Handout3 links

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  • 1. WEBPROG1 – Web Programming 1 (HTML) Prelim Period Handout #3HTML Color Chart Below is the hexadecimal representation for an array of HTML background colors. Thehexadecimal value that you see displayed in each box represents the value to get the backgroundcolor of that cell.#000000 #000033 #000066 #000099 #0000CC #0000FF#003300 #003333 #003366 #003399 #0033CC #0033FF#006600 #006633 #006666 #006699 #0066CC #0066FF#009900 #009933 #009966 #009999 #0099CC #0099FF#00CC00 #00CC33 #00CC66 #00CC99 #00CCCC #00CCFF#00FF00 #00FF33 #00FF66 #00FF99 #00FFCC #00FFFF#330000 #330033 #330066 #330099 #3300CC #3300FF#333300 #333333 #333366 #333399 #3333CC #3333FF#336600 #336633 #336666 #336699 #3366CC #3366FF#339900 #339933 #339966 #339999 #3399CC #3399FF#33CC00 #33CC33 #33CC66 #33CC99 #33CCCC #33CCFF#33FF00 #33FF33 #33FF66 #33FF99 #33FFCC #33FFFF#660000 #660033 #660066 #660099 #6600CC #6600FF#663300 #663333 #663366 #663399 #6633CC #6633FF#666600 #666633 #666666 #666699 #6666CC #6666FF#669900 #669933 #669966 #669999 #6699CC #6699FF#66CC00 #66CC33 #66CC66 #66CC99 #66CCCC #66CCFF#66FF00 #66FF33 #66FF66 #66FF99 #66FFCC #66FFFF#990000 #990033 #990066 #990099 #9900CC #9900FF#993300 #993333 #993366 #993399 #9933CC #9933FF#996600 #996633 #996666 #996699 #9966CC #9966FF#999900 #999933 #999966 #999999 #9999CC #9999FF#99CC00 #99CC33 #99CC66 #99CC99 #99CCCC #99CCFF#99FF00 #99FF33 #99FF66 #99FF99 #99FFCC #99FFFF#CC0000 #CC0033 #CC0066 #CC0099 #CC00CC #CC00FF#CC3300 #CC3333 #CC3366 #CC3399 #CC33CC #CC33FF#CC6600 #CC6633 #CC6666 #CC6699 #CC66CC #CC66FF#CC9900 #CC9933 #CC9966 #CC9999 #CC99CC #CC99FF#CCCC00 #CCCC33 #CCCC66 #CCCC99 #CCCCCC #CCCCFF#CCFF00 #CCFF33 #CCFF66 #CCFF99 #CCFFCC #CCFFFF#FF0000 #FF0033 #FF0066 #FF0099 #FF00CC #FF00FF#FF3300 #FF3333 #FF3366 #FF3399 #FF33CC #FF33FF#FF6600 #FF6633 #FF6666 #FF6699 #FF66CC #FF66FFPrepared By:RICHARD F. ORPIANO Page 1 of 6
  • 2. WEBPROG1 – Web Programming 1 (HTML) Prelim Period Handout #3#FF9900 #FF9933 #FF9966 #FF9999 #FF99CC #FF99FF#FFCC00 #FFCC33 #FFCC66 #FFCC99 #FFCCCC #FFCCFF#FFFF00 #FFFF33 #FFFF66 #FFFF99 #FFFFCC #FFFFFFHTML Links and Anchors The web got its spidery name from the plentiful connections between web sites. Theseconnections are made using anchor tags to create links. Text, Images, and Forms may be used tocreate these links. Links can be Internal, Local, or Global. • Internal - Links to anchors on the current page • Local - Links to other pages within your domain • Global - Links to other domains outside of your siteHTML Text Links Use the <a></a> tags to define the start and ending of an anchor. The text you place between thetags will be shown as the link on a page. Use the demonstration below as a reference. Heres a list of target attributes for links. The target attribute defines whether to open the page in aseparate window, or to open the link in the current browser window.target=" _blank" Opens new page in a new browser window _self" Loads the new page in current window _parent" Loads new page into a frame that is superior to where the link lies _top" Loads new page into the current browser window, cancelling all frames The example below shows how you would link to ESPN.COM, a popular sports web site. Thetarget attribute is added to allow the browser to open ESPN in a new window, so that the viewer canremain at our web site. Heres the example.Code:<a href="http://www.ESPN.com" target="_blank">ESPN.COM</a>Display:ESPN.COMHTML Image Links Using graphics will liven up that tired bland looking text link. To make an image link simply insertan image within the anchor tag. If you do not know how to use the image tag, skip ahead to the imagetutorial and come back after you feel comfortable with it.Code:<a href="http://www.espn.com" target="_blank><img src="ahman.gif"></a>Prepared By:RICHARD F. ORPIANO Page 2 of 6
  • 3. WEBPROG1 – Web Programming 1 (HTML) Prelim Period Handout #3Display:HTML Anchors To link to sections of your existing page a name must be given to the anchor. In the examplebelow, weve created a mini Table of Contents for this page. By placing blank anchors just after eachheading, and naming them, we can then create reference links to those sections on this page asshown below. First, the headings of this page contain blank, named anchors. They look like this.Tizags Own Code:<h1>HTML Links and Anchors<a name="top"></a></h1><h1>HTML Text Links<a name="text"></a></h1><h1>HTML Image Links<a name="imgs"></a></h1> Now create the reference links, placing the pound symbol followed by the name of the anchor inthe href of the new link.Code:<a href="#top">Go to the Top</a><a href="#text">Learn about Text Links</a><a href="#imgs">Learn about Image Links</a>Display:Go to the TopLearn about Text LinksLearn about Image LinkEmail Links Creating Email links are simple. If you want somebody to mail you about your site a good way todo it is place an email link with a subject already inputted for them.Code:<a href="mailto:email@tizag.com?subject=Feedback">Email@tizag.com</a>Display:mailto:email@tizag.com?subject=Feedback In some circumstances it may be necessary to fill in the body of the Email for the user as well.Code:<a href="mailto:email@tizag.com?subject=Feedback&body=I think your siterocks!">Email@tizag.com</a>Display:mailto:email@tizag.com?subject=Feedback&body=I think your site rocks!Prepared By:RICHARD F. ORPIANO Page 3 of 6
  • 4. WEBPROG1 – Web Programming 1 (HTML) Prelim Period Handout #3Default Links - Basehead element to set a default URL for all links on a page to go to. Its always a good idea to set a basetag just incase your links become bugged somewhere down the line. Usually set your base to yourhome page.Code:<head><base href="http://www.tizag.com/"></head>HTML Images Images are a staple of any web designer, so it is very important that you understand how to usethem properly. Use the <img> tag to place an image on your web page.Code:<img src="sunset.gif">Display: Above we have defined the src attribute. The src attribute tells the browser where the image islocated. You can use a local path name as we did above, or you may choose to display the completepath (i.e. http://www.tizag.com/htmlT/sunset.gif).Image Height and Width To define the height and width of the image, rather than letting the browser compute the size, usethe height and width attributes.Code:<img src="sunset.gif" height="50" width="100">Display: Above we have defined the src, height and width attributes. By informing the browser of the imagedimensions it knows to set aside a place for that image. Without defining an images dimensions yourPrepared By:RICHARD F. ORPIANO Page 4 of 6
  • 5. WEBPROG1 – Web Programming 1 (HTML) Prelim Period Handout #3site may load poorly; text and other images will be moved around when the browser finally figures outhow big the picture is supposed to be and then makes room for the picture.Vertically and Horizontally Align Images Use the align and valign attributes to place images within your body, tables, or sections. 1. align (Horizontal) o right o left o center 2. valign (Vertical) o top o bottom o center Below is an example of how to align an image to the right of a paragraph.Code:<p>This is paragraph 1, yes it is...</p><p><img src="sunset.gif" align="right">The image will appear along the...isnt it?</p><p>This is the third paragraph that appears...</p>Display:This is paragraph 1, yes it is. I think this paragraph serves as a nice example to show how this imagealignment works.The image will appear along the right hand side of the paragraph. As you cansee this is very nice for adding a little eye candy that relates to the specifiedparagraph. If we were talking about beautiful tropical sunsets, this picturewould be perfect. But we arent talking about that, so its rather a waste, isnt it?This is the third paragraph that appears below the paragraph with the image!Images as Links This will be a quick review of the links - image lesson. Images are very useful for links and can becreated with the HTML below.Code:<a href="http://www.tizag.com/"><img src="sunset.gif"> </a>Display:Prepared By:RICHARD F. ORPIANO Page 5 of 6
  • 6. WEBPROG1 – Web Programming 1 (HTML) Prelim Period Handout #3 Now your image will take you to our home page when you click it. Change it to your home pageURL.Thumbnails Thumbnails are small size (Kilobytes) pictures that link to the larger, high quality picture. To makea thumbnail save a low-quality version of a picture and make it a smaller dimensions. Now make thislow-quality picture into an image link and have it point to the the high-quality picture.Code:<a href="sunset.gif"> <img src="thmb_sunset.gif"> </a>Display:HTML Gifs vs. Jpegs Gifs are best used for banners, clip art, and buttons. The main reason for this is that gifs can havea transparent background which is priceless when it comes to web design. On the down side, gifs areusually larger files, not as compressed as a jpeg, which calls for slow load times and large transferrates. Gifs are also limited to the 256 color scheme. Jpegs however, have an unlimited color wheel, and have a high compression rate downsizingyour load times and saving hard drive space. Jpegs dont allow for transparent backgrounds, but theirsize/quality ratio is outstanding. Its best to use Jpegs for photo galleries, or artwork to allow the viewerto catch that extra bit of detail. Avoid Jpegs for graphical design, stick to using them for thumbnails andbackgroundsPrepared By:RICHARD F. ORPIANO Page 6 of 6