Afghanistan experience health_policy


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Afghanistan experience health_policy

  1. 1. Health Policy Formulation Afghanistan Experience Najibullah Safi, MD, MSc. HPM Primary Health Care Advisor WHO Country Office - Afghanistan
  2. 2. History of health care system in Afghanistan• During 19th: traditional healers (Hakim, Tabib,…)• During Amanullah Khan Kingdom first group of Afghan doctors was trained in Turkey• In 1931: physician assistance program was established in Kabul• In 1932: (King Nader Shah) Kabul Medical College was established• In 1938 Ali Abad University Hospital was inaugurated• In 1963: Jalal Abad Medical college was established Source:, November 21, 2011 Afghanistan Experience, Health Policy Formulation 2
  3. 3. Cont... Before 1978 • Throughout 1960s: health care system was limited to urban areas/ hospitals • During this time government began to establish BHC in rural areas During Soviet occupation and Mujahedin (1979-1996) • Decentralization in health system Taliban 1996-2001 • Consolidate most of the country politically Source: Securing Afghanistan’s Future: Accomplishments and Strategic Path forward. January 2004Monday, November 21, 2011 Afghanistan Experience, Health Policy Formulation 3
  4. 4. Level of health care  Tertiary  Health Care:  RH, SH   Secondary Health Care:  DH, PH Primary Health Care:  Health Post, Sub­center,  BHC, CHCMonday, November 21, 2011 Afghanistan Experience, Health Policy Formulation 4
  5. 5. What is policy? Policy is defined as: “ … a definite course or method of action selected from among alternatives … to guide and determine present and future decisions.”Monday, November 21, 2011 Afghanistan Experience, Health Policy Formulation 5
  6. 6. What is health policy? “A formal statement which defines vision, outline priorities and the parameters for action in response to health needs, available resources, political pressures, expected roles of different groups to build consensus and inform people.” MoPH draft Health Policy 2012 - 2020Monday, November 21, 2011 Afghanistan Experience, Health Policy Formulation 6
  7. 7. History of health policy formulation• The idea of formulating health policies is relatively new• Until the end of the 1940s, national policies tended to be a distinctive feature of planned economies• As the Marshall Plan made the drafting of national plans a condition for the financing of Europes reconstruction, national policies became a normal instrument of policy• In poor countries, the drafting of national policies also became a condition of access to aid• In the health sector, it took the form of statements and plans aiming at reaching the goal of Health for All by the Year 2000Monday, November 21, 2011 Afghanistan Experience, Health Policy Formulation 7
  8. 8. Why health policies are needed?• A health policy: – Facilitate planning – Can facilitate decision making – Provides a framework for evaluating performance – Can help to bring together professionals and other sectors around health problems and to legitimize actionsMonday, November 21, 2011 Afghanistan Experience, Health Policy Formulation 8
  9. 9. Policies influence health• Health Policy – policies developed within the health sector• Policies relevant to health – policies that impact on health and health services, e.g. housing, food and tobacco industries, public water supply, traffic control, social security and the social determinants of healthMonday, November 21, 2011 Afghanistan Experience, Health Policy Formulation 9
  10. 10. Health policy in Afghanistan• Interim National Health Policy and Strategy 2003 -04• National Health Policy 2005 -09• National Health and Nutrition Sector Strategy 2008-13• MoPH Strategic Plan 2011 – 15• National Health Policy 2012 – 20 (yet draft, in the process of development)Monday, November 21, 2011 Afghanistan Experience, Health Policy Formulation 10
  11. 11. Constitutional obligation of the Government“The state is obliged to provide free means of preventivehealth care and medical treatment, and proper healthfacilities to all citizens of Afghanistan in accordance withthe law … ”. Article 52 of the Afghanistan ConstitutionMonday, November 21, 2011 Afghanistan Experience, Health Policy Formulation 11
  12. 12. Process of health policy formulation in Afghanistan• The example of health policy 2012 -20 – Establishment of a working group comprised of various stakeholders • Different departments of MoPH • Donors e.g. USAID, EU, World Bank, CIDA • Technical partners and UN agencies e.g. WHO • Ministry of finance • Representative of Parliament • Representative of academia • Representative of civil society • Representative of the BPHS implementing NGOsMonday, November 21, 2011 Afghanistan Experience, Health Policy Formulation 12
  13. 13. Process of health policy formulation in Afghanistan cont.• Sub-groups of the working group: draft various segments of the policy• Present the draft of various segments of the policy to the working group for review• Present the draft of health policy to the group of senior level health professionals (finalize the draft)Monday, November 21, 2011 Afghanistan Experience, Health Policy Formulation 13
  14. 14. Process of health policy formulation in Afghanistan cont.• Final draft will be presented to: – Consultative Group on Health and Nutrition (CGHN) – Technical Advisory Group (TAG) of MoPH – Executive Board of MoPH – Final approval by the health ministerMonday, November 21, 2011 Afghanistan Experience, Health Policy Formulation 14
  15. 15. Outline of the national health policy 2012 - 20• Introduction – Country context and situation analysis• Health and development – The poverty context – Millennium development goals – Afghanistan National Development Strategy• Health achievements and current challenges in health sectorMonday, November 21, 2011 Afghanistan Experience, Health Policy Formulation 15
  16. 16. Outline of the national health policy 2012 - 20• Content of the policy: – Vision – Mission statement – Values and guiding principles – Goal – Objectives – Priorities – Policy statements • Stewardship • Health financing • Resource creation • Health service delivery – National health policy impactMonday, November 21, 2011 Afghanistan Experience, Health Policy Formulation 16
  17. 17. Monday, November 21, 2011 Afghanistan Experience, Health Policy Formulation 17