largest and highest region o Nearly all of the area has an average altitude of 1,500- 2,000 m / 4,920-6,560 ft. o Anatolia’s highest peak Mount Ararat is located in this region. o This is the most thinly populated region of the country.
The Southeastern Anatolia Region o notable for the uniformity of its landscape.o Vast stretches of this region consist only of wild or barren wasteland.o Agriculture is confined mainly to irrigated valleys and basins (wheat, rice, vegetables, grapes).o Much of the population is nomadic or seminomadic
Facts and Statistics • Modern Turkey was founded in 1923 from the Anatolian remnants of the defeated Ottoman Empire by national hero Mustafa KEMAL, who was later honored with the title Ataturk or "Father of the Turks.“ conventional long form: Republic of Turkey conventional short form: Turkey local long form: Turkiye Cumhuriyeti local short form: Turkiye
Facts and Statistics Government type: republican parliamentary democracy Capital: Ankara Independence: 29 October 1923 (successor state to the Ottoman Empire) Climate: temperate; hot, dry summers with mild, wet winters; harsher in interior Population: 68,893,918 (July 2004 est.) Ethnic Make-up: Turkish 80%, Kurdish 20% (estimated) Religions: Muslim 99.8% (mostly Sunni), other 0.2% (mostly Christians and Jews)
Etiquette & Customs in Turkey Meeting and Greeting Etiquette – When meeting shake hands firmly. – When departing it is not always customary to shake hands although it is practised occasionally. – Friends and relations would greet each other with either one or two kisses on the cheek. – Elders are always respected by kissing their right hand then placing the forehead onto the hand.
Etiquette & Customs inTurkey Meeting and Greeting Etiquette – When entering a room, if you are not automatically met by someone greet the most elderly or most senior first. – At social occasions greet the person closest to you then work your way around the room or table anti-clockwise. – Greet people with either the Islamic greeting of Asalamu alaykum (peace be upon you) or Nasilsiniz (How are you? pronounced na-sul-su-nuz). Other useful phrases are Gunaydin (Good Morning, pronounced goon-ay-dun), iyi gunler (Good Day, pronounced ee-yee gun-ler) or Memnun Oldum (pleased to meet you).
Etiquette & Customs inTurkey Gift Giving Etiquette – if a gift is given it will be accepted well. It is always a good idea to bring gifts from your own country such as food stuffs or craft items. – Be aware that Turkey is a Muslim country. Before giving alcohol to anyone be 100% sure that they drink. – The only time you would need to give any great thought to gifts would be if you were invited to a Turks home for dinner. – The most usual gifts to take are pastries, (especially baklava) and decorative items for the home such as ornaments or vases. – Flowers are not usually taken to a host but can be if felt appropriate. It is best to ask a florist for advice on what is best to take. – If the host has children take some expensive sweets or candy.
Etiquette & Customs inTurkey Dining Etiquette – The protocol of Turkish hospitality dictates that the host always pays for the meal. – The concept of sharing a bill is completely alien. You may try and offer to pay, which may be seen as polite, but you would never be allowed to do so. – The best policy is to graciously thank the host then a few days later invite them to do dinner at a restaurant of your choice. – Evening meals may be accompanied by some alcohol, usually the local tipple called Raký (pronounced rak-uh). It will comprise of a few courses with the main course always meat or fish based, accompanied by bread and a salad.
Etiquette & Customs inTurkey Dining Etiquette – Turks smoke during meals and will often take breaks between courses to have a cigarette and a few drinks before moving onto the next. – Tea or Turkish coffee is served at the end of a meal sometimes with pastries. – Turkish coffee is a national drink and should at least be sampled. It comes either without sugar, a little sugar or sweet. Turkish coffee is sipped and allowed to melt into the taste buds so do not gulp it down as you would instant coffee. Never drink to the bottom of the cup as it will be full of ground coffee and taste awful.
The Turkish Language andLiterature Turkish - The official language. The first language spoken by 90% of the 63m population. Minority languages include: – Kurdish, spoken by 6% of the population. – Arabic is spoken by 1.2% of the Turkish population; most of those speakers are bilingual Arabic and Turkish speakers. – Circassian, spoken by more than 0.09% throughout the country – Greek, Armenian and Judezmo, a Romance language spoken by Jews.
The Turkish Language andLiterature • history of Turkish Literature may be divided into three periods: – the period up to the adoption of Islam, – the Islamic period –the period under western influence.
The Turkish Language andLiterature the period up to the adoption of Islam o Turkish literature was the joint product of the Turkish clans and was mostly oral. o The oldest known examples of Turkish writings are on obelisks dating from the late 7th and early 8th centuries. o The Orhun monumental inscriptions written in 720 for Tonyukuk, in 732 for Kültigin and in 735 for Bilge Kagan are masterpieces of Turkish literature with their subject matter and perfect style.
The Turkish Language andLiterature o Turkish epics dating from those times include the Yaratilis, Saka, Oguz-Kagan, Göktürk, Uygur and Manas. o The "Book of Dede Korkut", put down in writing in the 14th century, is an extremely valuable work that preserves the memory of that epic era in beautiful language.
The Turkish Language andLiterature the Islamic period o Following Turkish migrations into Anatolia in the wake of the Malazgirt victory in 1071, the establishment of various Beyliks in Anatolia and the eventual founding of the Seljuk and Ottoman Empires set the scene for Turkish literature to develop along two distinct lines, with "divan" or classical literature drawing its inspiration from the Arabic and Persian languages and Turkish folk literature still remaining deeply rooted in Central Asian traditions. o Divan poets did not have independent philosophies, they were content to express the same ideas in different ways. The magnificence of the poet came from his artistry in finding original and beautiful forms of expression. The most famous of the Divan poets were Baki, Fuzuli, Nedim and Nefi.
The Turkish Language andLiterature o Initially based on two foreign literary traditions, Arab and Persian, literature gradually stopped being merely imitative and took on Ottoman national characteristics. o To a certain extent, the Turkish folk literature which has survived till the day, reflects the influence of Islam and the new life style and form of the traditional literature of Central Asia after the adoption of Islam. Turkish folk literature comprised anonymous works of bard poems and Tekke (mystical religious retreats) literature. Yunus Emre who lived in the second half of the 13th and early 14th centuries was an epoch making poet and sufi (mystical philosopher) expert in all three areas of folk literature as well as divan poetry. Important figures of poetic literature were Karacaoglan, Atik Ömer, Erzurumlu Emrah and Kayserili Seyrani.
The Turkish Language andLiterature the period under western influence o Changes in social, economic and political life were reflected in the literature of the time and the quest for change continued till the proclamation of the Republic. o The distinguishing characteristic of the era in literature was the concern with intellectual content rather than esthetic values or perfection of style.
The Turkish Language andLiterature o The latest period in literature, which is known as the Turkish Literature of the Republican period, came to be influenced by the following literary schools after Divan literary styles had been abandoned: Tanzimat (reforms), Servet-i Fünun (scientific wealth), Fecr-i Ati (dawn of the new age) Ulusal Edebiyat (national literature).
The Turkish Language andLiterature o National Literature was created between the years 1911 and 1923. The leading literary figures of the period were Ziya Gokalp, Ömer Seyfettin, Mehmet Emin Yurdakul, Yusuf Ziya Ortaç, Faruk Nafiz Camlibel, Enis Behiç Koryürek, Kemalletin Kamu, Aka Gündüz, Yakup Kadri Karaosmanoglu, Halide Edip Adivar, Halit Karay, Resat Nuri Güntekin, Ahmet Hikmet Müftüoglu, Necip Fazil Kisakürek, Halide Nusret Zorlutuna, Sükufe Nihal, Peyami Safa, and Ahmet Hamdi Tanpinar.
The Turkish Language andLiterature o The topics, written in simple language, were taken from real life and mirrored the conditions of the country. o Ömer Seyfettin, the founder and most successful representative of the short story tradition in Turkish literature
The Turkish Language andLiterature o The most well-known and widely-read writers of the 1950-1990 period can be listed as follows: Tarik Dursun K., Atilla lhan, Yasar Kemal, Orhan Kemal, Kemal Tahir, Tarik Bugra, Aziz Nesin, Mustafa Necati Sepetçioglu, Firuzan, Adalet Agaoglu, Sevgi Soysal, Tomris Uyar, Selim Ileri, Cevat Sakir (Halikarnas Balikçisi), Necati Cumali, Haldun Taner. Prominent poets in this period are: Behçet Kemal Çaglar, Necati Cumali , Oktay Rifat, Melih Cevdet Anday, Cemal Süreya, Edip Cansever, Özdemir Ince, Ataol Behramoglu, Ismet Özel, Ece Ayhan, Turgut Uyar, Sezai Karakoç, Bahaettin Karakoç, Ümit Yasar Oguzcan, Orhan Pamuk .
Mehmet Nusret(December 20, 1915 - July 6, 1995) was a popular Turkish humorist and author of more than 100 books. He was born from very poor and deeply muslim parents and struggled through life. he became the editor of a series of satirical periodicals with a socialist slant.
• He was jailed, arrested, detained, deported, tortured, beaten several times and under all governments for his political views.• Nesin provided a strong indictment of the oppression and brutalization of the common man.• He satirized bureaucracy and exposed economic inequities in stories that effectively combine local color and universal truths.
• He is most famous for his humoristic short stories. But he excelled in all forms of literature: poetry, plays, novels, essays.• Apart from his talent to catch the contradictions of a developing country, he is known as a honest man who stood behind his ideas.• In the last years of his life, he devoted himself to fight against ignorance and religious fundamentalism.• After his death, his body was buried into an unknown location in the land of Nesin Foundation without any ceremony, as suggested by his will.
SELECTED HONORS and PRIZES• 1956. Golden Palm (Italy). • 1990. Vienna Theater Prize• 1957. Golden Palm (Italy). • 1991. Received the title of Chevalier by the French government• 1958. Third place at a humoristic story contest in • 1991. Democracy Prize by the School of Political İtaly Sciences (Ankara University)• 1959. Best article prize by the Association of • 1992. Honorary Prize and Golden Medal from Journalists. the Association of Authors• 1966. Golden Hedgehog Prize, (Bulgaria). • 1992. Abdi İpekçi Prize of Peace and Friendship• 1968. First Prize at the Karacan Play Contest. (Turkey-Greece)• 1969. Golden Crocodile, (Soviet Union). • 1992. Medal of Gratitude from the Association of Journalists• 1970. Best Play Prize of the Academy of Turkish • 1993. Carl Von Ossietzky Prize• 1975. Lotus Prize (The Union of African-Asian • 1994. CPJ International Press Freedom Writers) Award (USA).• 1986. Selected the “Writer of the Year” by the • 1994. Human Rights Prize. Turkish people (Tüyap) • 1995. Orhan Apaydın Democracy and Peace Prize• 1990. Golden Tolstoi Prize • 1995. Prize of the Hiroshima Foundation