Stress• A dynamic condition in which an individual is confronted with an opportunity, constraint, or demand related to what he or she desires and for which the outcome is perceived to be both uncertain and important. Constraints Forces that prevent individuals from doing what they desire. Demands The loss of something desired.
Stress• Challenge Stressor Stressors associated with work load, pressure to complete tasks, and time urgency• Hindrance Stressor Stressors that keep you from reaching your goals Demands Resources Responsibilities, pressures, Things within an individual’s obligations, and even control that can be used to uncertainties that individuals resolve demands face in the workplace
Potential Sources of Stress• Environmental Factors Economic uncertainties of the business cycle Political uncertainties of political systems Technological uncertainties of technical innovations Terrorism in threats to physical safety and security
Potential Sources of Stress• Organizational Factors Task demands related to the job Role demands of functioning in an organization Interpersonal demands created by other employees Organizational structure (rules and regulations) Organizational leadership (managerial style) Organization’s life stage (growth, stability, or decline)
Potential Sources of Stress• Individual Factors Family and personal relationships Economic problems from exceeding earning capacity Personality problems arising for basic disposition
Potential Sources of Stress• Individual Differences Perceptual variations of how reality will affect the individual’s future. Greater job experience moderates stress effects. Social support buffers job stress. Internal locus of control lowers perceived job stress. Strong feelings of self-efficacy reduce reactions to job stress.
Some people thrive on stressful situations whileothers are overwhelmed by them.Why?
1. Perception Perception is the process by which we select, organize and interpret information inputs to create a meaningful picture of the world. It will moderate the relationship between potential stress condition and an employees reaction to it.
Stress Potential does not lie in objective conditions.It lies in an employee’s interpretation of those conditions
2. Job Expereince Experience on job tends to be negatively related to work stress due to two reasons:-(a) Voluntary turnover is more probable among people who experience more stress.(b) People eventually develop coping mechanisms to deal with stress.
3. Social Support Social support is collegial relationships with co workers or supervisors. It acts as a palliative mitigating the negative effects of even high strain jobs.
4. Personality Personality is the particular combination of emotional, attitudinal, and behavioral response patterns of an individual. The most widely studied personality trait in stress is Type A personality, particularly that aspect which manifests in itself anger and hostility.
Physiological and Psychological Symptoms of Stress Stress shows itself in a number of ways High Blood Anxiety Difficult decision Appetite pressure making Loss Can be summed up in 3 general categoriesPhysiological Symptoms Psychological Symptoms Behavioral Symptoms
Physiological Symptoms of Stress Most of the early concern with stress was directed at physiological symptoms Research was led by specialist in health and medical sciences These research led to conclusion that stress could cause Breathlessness Abnormal Metabolism Increased Heart Beat High Blood Pressure Headaches Heart Attacks
Physiological Symptoms of Stress The link between stress and particular physiological symptom is not clear Only a few consistent relationships have been found Sheer complexity of symptoms and difficulty in measuring them objectively Example Stressful job demands are linked to susceptibility to upper respiratory illness and poor immune system function This is particular to person with low self - efficacy Upper respiratory illness Poor Immune System
Psychological Symptoms of Stress Stress can cause dissatisfaction Job related stress can cause job dissatisfaction Job DissatisfactionSimplest and Most Obvious Tension Anxiety Boredom psychological effect Both Stress and Dissatisfaction are increased by jobs that make Multiple and conflicting demands Lack of clarity about duties, authorities and responsibilities Less control over the pace of work Low levels of variety, Significance Autonomy Feedback etc
Behavioral Symptoms of Stress Behavior related stress symptomsDecreased Productivity Changed Eating Habits Increased Smoking Rapid Speech Fidgeting Sleep Disorder
Inverted U Relationship between Stress and Job Performance Intuitive model but not empirically supported
CONSEQUENCES OF STRESS ON THE JOB
The consequences are very severe Individual level Organisational level
Individual level• Unwanted feeling and behaviour• Physiological diseases• Psychological diseases
Unwanted feeling and behaviour Screaming and shouting. Anger Isolation Poor eye contact Much of interpersonal conflict Increased tendency of suicide Increased smoking and consumption of alcohol Sleeping disorder Rapid speech and fidgeting
Physiological diseasesHead ache, dizziness, blurred visionIncreased blood pressureCardiovascular disease, increased heart and breathing rateHigh blood sugar and cholesterolAching neck and shoulders, increased muscle pain
Psychological diseasesDepression and anxiousnessShort-temperamentPassiveness and aggressivenessLose of self confidence and self esteemInability to take sound decisions
A recent research showsanywhere from 2/3rd of theillness in humans is stressrelated.
Organizational level• Job dissatisfaction• Lower productivity, decreased quality and quantity of work• Less organizational commitment• Intention to leave the job, high labour turnover• Absenteeism• Performance and productivity losses/ low quality of product and services• Increasing complaints from customers• Higher sick leave• Loss of valuable staff, permanent vacancies, premature retirement.
World health organisation has labelledstress as worldwide epidemic. Accordingto recent study, today workplace stress isestimated to cost companies more than $300billion a year in poor performance,absenteeism and health cost.
Stress Management (??)•It is the amelioration of stress and especiallychronic stress often for the purpose of improvingeveryday functioning.•Stress produces numerous symptoms which varyaccording to persons, situations, and severity.These can include physical health decline as wellas depression
Stress - Different Perspectives• Organizations’ View -> Low to moderate stress increases employee performance• High levels of stress or even sustained low levels over long periods can lead to adverse effects• Individuals’ Standpoint -> Even low stress is perceived as undesirable excessive pressure
Stress management: Individual Approach “Taking personal responsibility for own well being“ Time managemen t techniques Non competitive physical exercise ABC strategy: Relaxation training Awareness Balance Control Expanding social network