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Introduction to Internet of Things
Introduction to Internet of Things
Introduction to Internet of Things
Introduction to Internet of Things
Introduction to Internet of Things
Introduction to Internet of Things
Introduction to Internet of Things
Introduction to Internet of Things
Introduction to Internet of Things
Introduction to Internet of Things
Introduction to Internet of Things
Introduction to Internet of Things
Introduction to Internet of Things
Introduction to Internet of Things
Introduction to Internet of Things
Introduction to Internet of Things
Introduction to Internet of Things
Introduction to Internet of Things
Introduction to Internet of Things
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Introduction to Internet of Things

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Introduction to Internet of Things

Introduction to Internet of Things

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  • 1. Introduction to Internet of Things Nagasai Panchakarla opendevicelab.in July 2013
  • 2. Agenda ● Introduction ● Constraints ● Protocol Stack ● DTN ● Software ● Hardware
  • 3. Internet of Things ● Everything that benefits from networking will eventually be connected ● Interoperability ● Legacy ● Technology is already there ● Universal identity, IPv6 ● Endless applications ● Devices+Services – Data collection, vizualization, smart control...
  • 4. IPv6...Picture credit: iStockphoto/chris_lemmens
  • 5. Kon-Tiki expedition Expedition across the Pacific Ocean with limited resources (recreations of prehistoric voyage) in 1947
  • 6. Constraints ● Scalability ● Power source ● Security and Privacy ● Processing powers ● Low bandwidth ● Unreliable links ● Usability ● Business models ● Standardization ● Cost
  • 7. Protocol Stack Application Transport Network Link XML HTTP TCP IP 802.11, 802.3 etc EXI CoAP UDP 6LoWPAN 802.15.4 100s-1000s of bytes 10s of bytes TCP/IP IoT
  • 8. Wireless Technologies Standard IEEE 802.15.4 Bluetooth Wi-Fi Frequency 868/915MHz, 2.4 GHz 2.4GHz 2.4, 5.8 GHz Data rate 250kbps 723 kbps 11 to 105 Mbps Range 10 to 300 m 10m 10 to 100m Power Very Low Low High Battery Operation Alkaline (months to years) Rechargeable (days to weeks) Rechargeable (hours)
  • 9. IEEE 802.15.4 ● Low power, low data rate wireless standard ● It is not Zigbee ● MAC and PHY layer protocol ● Operates on several bands: – 2.4 GHz ISM band, 915 Mhz, 868 MHz ● Local regulations ● MTU: 127 Bytes per frame (including headers) ● Data rates upto 250kbps
  • 10. 6LoWPAN ● IPv6 over Low power Wireless Personal Area Networks ● RFC 4944 and RFC 6282 ● Adaptation layer ● Header compression – Stateless or context-based compression – Compression of addresses ● Neighbor discovery ● IPv6 MTU: 1280 bytes, 802.15.4 MTU: 127 bytes. – Fragmentation and Reassembly ● IPv6 header overhead: 802.15.4 MAC header upto 25-bytes + 40-byte IP header + 8-byte UDP
  • 11. CoAP ● Constraint Application Protocol ● Accepted as RFC in July 2013 ● RESTful web protocol ● GET, POST, PUT, DELETE methods ● Simple Request/Response exchange ● URI (Uniform Resource Identifiers) support – coap://test.com:<port>/~temperature/sensor1.xml ● Proxy to/from HTTP ● < 10 bytes header ● Simple caching ● Libcoap, contiki, Firefox CoAP plugin
  • 12. EXI ● Efficient XML Interchange ● Standardized by W3C, March 2011 ● Compression of XML encoded content ● Compact XML representation ● High processing performace ● OpenEXI,EXIficient
  • 13. Working groups ● 6lowpan (IPv6 over LoWPANs) – 2007: RFCs 4919 (requirements) and 4944 (6LoWPAN standard) – 2011: RFC 6282 as an update for RFC 4944 ● Roll (routing over low power and lossy networks) – 2011: RFC 6206 (Trickle protocol) – 2012: RFCs 6550 (RPL) and 6552 (Objective Function Zero) ● Core (constrained RESTful environments) – 2013: CoAP (draft-ietf-core-coap)
  • 14. DTN ● Delay Tolerant Networks ● Store, carry and forward paradigm ● Hop-by-hop retransmission ● Challenged networks – Unreachable nodes – Lack of end-to-end path – Delays and disruptions ● Saving costs?
  • 15. Operating Systems ● Contiki – less than 10kB RAM and 30 kB ROM. – Highly portable, multithreaded, preemptive – Supports IPv6, 802.15.4, and 6LoWPAN ● Tiny OS – nesC language, non preemptive, eventdriven, ● Nano-RK – less than 2kB of RAM and 18kB of ROM ● Mantis, LiteOS, FreeRTOS
  • 16. Hardware platforms Platforms MCU/SoC Transceiver TelosB TI MSP430x (10 KB RAM+48KB flash) 2.4 GHz IEEE 802.15.4 Micaz ATMEGA 128 (4 KB RAM) TI CC2420 802.15.4 Redbee Freescale MC1322x (96 KB RAM + 120 KB flash) 2.4 GHz 802.15.4 Wismote MSP430 (RAM : 16 Kbytes flash : 256 Kbytes) CC2520 Waspmote Atmel ATmega 1281 (8KB RAM, 128 KB FLASH ROM, 4 KB EEPROM, 2 GB SD card) ZigBee/802.15.4/Digi Mesh/RF, 2.4 GHz/868/900 MHz Arduino (Various models) ATmega328 Many Raspberry Pi Broadcom BCM2835 Any
  • 17. Thanks "One machine can do the work of fifty ordinary men. No machine can do the work of one extraordinary man." - Elbert Hubbard
  • 18. References ● Jari Arkko,Building the Internet of Things http://www.arkko.com/publications/vitel_arkko.pdf ● G. Montenegro, N. Kushalnagar, J. Hui, D. Culler. Transmission of IPv6 Packets over IEEE 802.15.4 Networks. RFC 4944, IETF, September, 2007 http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc4944 ● IERC - Internet of Things European Research Cluster - 3rd edition of the Cluster Book http://www.internet-of-things-research.eu/pdf/IERC_Cluster_Book_2012_WEB.pdf ● http://isoc.org/wp/ietfjournal/?p=2066 ● https://www.sics.se/search/content/contiki ● Adam Dunkels. Contiki Crash Course http://www.ee.kth.se/~mikaelj/wsn_course/contiki-course-kth-9oct2008-draft.pdf ● RFC 4838: Delay-Tolerant Networking Architecture http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc4838 ● Efficient XML Interchange Working Group http://www.w3.org/XML/EXI/ ● http://www.w3.org/TR/exi-evaluation/

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