Meaningful Experiences:
Meaningful Innovations for Behavior Change

MA in Design for Sustainability

Najmeh (Naz) Mirzaie
...
Sustainability represents not so much an

"

environmental crisis, but a crisis of meaning;
it prompts us to reassess many...
Design for
Sustainable Behavior
(DfSB)

MA In Design for Sustainability> Final Presentation> May 30th 2012> Page 3
Design for
Sustainable Behavior
(DfSB)

MA In Design for Sustainability> Final Presentation> May 30th 2012> Page 4

New
Cu...
Design for
Sustainable Behavior
(DfSB)

MA In Design for Sustainability> Final Presentation> May 30th 2012> Page 5

New
Cu...
Research Questions

• What are the different behavior change strategies and frameworks?
• What is experience and what are ...
Design for
Sustainable Behavior
(DfSB)

New
Customers

Meaningful
Experiences

Explore Concepts
• Persona Definition
• Con...
Title

Author

Rating

Source

Summary

Exploring behavioral
psychology to support
design for sustainable
behavior researc...
4

Publication Research
Behavior change

5
6
1

3
2
1. Sense Intent
2. Know Context

Intangible

Tangible

**
Norwegian Un...
4

Deeper look
Behavior change

3

1. Sense Intent
2. Know Context

Design behavior Intervention Model (DBIM)

Design stra...
4

Publication Research
Meaningful Experiences

5
6
1

3
2
1. Sense Intent
2. Know Context

Intangible

Experience Des. Ca...
4

Deeper Look
Meaningful Experiences

5
6
1

3
2
1. Sense Intent
2. Know Context

Function: Does this do what I need?
Pri...
4

Deeper Look
Meaningful Experiences

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6
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3
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1. Sense Intent
2. Know Context

Accomplishment

Beauty

Justice

Onenes...
4

5
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Case Studies

1
3
2
1. Sense Intent
2. Know Context

MA In Design for Sustainability> Final Presentation> May 30th...
• Save Brand image through supply chain
• Concentration on experience and context
• Identity creation
• Consistent touch p...
•	 Transparency
•	 Information & education
•	 Community activities
Save Brand image through •	 User generated context
• Un...
4

5
6

Subject Matter Interview

1
3
2
1. Sense Intent
2. Know Context

Cari Clark Phelps 

Michael Felix

Designer and C...
4

5
6

Subject Matter Interview

1
3
2
1. Sense Intent
2. Know Context

•	 Cohesive narratives for customers
•	 It’s how ...
4

5
6

Subject Intent Statement
Matter Interview

1
3
2
1. Sense Intent
2. Know Context

Today, many responsible companie...
+ Awareness
4

5
6

Research Participant Map

Infectious Agent

Enthusiastic
Explorer

Greener

1
3
2

3. Know People

-

...
4

5
6

Research Participant Map

1
3
2

+ Awareness

3. Know People

Infectious Agent

Enthusiastic
Explorer

Greener

rs...
4

5
6

Research Participant Map

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2

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Infectious Agent

Enthusiastic
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4

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6

Research Planning Survey

1
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Emotional
connections

15%	
I support brands that support social
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4

5
6
1

3
2

3. Know People

Emotional
connections

15%	

Trusted criteria for a company's sustainability claims (three ...
4

5
6
1

3
2

7

4. Generate Insights

The new product’s ability to break old habits will
be related to the novelty of th...
4

5
6
1

3
2

Explic

it

Functio
nal

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it

Posses

s dura
ble
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l
items

and fu

Feel or
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4

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5. Explore Concepts

Reframe
It is not about

It is about

Product

Product Service
Systems

Ownership

...
4

5
6
1

3
2

7

6. Frame Solutions
7. Realize Offerings

1

2

3

behavior
CHANGE

mEANINGFUL
eXPERIENCES

dESIGN
PROCES...
1

2

3

behavior
CHANGE

mEANINGFUL
eXPERIENCES

dESIGN
PROCESS

6

5

4

Brand
CRITERIA

Product
CRITERIA

STRATEGIES

A...
1

2

3

behavior
CHANGE

mEANINGFUL
eXPERIENCES

dESIGN
PROCESS

6

5

4

Brand
CRITERIA

Product
CRITERIA

STRATEGIES

C...
1

2

3

behavior
CHANGE

mEANINGFUL
eXPERIENCES

dESIGN
PROCESS

6

5

Brand
CRITERIA

Product
CRITERIA

4
STRATEGIES

1....
1

2

3

behavior
CHANGE

mEANINGFUL
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6

5

Brand
CRITERIA

Product
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STRATEGIES

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Product
CRITERIA

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2. E...
1

2

3

behavior
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mEANINGFUL
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dESIGN
PROCESS

6

5

Brand
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Product
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STRATEGIES

Tr...
Sense of
membership
Fostering powerful
leadership and
infectious agents

Addressing shared
values in different
touchpoints...
Sustainable living in organizations
In bringing sustainable behaviors to these complicated
systems, the designer could app...
Thank you

MA In Design for Sustainability> Final Presentation> May 30th 2012> Page 39
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Essential role of meaningful experiences in behavior change

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Emerging shifts in customer consciousness, cultural, economic and technological trends
related to sustainability are forcing brands to think differently. Conscious customers with their money and power determine the path brands have to take.
The significance and popularity of behavior change content becomes more considerable
as sustainable advocates such as Sustainable Brands and triplepundit have a special section on behavior change. The common point among all these articles is the future of innovation is behavior change, changing consumer perception.
Therefore, this study focuses on guiding principles for brands to empower customers in adopting sustainable behaviors by creating meaningful experiences for them.
Designer believes creating meaningful experiences requires innovative engagement and valuable relationships between users and products.

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Essential role of meaningful experiences in behavior change

  1. 1. Meaningful Experiences: Meaningful Innovations for Behavior Change MA in Design for Sustainability Najmeh (Naz) Mirzaie Professor Scott Boylston MA In Design for Sustainability> Final Presentation> May 30th 2012> Page 1
  2. 2. Sustainability represents not so much an " environmental crisis, but a crisis of meaning; it prompts us to reassess many of our most fundamental assumption, and to re-examine and change our approaches." Stuart Walker MA In Design for Sustainability> Final Presentation> May 30th 2012> Page 2
  3. 3. Design for Sustainable Behavior (DfSB) MA In Design for Sustainability> Final Presentation> May 30th 2012> Page 3
  4. 4. Design for Sustainable Behavior (DfSB) MA In Design for Sustainability> Final Presentation> May 30th 2012> Page 4 New Customers
  5. 5. Design for Sustainable Behavior (DfSB) MA In Design for Sustainability> Final Presentation> May 30th 2012> Page 5 New Customers Meaningful Experiences
  6. 6. Research Questions • What are the different behavior change strategies and frameworks? • What is experience and what are the influencing factors in creation of an experience? • What is a meaningful experience? • How behavior change strategies might be connected to design process? • How behavior change has been used as a innovative strategy among companies? • How might meaningful experiences inspire users interactions with products toward reducing products’ environmental and social impacts? MA In Design for Sustainability> Final Presentation> May 30th 2012> Page 6
  7. 7. Design for Sustainable Behavior (DfSB) New Customers Meaningful Experiences Explore Concepts • Persona Definition • Concept Sketching Frame insights • Observation to Insights • Insights Sorting Frame Solutions • Morphological Synthesis • Concept Linking Map Know people • Research Participants Map • Research Planning Survey Realize Offerings • Platform Plan • Innovation Brief Know Context • Publication Research • Subject Matter Interview Sense Intent • Key Facts • Ten Types of Innovation • Intent Statement MA In Design for Sustainability> Final Presentation> May 30th 2012> Page 7
  8. 8. Title Author Rating Source Summary Exploring behavioral psychology to support design for sustainable behavior research Johannes Zachrisson* and Casper Boks *** Norwegian University of Science and Technology Design behavior Intervention )Model DBIM Design for sustainable behavior: strategies and perceptions Debra Lilley ** Department of Design and Technology, Loughborough University Interventions which raise awareness by drawing attention to a problematic behavior were seen as more acceptable and empowering. (These interventions, many felt, would encourage behavior change without reducing the user’s ability. Design for Socially Responsible behavior : A Classification of Influence Based on Intended, User Experience Nynke Tromp, Paul *** Hekkert Peter-Paul Verbeek Delft University of Technology Design issue Design for Socially Responsible behavior can happen based on Influence on Intended User Experiences in four categories: 1.Strong and apparent (Coercive and forced): 2.Apparent and weak (persuasive) 3.Weak and Hidden (Seductive and Tempting) Optimal conditions for specific behavior 4.Hidden and strong (Decisive) Making Meaning Steve Diller & et al New Riders publishers The book considers accomplishment, beauty, creation, community, duty, Enlightenment, freedom, harmony, justice, oneness, redemption, security, truth, validation, and wonder as Meaningful Experiences. MA In Design for Sustainability> Final Presentation> May 30th 2012> Page 8 **
  9. 9. 4 Publication Research Behavior change 5 6 1 3 2 1. Sense Intent 2. Know Context Intangible Tangible ** Norwegian University of The Stages of Change Model One of the most significant models of health behavior change that proposes strategies or processes to assist someone through the stages of change. Planned behaviors UC Berkeley Health Apps Sustainable decision is based on whether person is in favor of doing the behavior, the amount of social pressure, and whether he/she in control of the action. Promoting sustainable behavior needs attention attraction, persuasive messages, fostering strategies, consistent delivery, and careful consideration of audience. To affect behavioral change using a website or application, designers should consider these steps: determining the target behavior, selecting a trigger, and testing that trigger. Science and Technology The Models in Real Life Social cognitive theory CBSM Stanford Tech. Lab Unilever Triggers raise environmental awareness and need tools to invoke actions in customers. When a change occurs, it definitely requires maintenance to reach to meanings level. It is relevant to health programs and stresses on importance of environment, behavioral capability, and situation in people patterns of acquiring and maintaining behaviors. It is about elegant and practical moves toward sustainable practices adoption. Simplicity, hot triggers, and daily habits are the most significant factors to be considered in behavior change and daily habits are the most powerful factor. “Successful change comes from a real understanding of people.” Five Levers for Change are: Make the behavior understood, easy, desirable, rewarding, and a habit. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs The ABC behavior Minnesota P.C. Agency Frogdesign Brunel University The environment directly influences the behvaior and results in a consequence.  Design can influence the way people behave by shaping the environment they function within. For changing behaviors a program need to make sustainable behavior the social default, emphasize personal relevance, expose information, create opportunities and positive visions. People have Selfactualization and transcendence needs that are characterized by problem solving, personal growth, and the ability to have peak experiences. MA In Design for Sustainability> Final Presentation> May 30th 2012> Page 9 • • • • • Don’t bombard users with data Consider the gaming experience Convenience and comfort are keys Icons are important ... Comprehensive action determination model suggests individual, sustainable behavior is directly determined by intention, habits, and situation. The changing behaviors strategies are related to three types of users: Pinballs (They don't care!), Shortcuts ( They prefer an easier option.), and the thoughtful (They have high motivations). Design with Intent It is a toolkit that suggests 8 enabling lens of Architectural, Errorproofing, Interaction, Lusic, Perceptual, Cognitive, Machiavellian, and security influence users' behaviors. Loughborough University Seven design interventions that in order a user lose her/his control to a product: information, choice, feedback, spur, steer, technology, and clever design. * Delft University of * Technology Choosing behavior change strategies should be based on intended users' experiences. 7
  10. 10. 4 Deeper look Behavior change 3 1. Sense Intent 2. Know Context Design behavior Intervention Model (DBIM) Design strategies were introduced based on intended user experience MA In Design for Sustainability> Final Presentation> May 30th 2012> Page 10 6 1 2 Design for Sustainable behavior (DfSB) is an emerging activity under the banner of sustainable design which aims to reduce products’ environmental and social impact by moderating how users interact with them. Delft University of Technology 5 Loughborough University 7
  11. 11. 4 Publication Research Meaningful Experiences 5 6 1 3 2 1. Sense Intent 2. Know Context Intangible Experience Des. Cards These cards are design tools help designers address experience issues when developing products, services, and events. Tangible Sustainable by Design A sustainable solution can be understood as one that possess enduring value in terms of its meanings and characteristics. * * Delft Universty of Technology “Inscriptions,” refer to the effects on user’s actions intended by the designer, from “prescriptions,” which concern the actions a product allows the user. Stanford Tech. Lab Users experience three levels of satisfaction related to cost and benefit they get in interactions with products. * *Making Meaning It is essential to encourage customer's to participate in co-creation experiences that will results in deeper user connections to the product and company. MA In Design for Sustainability> Final Presentation> May 30th 2012> Page 11 7
  12. 12. 4 Deeper Look Meaningful Experiences 5 6 1 3 2 1. Sense Intent 2. Know Context Function: Does this do what I need? Price: Does this do what I need at the price that worth it? User product interaction Emotion: Does this make me feel good? Meaning: Does this fit to my world? User Product aesthetic meaning Meaning emotional The significance of an experience Delft University of Technology MA In Design for Sustainability> Final Presentation> May 30th 2012> Page 12 Nathan Shedroff 7
  13. 13. 4 Deeper Look Meaningful Experiences 5 6 1 3 2 1. Sense Intent 2. Know Context Accomplishment Beauty Justice Oneness Creation Redemption Community Security Duty Enlightenment Freedom Truth Validation Wonder Nathan Shedroff "Making Meaning" MA In Design for Sustainability> Final Presentation> May 30th 2012> Page 13 Harmony 7
  14. 14. 4 5 6 Case Studies 1 3 2 1. Sense Intent 2. Know Context MA In Design for Sustainability> Final Presentation> May 30th 2012> Page 14 7
  15. 15. • Save Brand image through supply chain • Concentration on experience and context • Identity creation • Consistent touch points • Nike foundation Accomplishment Beauty Freedom MA In Design for Sustainability> Final Presentation> May 30th 2012> Page 15 • Unique experiences • Trust • Harmony between all the touch points • Identity creation • Transparency Beauty Oneness Enlightenment
  16. 16. • Transparency • Information & education • Community activities Save Brand image through • User generated context • Unique experiences supply chain • Trust • Consistent touchpoints Concentration on experience and context • Harmony between all the touch points • Entire product life cycle from Identity creation • Identity creation Consistent touch points employee to material and • Transparency packaging • • • • • • Nike foundation Accomplishment Beauty Freedom MA In Design for Sustainability> Final Presentation> May 30th 2012> Page 16 Beauty Oneness Enlightenment
  17. 17. 4 5 6 Subject Matter Interview 1 3 2 1. Sense Intent 2. Know Context Cari Clark Phelps  Michael Felix Designer and Creative Director Salaciasalt Savannah, GA  Professor of Interaction and Industrial Design SCAD Savannah, GA MA In Design for Sustainability> Final Presentation> May 30th 2012> Page 17 Bob Fee Professor of Design Management, SCAD Savannah, GA Robert Bau Professor of Service Design SCAD Nathan Shedroff The chair of CCA's MBA in Design Strategy One of the pioneers of experience design 7
  18. 18. 4 5 6 Subject Matter Interview 1 3 2 1. Sense Intent 2. Know Context • Cohesive narratives for customers • It’s how we view the world that sets the most resonant tone for how we behave and what we believe. • A brand needs to act consistently and transparently in order to build trust and forge strong relationships. Cari Clark Phelps  Designer and Creative Director Salaciasalt Savannah, GA  • Michael Felix Information isBob Fee all about the right time and Robert Bau Professor of Design Professor of Interaction Professor of Service Design Management, SCAD and context. Industrial Design SCAD SCAD Savannah, GA • Savannah, GA Engaging emotional and being consistent in communications can help in attracting loyal customers. MA In Design for Sustainability> Final Presentation> May 30th 2012> Page 18 Nathan Shedroff The chair of CCA's MBA in Design Strategy One of the pioneers of experience design 7
  19. 19. 4 5 6 Subject Intent Statement Matter Interview 1 3 2 1. Sense Intent 2. Know Context Today, many responsible companies have built their knowledge to fully incorporate the natural environment into their business framework. These evolutionary corporations comprehend that competitive advantage requires sturdy development of environmentally restorative products, services and systems (Nattrass & Altomare, 1999). These corporations demand designers who are aware of tWheir responsibilities. Despite the significant of sustainable life cycle thinking, current market more than ever in the history of design, has created enormous pressure on innovation that resulted in competitive atmosphere, conspicuous consumption patterns, and obsolescent relationships between users and their possessions. Therefore, changes in user’s behaviors and habits could also create unbelievable and impressive results in protecting our natural resources. According to University of Delft, the user experience of products and services is an important factor in the user motivation to alter his or her behavior. Creating desirable and meaningful experiences require innovative engagement and valuable relationship between user and products. Consequently, this project will identify and address opportunities to incorporate consumers’ needs and behaviors at a deeper level in design process and raise users ‘ awareness about sustainable choices. There is opportunity for designers to develop strategies and frameworks for creation of more social and active collaboration between consumers, their communities and trusted brands. Companies that are able to operate at greater levels of transparency and responsiveness to their consumers’ desires will perceive improved brand image. (Senge, & et al, 2008) Nattrass, B., Altomare, M., (1999) The Natural Step for Business; Wealth, Ecology, and The Evolutionary Corporation, New Society Publishers, Canada Senge, P., & et al, (2008) The Necessary Revolution; Working together to Create a Sustainable World, Broadway Books, New York. MA In Design for Sustainability> Final Presentation> May 30th 2012> Page 19 7
  20. 20. + Awareness 4 5 6 Research Participant Map Infectious Agent Enthusiastic Explorer Greener 1 3 2 3. Know People - + Knowledge - Active Greener Enthusiastic Explorer Infectious Agent Individual Collective Inactive MA In Design for Sustainability> Final Presentation> May 30th 2012> Page 20 7
  21. 21. 4 5 6 Research Participant Map 1 3 2 + Awareness 3. Know People Infectious Agent Enthusiastic Explorer Greener rs - me + Knowledge w Ne to us C - Representing 30 percent of U.S. Population, New Customers bridge the gap between very green and more mainstream consumers. By empowering these group and providing meaningful experiences, they can be ambassadars of behavior change. Active Enthusiastic Explorer Infectious Agent Individual Future of Brands Presentation, Sustainable Brands, 2011 Collective Greener Inactive MA In Design for Sustainability> Final Presentation> May 30th 2012> Page 21 7
  22. 22. 4 5 6 Research Participant Map 1 3 2 + Awareness rs me w Ne Infectious Agent Enthusiastic Explorer to us C Greener - + Knowledge Representing 30 percent of U.S. Population, New Customers bridge the gap between very green and more mainstream consumers. By empowering these group and providing meaningful experiences, they can be ambassadars of behavior change. Future of Brands Presentation, Sustainable Brands, 2011 - Active Enthusiastic Explorer Infectious Agent Individual Collective . Greener than Ever . More Motivated Greener . Bullish on the Future Inactive MA In Design for Sustainability> Final Presentation> May 30th 2012> Page 22 3. Know People 7
  23. 23. 4 5 6 Research Planning Survey 1 3 2 3. Know People Emotional connections 15% I support brands that support social and environmental causes. I pay more for products with social and environmental benefits. Function I avoid products/brands that have social and environmental damages. Price 71% 44% I often try to repair, make, or reuse instead of buying new products. I encourage others to buy from environmentally and socially responsible companies. Alignment with your personality and style I think I should consume less to protect our nature. 0 5 10 15 20 25 Which criteria most strongly describe you? MA In Design for Sustainability> Final Presentation> May 30th 2012> Page 23 59% Which of the following qualities often have the strongest effects on your purchasing decisions? (pick two) 7
  24. 24. 4 5 6 1 3 2 3. Know People Emotional connections 15% Trusted criteria for a company's sustainability claims (three choices): • Creates innovative and sustainable products and services I pay more for products with social and • Actively engages their customers in the research, design, and development environmental benefits. process I avoid products/brands that have Function • Measures and demonstrates positive social and environmental impacts social and environmental damages. 44% I often try to repair, make, or reuse Favorite brand encouraging role in adopting environmentally and socially instead of buying new products. beneficial habits I encourage others to buy from environmentally Alignment and socially responsible companies. • Provide thorough sustainability information with your I think I should consume less to personality and protect our • nature.Make desirable behaviors more convenient style • Provide feedbacks about the environmental and social consequences of 59% your behavior10 15 20 25 0 5 I support brands that support social and environmental causes. Which criteria most strongly describe you? MA In Design for Sustainability> Final Presentation> May 30th 2012> Page 24 Price 71% Which of the following qualities often have the strongest effects on your purchasing decisions? (pick two) 7
  25. 25. 4 5 6 1 3 2 7 4. Generate Insights The new product’s ability to break old habits will be related to the novelty of the interaction with the product. S Designing for use we should consider, usability, simplicity, accessibility, and meaning. M Although the design of the product can form the circumstances to trigger change, the context of the behavior is often hard to control. S The goal of any behavior change program should be creation of self-actualized and self transcendence people or self-resilience ambassadors who feel responsible to help others and spread the change. D Product interventions can be accepted, if the target behaviors are already socially accepted as norms. C S Insights and Insight Sorting MA In Design for Sustainability> Final Presentation> May 30th 2012> Page 25 Strategy Design process D M Meaningful experiences Strategies Criteria C
  26. 26. 4 5 6 1 3 2 Explic it Functio nal Implic it Posses s dura ble nctiona l items and fu Feel or ganize d and cr afty Experi en his pe ce goals Fu rsonal ity and nction, besi des alig style. Life Sty nmen le Zac Conne t with sustain h is sa ct to a tisfied able b comm about e to oth unity w his pe er gro haviors, but ith Feel su similar rsonal up wit he like develo pporte values h sim s to be d p and en co joy da he car his skills in sp ilar beliefs ily life . He lik nnected es abo readin es to ut incre at the g the w same time h asing people ord, becau He has e does se 's awar been sp not lik e Island e to pu ness, but since h ending his sh peo su Motiva is child enviro ple. nmen tors hood. mmers in N tally co Rewar antucke The Is of con ds and land is nsc se incent to a co a very t ives, a consc rvations that ious place mmun and th ity or pe connection ious m all help values ers with ey are , and pe import ind ab ed him shared rforms lots produc an o better ts stro groceri t for him to ut sustainab to grow up than re ngly su to purc gular pport le w e e hase a his de produc their su s from fresh at healthy an lifestyles. It ith cisions environ t with menta is st st d he b social l bene and efforts. ainability ac ores. He th u fits. inks co ys his tivities Organ He ca mp sh the iPh ic cloth n feel o good s, reusa ould prioriti anies in about ze soc him to ne are amo himse ng the ble water b ial make lf and enjoy His bran o p more benefi his dai ds shou socially roducts that ttles, and cial de ly life. ld enco transpa cision have h and en urage rency s. claims him w elped his beha vironm ith and fe vior, an entally edback d mak more about e relat conv ed beha Facilita enient. vior tors End go als Attribu te Zac h desc non-ju ribes h dg imself He love emental, fr as "hyp iendly s to han , and era relatio g out and car outgoing!" ctive, Impro nships and Expec es ta planet ving his healtries hard to about his p directl tions He like ersonal motiva th and keep h yc s tes him the en is life comm onnect wit his favorite vi to beh style and p connection brands h unity o s. He love ronment an rotecti ave in to f othe him and co trusts d socie ng a way s natu nn rp co ty. that be the re and he fee on the mpanies wh eople simila ect him to a ls that nefits h r to him ir web ich no he is m iking. He e cares sites, b t just p njoys really lik about erging ut also hiking resent self. He the en es to with n a role becau inform viro ature. in se Customizin have Co-cre prove their ation He brand protecting it nment and eff g or D produ social likes to really . He o o it yo ation option orts. He cts media ft choose urself s such perform . He is a skill and w en visits his have as eb pag ed cra during purc favorite ance is that he Sustainability ftsman beside e. His h very im doesn as a m mo s and a asing about 't feel produ are the alignment w portant to asham ajor is findin tivation to himse cts' him ith lf an ga factors ed a good produ he con his personal . So, functio role m d enjoy his of and can fe career cts an ity an n, side not lik d mak produ e to be odel for his daily life. Als el good ing me rs for purchas d style, cts. future o, he c in a gre other aningfu in childre an be Li pe e l conn g new n. fe goal others ople's decis ner group; ection he car He does s Findin ions. S to buy s with asham es o cautio fr g a car ed us com om socially , often he en about and en of and mak eer that he co and en panies. d jo e vironm urages mode y his daily lif s him feel g oesn't feel entally l for h ood ab is futu e. Also, he can be out himself re child a good ren. role MA In Design for Sustainability> Final Presentation> May 30th 2012> Page 26 7 5. Explore Concepts I think comm without th sustain unities the e strong will no ability, pro other parts fit o t be ac hieved and planet,f . Emotio nal Zach, 28 Infe ctious Single Agent ,S Savann tudent at SC AD ah, GA
  27. 27. 4 5 6 1 3 2 7 5. Explore Concepts Reframe It is not about It is about Product Product Service Systems Ownership Access Persuasion Empowerment Value based on message Value based on meaning Value embedded within a product Value co-created with customer in the context of their lives MA In Design for Sustainability> Final Presentation> May 30th 2012> Page 27
  28. 28. 4 5 6 1 3 2 7 6. Frame Solutions 7. Realize Offerings 1 2 3 behavior CHANGE mEANINGFUL eXPERIENCES dESIGN PROCESS 6 5 4 Brand CRITERIA MA In Design for Sustainability> Final Presentation> May 30th 2012> Page 28 Product CRITERIA STRATEGIES
  29. 29. 1 2 3 behavior CHANGE mEANINGFUL eXPERIENCES dESIGN PROCESS 6 5 4 Brand CRITERIA Product CRITERIA STRATEGIES Attracting attention Essential factors Habits Successful behavior change begins with unique and memorable ways of attracting attention. Contemporary advertising techniques can be applied, from surprising the audience to the novelty of the context, and emotional triggers. The ensuing results stand out, creating durable, long lasting, and recognizable memory. Motivations (intentions), ability (control), and opportunity/triggers are required to illicit the adoption of new behaviors. This project’s primary target group— infectious agents—require a trigger, while enthusiastic explorers—the secondary target groups—require the ability as well as the trigger. Awareness, consideration, and practice are three steps in adopting new habits. Efficiency and convenience are strong elements in attracting attention to new behaviors. People cycle in and out in adopting new habits, so any behavior change program requires constant delivery and augmenting programs. Context Triggers Promotions Intention, habit, and context are the three primary influencing elements of behavior change, with context possessing the strongest influence. Context defines our daily habits. Elements within any system— connections, social norms, rules, environment, trends and market conditions— all inform this context. In designing triggers, two factors should be considered: interaction between customer and touchpoint; and aesthetic and emotional nature of these interactions. Triggers can be associated with sensible influences: emotional ties, status associations, and personal identifiers that have increasingly stronger effects, and are harder to achieve. 1. Thorough understanding of the engaged customers 2. Right time, place, and context 3. Supporting social norms 4. Smart and informed changes in the default context 5. Systematic and holistic solutions 6. Engaging storytelling 7. Reciprocation MA In Design for Sustainability> Final Presentation> May 30th 2012> Page 29
  30. 30. 1 2 3 behavior CHANGE mEANINGFUL eXPERIENCES dESIGN PROCESS 6 5 4 Brand CRITERIA Product CRITERIA STRATEGIES Customer's value Needs Collective consumption Meaningful experiences can happen when a customer has a visceral connection as she/he interacts with a product service system that mirrors her/his values. These needs should be satisfied in a meaningful experience that, in ascending order, have a stronger effect: aesthetic, sensibilities, social acceptance, self-esteem, and personal growth. A product with ability to connect to the existing meanings of customers’ lives has the potential to create sustainable behavior, and results in creative consumption patterns. Unified system Required criteria Usability Meaningful experiences engage customers through a unified system of touchpoints that evokes a constant sense of integrity and familiarity to people’s perspectives of the world. Creating meaningful experiences for behavior change require motivations, awareness, insightful triggers and strategies based on the context and the level of user intentions. Ease of use, effectiveness, and efficiency are three aspects of usability which enhance a user's goal attainment, resulting in positive emotions, and meaningful experiences. Beauty is a critical factor in usability assessment because an individual's like or dislike of a particular product is affected by perceptions of beauty. MA In Design for Sustainability> Final Presentation> May 30th 2012> Page 30
  31. 31. 1 2 3 behavior CHANGE mEANINGFUL eXPERIENCES dESIGN PROCESS 6 5 Brand CRITERIA Product CRITERIA 4 STRATEGIES 1. Know the people & context Systematic Immersion 4. Delivery & constant refinement Design for behavior change is an iterative, transparent, and collaborative process that requires a holistic view and systematic considerations. Decision & Offerings MA In Design for Sustainability> Final Presentation> May 30th 2012> Page 31 2. Opportunities, motivations & scope Analysis 3. Strategy, co-design, &iterative prototyping Synthesis, Simulation & evaluation
  32. 32. 1 2 3 behavior CHANGE mEANINGFUL eXPERIENCES dESIGN PROCESS 6 5 Brand CRITERIA Product CRITERIA 4 STRATEGIES Social norms Social attraction Creativity Script Badges Causes Commitment tive n rea C ptio um s s con ttern pa Identity Playfulness Storytelling Games Prompt Pattern recognition Goal base & tailoring Tracking Delight s n atio ic mun Social networking Com Usability Emotions Create action tendency Attract attention ng ardi Rew s Gift ent Engagem Membership Feedback Control Co-de Transparency sign DIY Incentive Adoptability Personal possessioness Suggestion Steering Key consideration Strategy Tactic MA In Design for Sustainability> Final Presentation> May 30th 2012> Page 32
  33. 33. Ea s ss Communication e ta ea p Re of oll ow Strategies in different touchpoints u Status association Social Norms Feedback Positive Prompts Usability Strategy criteria/Tactic Sample of behavior change strategies in different touchpoints le ab Script Reinforcement Storytelling Feedback am ica iar nd of a ty cy rie uen e Va eq nc fr sse e t ien en nv Co term Long tenance main Clear Adju sta resp ble to onse s t Et h l identification Fam il Dir ec Information providing Prompts Execution e str Up ib an ility d of re u su se lts Support and support by the context Adoptability Track system Suggestions MA In Design for Sustainability> Final Presentation> May 30th 2012> Page 33 Social diffusion Co-creation Self-monitoring Vi s ution xec Strategies that are related to all the touchpoints. ng rdi wa Re Promotions After exe c ient Be n tio e re fo Commitment Effi c e bl Membership yt tifi Jus Pl ay fu ln e bl Sim ple t ten sis ira Unde rstan dable Forgiveness ing ett al s Go n Co D es l
  34. 34. Ea s P Pllay ayu f flu e n ln s s es s Communication Communication bl e of oll ow Strategies in different touchpoints u Status association Social Norms Feedback Positive Usability Strategy criteria/Tactic le ab Sample of behavior change strategies in different touchpoints Prompts Prompts Feedback Execution am Feedback Et h ica d t en iar term Long tenance main Clear Adju sta resp ble to onse s Information Information providing providing n of a ty cy rie uen e Va eq nc fr sse e l identification Fam il Dir ec ti en ien ev onn Cnv Co ib an ility d of re u su se lts Script Reinforcement e str Up Vi s Support and support by the context Adoptability Adoptability Track system Suggestions MA In Design for Sustainability> Final Presentation> May 30th 2012> Page 34 Social diffusion Co-creation Self-monitoring Storytelling Storytelling ution xec Strategies that are related to all the touchpoints. ng rdi wa Re Promotions After exe c ient ta ea p Re Be n tio e re fo Commitment Effi c e bl Membership Membership yt tifi Jus Sim ple t ten sis ira Unde rstan dable Forgiveness ing ett al s Go n Co D es l t
  35. 35. 1 2 3 behavior CHANGE mEANINGFUL eXPERIENCES dESIGN PROCESS 6 5 Brand CRITERIA Product CRITERIA 1. Empower 2. Expand 3. Connect 4 STRATEGIES Respect safety of environment, workers, & customers Expose the resources use & embodied resource efficiency Create usable & environmental friendly interactions (Human-centered Eco-design) Be part of a product service system Avoid functional, aesthetic, & technological obsolescence (Durability) Support with customers’ values Create emotional & aesthetic engaging experiences Provide tangible incentives Connect customers with peers with shared values Respond to customer behvaior changes ethical, trustful, & transparent lifecycle such as intent & outcomes Create benefits for local communities (Provide feedback in real time) Provide tangible & measurable outcomes justifiable performance & criteria Respect cultural diversity Create healthy habits Enhance customers knowledge Connect individual & social concerns Be economically viable Fit in customer personality & lifestyle Collective consumption (Repair, remake, reuse, MA In Design for Sustainability> Final Presentation> May 30th 2012> Page 35 (Produced & maintained locally) share & exchange instead of buying new products)
  36. 36. 1 2 3 behavior CHANGE mEANINGFUL eXPERIENCES dESIGN PROCESS 6 5 Brand CRITERIA Product CRITERIA 4 STRATEGIES Transparent communications Visible life cycle thinking, honest measuring and demonstrating of environmental and social impacts, loyalty in initial claims, and constant enhancement of customer knowledge will result in invaluable trust. Meaningful identity Meaningful identity and sense of membership among customers can be generated by addressing shared values in different touchpoints. MA In Design for Sustainability> Final Presentation> May 30th 2012> Page 36 Reframed experiences The focus should shift from products to the experiences and context through consistent product service systems, and meaningful storytelling in a unified system of touchpoints. Enhanced empathy &social efforts Efforts should be commenced from the brand itself with creating or enhancing corporate social responsibility and then investing in social innovation projects and working closely with related organizations. Sustained meaningful innovations Concentration on product service systems, collaboration consumption patterns, green innovations, and enriching sustainable strategies (reduce, reuse, recycle, & restore) are among the guidelines in this category. Self-evolving communities Through consumer collaborations, user-generated contexts, fostering powerful leadership and infectious agents, companies can assist in creation of resilient communities.
  37. 37. Sense of membership Fostering powerful leadership and infectious agents Addressing shared values in different touchpoints. Enhancing corporate social responsibility Meaningful identity Consumer collaborations Enhanced empathy &social efforts Self-evolving communities Meaningful experiences for behavior change Constant enhancement of customer knowledge Loyalty in initial claims Sustained meaningful innovations Transparent Communications Reframed experiences Visible life cycle thinking Product service systems Storytelling Collaboration consumption patterns MA In Design for Sustainability> Final Presentation> May 30th 2012> Page 37 Green innovations
  38. 38. Sustainable living in organizations In bringing sustainable behaviors to these complicated systems, the designer could apply the principles of living systems in eco-systems, which are the basis of sustainability. • Strong sense of community and collective identity around common values • Openness to the outside world • The most effective way to enhance an organization’s sustainable learning potentials is to support and strengthen its communities of practice. MA In Design for Sustainability> Final Presentation> May 30th 2012> Page 38
  39. 39. Thank you MA In Design for Sustainability> Final Presentation> May 30th 2012> Page 39

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