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Lec no. 3 comp hardware components

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  • Chapter 3 The Computer Continuum
  • Chapter 3 The Computer Continuum
  • Chapter 3 The Computer Continuum
  • Chapter 3 The Computer Continuum
  • Chapter 3 The Computer Continuum
  • Chapter 3 The Computer Continuum
  • Chapter 3 The Computer Continuum
  • Chapter 3 The Computer Continuum
  • Chapter 3 The Computer Continuum
  • Chapter 3 The Computer Continuum
  • Chapter 3 The Computer Continuum
  • Chapter 3 The Computer Continuum
  • Chapter 3 The Computer Continuum
  • Chapter 3 The Computer Continuum
  • Chapter 3 The Computer Continuum
  • Chapter 3 The Computer Continuum
  • Chapter 3 The Computer Continuum
  • Chapter 3 The Computer Continuum
  • Chapter 3 The Computer Continuum
  • Chapter 3 The Computer Continuum
  • Chapter 3 The Computer Continuum
  • Chapter 3 The Computer Continuum
  • Chapter 3 The Computer Continuum
  • Chapter 3 The Computer Continuum
  • Chapter 3 The Computer Continuum
  • Chapter 3 The Computer Continuum
  • Chapter 3 The Computer Continuum
  • Chapter 3 The Computer Continuum
  • Chapter 3 The Computer Continuum
  • Chapter 3 The Computer Continuum
  • Chapter 3 The Computer Continuum
  • Transcript

    • 1. Lecture No. 3 Computer Hardware Components: CPU, Memory, and I/O By ROY FEROLINO, BSCS, MBA Lyceum of the Philippines University CAVITE
    • 2. Computer Hardware Components
      • In this chapter:
        • How did the computer become known as the stored-program computer?
          • Do they all have the same characteristics?
        • Memory on chips and memory on magnetic media, how do they differ?
        • What do you look for when comparing memory devices?
        • How is information moved around within the computer?
        • How can you help your computer run better ?
      ROY ESPINELI FEROLINO, MBA 3-
    • 3. Basic Concepts of Computer Hardware
      • This model of the typical digital computer is often called the von Neumann computer.
        • Programs and data are stored in the same memory: primary memory.
        • The computer can only perform one instruction at a time.
      ROY ESPINELI FEROLINO, MBA 3- CPU (Central Processing Unit) Input Units Output Units Primary Memory
    • 4. Basic Concepts of Computer Hardware
      • Input/Output (I/O): Refers to the process of getting information into and out of the computer.
        • Input: Those parts of the computer receiving information to programs.
        • Output: Those parts of the computer that provide results of computation to the person using the computer.
      ROY ESPINELI FEROLINO, MBA 3-
    • 5. Sources of Data for the Computer
      • Two types of data stored within a computer:
        • Original data or information : Data being introduced to a computing system for the first time.
          • Computers can deal directly with printed text, pictures, sound, and other common types of information.
        • Previously stored data or information : Data that has already been processed by a computer and is being stored for later use.
          • These are forms of binary data useful only to the computer.
          • Examples: Floppy disks, DVD disks, and music CDs.
      ROY ESPINELI FEROLINO, MBA 3-
    • 6. Input Devices
      • Two categories of input hardware:
        • Those that deal with original data.
        • Those that handle previously stored data.
      ROY ESPINELI FEROLINO, MBA 3-
    • 7. Input Devices
      • Input hardware: Those that deal with original data.
        • Keyboard
        • Mouse
        • Voice recognition hardware
        • Scanner
        • Digital camera
      • Digitizing: The process of taking a visual image, or audio recording and converting it to a binary form for the computer.
        • Used as data for programs to display, play or manipulate the digitized data.
      ROY ESPINELI FEROLINO, MBA 3-
    • 8. Input Devices
      • Connecting Hardware to the computer:
        • Hardware needs access through some general input/output connection.
          • Port : The pathway for data to go into and out of the computer from external devices such as keyboards.
            • There are many standard ports as well as custom electronic ports designed for special purposes.
            • Ports follow standards that define their use.
              • SCSI, USB: Multiple peripheral devices (chain).
              • RS-232, IDE: Individual peripheral devices.
          • Peripheral device : A piece of hardware like a printer or disk drive, that is outside the main computer.
      ROY ESPINELI FEROLINO, MBA 3-
    • 9. Input Devices
      • Connecting Hardware to the computer: (continued)
        • Hardware needs software on the computer that can service the device.
          • Device driver : Software addition to the operating system that will allow the computer to communicate with a particular device.
      ROY ESPINELI FEROLINO, MBA 3-
    • 10. Input Devices
      • Common Basic Technologies for Storing Binary Information:
        • Electronic
        • Magnetic
        • Optical
      ROY ESPINELI FEROLINO, MBA 3-
    • 11. Input Devices
      • Electronic Circuits
        • Most expensive of the three forms for storing binary information.
        • A flip-flop circuit has either one electronic status or the other. It is said to flip-flop from one to the other.
        • Electronic circuits come in two forms:
          • Permanent
          • Non-permanent
      ROY ESPINELI FEROLINO, MBA 3-
    • 12. Input Devices
      • Magnetic Technology
        • Two parts to most of the magnetic forms of information storage:
          • The medium that stores the magnetic information.
            • Example: Floppy disk. Tiny spots on the disk are magnetized to represent 0s and 1s.
          • The device that can “read” that information from the medium.
            • The drive spins the disk.
            • It has a magnetic sensing arm that moves over the disk.
            • Performs nondestructive reading.
      ROY ESPINELI FEROLINO, MBA 3-
    • 13. Input Devices
      • Optical
        • Uses lasers to “read” the binary information from the medium, usually a disc.
          • Millions of tiny holes are “burned” into the surface of the disc.
          • The holes are interpreted as 1s. The absence of holes are interpreted as 0s.
      ROY ESPINELI FEROLINO, MBA 3-
    • 14. Input Devices
      • Secondary Memory Input Devices
        • These input devices are used by a computer to store information and then to retrieve that information as needed.
          • External to the computer.
          • Commonly consists of floppy disks, hard disk drives, or CD-ROMs.
        • Secondary memory uses binary.
          • The usual measurement is the byte.
            • A byte consists of 8 binary digits (bits). The byte is a standard unit.
      ROY ESPINELI FEROLINO, MBA 3-
    • 15. Input Devices
      • The four most important characteristics of storage devices:
        • Speed and access time
        • Cost / Removable versus non-removable
        • Capacity
        • Type of access
      ROY ESPINELI FEROLINO, MBA 3-
    • 16. Input Devices
      • Speed (Access time) - How fast information can be taken from or stored onto the computer memory device’s medium.
        • Electronic circuits: Fastest to access.
          • 40 billionths of a second.
        • Floppy disks: Very slow in comparison.
          • Takes up to 1/2 second to reach full speed before access is even possible.
      ROY ESPINELI FEROLINO, MBA 3-
    • 17. Input Devices
      • Cost
        • Megabyte : A Million bytes.
        • Gigabyte : A billion bytes.
        • Two parts to a removable secondary storage device:
          • The cost of the medium. ( Cheaper if bought in quantity)
          • The cost of the drive.
          • Examples: Cost for drive Cost for medium
        • Floppy drive (1.4MB) 59.00 .50
        • Zip 100 (100 MB) 99.00 10.00
        • CD-WR (650 MB) 360.00 and up 1.00
      ROY ESPINELI FEROLINO, MBA 3-
    • 18. Input Devices
      • Capacity - The amount of information that can be stored on the medium.
      ROY ESPINELI FEROLINO, MBA 3- Unit Description Approximate Size 1 bit 1 binary digit 1 nibble 4 bits 1 byte 8 bits 1 character 1 kilobyte 1,024 bytes  1/2 page, double spaced 1 megabyte 1,048,576 bytes  500,000 pages 1 million bytes 1 gigabyte 1,073,741,824 bytes  5 million pages 1 billion bytes 1 terabyte 1 trillion bytes  5 billion pages
    • 19. Input Devices
      • Type of Access
          • Sequential - Obtained by proceeding through the storage medium from the beginning until the designated area is reached (as in magnetic tape).
          • Random Access - Direct access (as in floppy and hard disks).
      ROY ESPINELI FEROLINO, MBA 3-
    • 20. Primary Memory
      • Primary storage or memory : Is where the data and program that are currently in operation or being accessed are stored during use.
        • Consists of electronic circuits: Extremely fast and expensive.
        • Two types:
          • RAM (non-permanent)
            • Programs and data can be stored here for the computer’s use.
            • Volatile: All information will be lost once the computer shuts down.
          • ROM (permanent)
            • Contents do not change.
      ROY ESPINELI FEROLINO, MBA 3-
    • 21. The Central Processing Unit
      • The Central Processing Unit ( CPU)
        • Often referred to as the “brain” of the computer.
        • Responsible for controlling all activities of the computer system.
        • The three major components of the CPU are:
          • 1. Arithmetic Unit (Computations performed)
          • Accumulator (Results of computations kept here)
          • 2. Control Unit (Has two locations where numbers are kept)
          • Instruction Register (Instruction placed here for analysis)
          • Program Counter (Which instruction will be performed next?)
          • 3. Instruction Decoding Unit (Decodes the instruction)
        • Motherboard : The place where most of the electronics including the CPU are mounted.
      ROY ESPINELI FEROLINO, MBA 3-
    • 22. Output Devices
      • Output units store and display information (calculated results and other messages) for us to see and use.
        • Floppy disk drives and Hard disk drives.
        • Display monitors: Hi-resolution monitors come in two types:
          • Cathode ray tube (CRT) - Streams of electrons make phosphors glow on a large vacuum tube.
          • Liquid crystal display (LCD) - A flat panel display that uses crystals to let varying amounts of different colored light to pass through it.
            • Developed primarily for portable computers.
      ROY ESPINELI FEROLINO, MBA 3-
    • 23. Output Devices
      • Audio Output Devices
        • Windows machines need special audio card for audio output.
        • Macintosh has audio playback built in.
        • Audio output is useful for:
          • Music
            • CD player is a computer.
            • Most personal computers have CD players that can access both music CDs and CD-ROMs.
          • Voice synthesis (becoming more human sounding.)
          • Multimedia
          • Specialized tasks (i.e.: elevator’s floor announcements)
      ROY ESPINELI FEROLINO, MBA 3-
    • 24. Output Devices
      • Optical Disks: CD-ROM and DVD
        • CD-ROM (Compact Disk - Read Only Memory)
          • By its definition, CD-ROM is Read Only.
          • Special CD drives “burn” information into blank CDs.
            • Burn: A laser is used to “burn” craters into the surface to represent a binary 1.
            • Two main types of CDs:
              • CD-R (Compact Disk - Recordable)
              • CD-WR (Compact Disk - ReWritable)
          • It takes longer to write to a CD-R than a hard drive.
          • Special software is needed to record.
      ROY ESPINELI FEROLINO, MBA 3-
    • 25. Output Devices
      • DVD (Digital Versatile Disk)
        • Allows up to 17 gigabytes of storage (from 4.7 GB to 17 GB).
        • Compatible with older CD-ROM technology.
        • The four versions of the DVD:
      ROY ESPINELI FEROLINO, MBA 3-
    • 26. Output Devices
      • Storage Requirements: How much storage capacity is needed for…
        • One keystroke on a keyboard. 1 byte (8 bits)
        • One page single-spaced document. 4.0 K
        • Nineteen pages formatted text. 75 K
        • One second of high-fidelity sound. 95-110 K
        • Complete word processing program. 8.4 MG
      • Storage Capacity: How much data can be stored on…
        • One inch of 1/2 in. wide magnetic tape. 4 K
        • One 3 1/2” floppy disk, high density. 1.4 MG
        • One Compact Disk. 650 MG
        • One DVD. up to 17 GB
      ROY ESPINELI FEROLINO, MBA 3-
    • 27. Moving Information Within the Computer
      • How do binary numerals move into, out of, and within the computer?
        • Information is moved about in bytes, or multiple bytes called words.
          • Words are the fundamental units of information.
          • The number of bits per word may vary per computer.
          • A word length for most large IBM computers is 32 bits:
      ROY ESPINELI FEROLINO, MBA 3-
    • 28. Moving Information Within the Computer
      • Bits that compose a word are passed in parallel from place to place.
        • Ribbon cables :
          • Consist of several wires, molded together.
          • One wire for each bit of the word or byte.
          • Additional wires coordinate the activity of moving information.
          • Each wire sends information in the form of a voltage pulse.
      ROY ESPINELI FEROLINO, MBA 3-
    • 29. Moving Information Within the Computer
      • Example of sending the word WOW over the ribbon cable
        • Voltage pulses corresponding to the ASCII codes would pass through the cable.
      ROY ESPINELI FEROLINO, MBA 3-
    • 30. Packaging the Computer
      • The many physical forms of the general purpose computer:
        • All follow general organization:
          • Primary memory
          • Input units
          • Output units
          • Central Processing Unit
        • Grouped according to speed, cost, size, and complexity.
      ROY ESPINELI FEROLINO, MBA 3- Super Computers Mainframe Computers Minicomputers Microcomputer Palmtop Computer Calculator Fast Expensive Complex Large Slow Cheap Simple Small
    • 31. Software Tools for Maintaining Your Computer Hardware
      • Utility Programs exist that can help diagnose and solve computer hardware problems.
        • Four major problem areas where utility programs are helpful:
          • Finding and fixing problems.
            • Testing Input/Output peripherals.
            • Testing RAM, motherboard, video cards.
            • Recovering deleted files or fixing damaged disks.
          • Improving computer performance.
            • De-fragmenting a disk (Packs all files closer together).
          • Preventative maintenance.
          • Troubleshooting.
            • Locates incompatible programs.
      ROY ESPINELI FEROLINO, MBA 3-

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