Chapter2cognitiveneuroscience4346
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  • Figure 2.5  The components of a vertebrate motor neuron. The cell body of a motor neuron is located in the spinal cord. The various parts are not drawn to scale; in particular, a real axon is much longer in proportion to the size of the soma. From Kalat, J. Biological Psychology , 8th Edition Use image to discuss neuronal communication.
  • Young KA, Holcomb LA,Yazdani U, Hicks PB, and German DC., Elevated neuron number in the limbic thalamus in major depression. American Journal of Psychiatry, 161 , 1270-1277. http://www8.utsouthwestern.edu/findfac/research/0,2357,12533,00.html Other well known postmortem studies are Phineas Gage, deteriorated hippocampus of alzheimers patients, and Tan as mentioned in the text.
  • Describe the single neuron technique using image and corresponding action potentials such as the example of In Vivo research. Single neuron and the corresponding action potentials image created and used with permission by: Patricio O'Donnell, MD, PhD Professor of Neuropharmacology & Neuroscience Albany Medical College 47 New Scotland Ave. Albany, NY 12208 http://www.odonnell-lab.net/links.htm
  • Full cite of research: Disterhoft JF, Matthew Oh M. (2003) Modulation of cholinergic transmission enhances excitability of hippocampal pyramidal neurons and ameliorates learning impairments in aging animals. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2003 Nov;80(3):223-33. Abstract: Four cholinesterase inhibitors have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for treating behavioral symptoms of Alzheimer's disease. Here we review our experiences with two cholinesterase inhibitors (metrifonate and galanthamine) and a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor agonist (CI-1017) in behavioral pharmacological and brain slice experiments in aging and young rabbits. Aging rabbits are impaired in their ability to acquire the hippocampus-dependent trace eyeblink conditioning task, as compared to young controls. A large proportion of aging animals cannot reach behavioral criterion in this task. Those that do learn, do so more slowly. In addition, the post-burst afterhyperpolarization and spike frequency accommodation is increased in hippocampal pyramidal neurons from aging animals, i.e., cellular excitability is reduced as compared to those from young animals. Metrifonate, galanthamine, and CI-1017 reduced the learning deficits observed in aging rabbits so that they learned almost as quickly as young controls. These cholinergic compounds also enhanced the postsynaptic excitability of hippocampal pyramidal neurons in vitro. Therefore, we propose that the amelioration of learning impairment with the cholinergic compounds may in part be due to the enhanced excitability of hippocampal pyramidal neurons. The potential relevance of our studies to further understanding the cellular and behavioral changes that occur with normal aging and Alzheimer's Disease is discussed. PMID: 14521865 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
  • Dehaene-Lambertz’s work with Infants presented at this website: http://www.unicog.org/ uses EEG in addition to other brain imaging methods. Dehaene-Lambertz, Pena, M., Christophe, A., Landrieu, P. (2004). Phoneme perception in a neonate with a left sylvian infarct. Brain & Language,88,26-38. Brain & Language , Vol 88(1), pp. 26-38. Abstract: We report the case of a neonate tested three weeks after a neonatal left sylvian infarct. We studied her perception of speech and non-speech stimuli with high-density event-related potentials. The results show that she was able to discriminate not only a change of timbre in tones but also a vowel change, and even a place of articulation contrast in stop consonants. Moreover, a discrimination response to stop consonants was observed even when syllables were produced by different speakers. Her intact right hemisphere was thus able to extract relevant phonetic information in spite of irrelevant acoustic variation. These results suggest that both hemispheres contribute to phoneme perception during the first months of life and confirm our previous findings concerning bilateral responses in normal infants. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)(journal abstract)
  • No X-rays or radioactive material is used. Provides detailed view of the brain in different dimensions.
  • Full paper cite: Gauthier, I., Skudlarski, P., Gore, J.C., Anderson, A.W. (2000). Expertise for cars and birds recruits brain areas involved in face recognition. Nature Neuroscience, 3 , 191-197. Image used by permission of author. This research examines whether the area of the brain activated for recognition of faces is also activated when bird and car experts examine pictures of birds and cars.
  • Korsakoff's syndrome presents symptoms of severe anterograde and retrograde amnesia, as well as confabulation.
  • Korsakoff's syndrome presents symptoms of severe anterograde and retrograde amnesia, as well as confabulation.
  • Gazzaniga, M.S. (1995). Principles of human brain organization derived from split-brain studies. Neuron, 14, 217-228.
  • Gazzaniga gave permission to use image. Source:  Gazzaniga, Michael S., "The Split Brain Revisited," Scientific American , July 1998 This study is described in Gazzaniga, Michael S.(1988), Mind Matters Each hemisphere is presented with a different picture that is related to one of four cards placed in front of the split-brain patient. The right hemisphere sees the picture on the left (snowy scene), and the left hemisphere sees a picture on the right (chicken foot). Both hemispheres can see all of the cards. When asked to point to the picture related to the image seen, the left hand pointed to the shovel and the right hand pointed to the chicken head. The patient was then asked why the left hand was pointing to the shovel, since the left hemisphere controls language, they did not have an answer because the shovel is what fits with the information that is given to the left side of the brain. However the left hemisphere immediately made up a story about what it could see– the chicken and explained that the right hemisphere chose the shovel to clean out a chicken shed. This reveals the left brain’s interpreter in action.
  • Split brain patients are asked to stare at the black dot in the middle of the screen. Two different images are displayed simultaneously to each side of the brain. Information about wrench is on the left side, so would be processed by the right side of the brain which controls the left hand, thus a split brain patient would point to a wrench. The apple is on the right side and so would be processed by the left side of the brain which controls language so the patient will say apple.

Chapter2cognitiveneuroscience4346 Chapter2cognitiveneuroscience4346 Presentation Transcript

  • Cognitive Psychology, Fourth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 2 Chapter 2: Cognitive Neuroscience http://brainexplorer.org/brain_atlas/Brainatlas_index.shtml#image http://www.learner.org/resources/series142.html#
  • Cognitive Psychology, Fourth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 2 Basic Unit of Brain: Neuron
  • Cognitive Psychology, Fourth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 2 Windows Mac OS 8-9 Mac OS X Neuron and Neural Impulse
  • Cognitive Psychology, Fourth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 2 Methods for the studying the human brain •Postmortem studies •Animal Studies •Electrical Recordings •Static Imaging Techniques •Metabolic Imaging
  • Cognitive Psychology, Fourth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 2 Postmortem Studies •Identify disorder and then examine after death – Researchers may trace a link between an observed type of behavior and anomalies in a particular location of the brain. •Paul Broca – linked severe speech problems to an area in the frontal lobe now called Broca’s area •Studies of Alzheimer's victims have le to identify some of the brain structures involved in memory
  • Cognitive Psychology, Fourth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 2 – Young, Holcomb, Yazdani, Hicks & German (2004) •Found that depression is associated with a greater number of nerve cells in the Thalamus being devoted to emotional regulation •Supported idea that structural abnormality may lead to depression – ¿Limitations? •Cannot be performed on the living brain •Do no offer insights into more specific physiological processes of the brain.
  • Cognitive Psychology, Fourth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 2 Animal Studies: In Vivo •Monitor activity of a single neuron •Microelectrodes are inserted into the brain of the animal to obtain single-cell recordings of the activiry of a single neuron •Selective lesioning to observe resulting funcitonal deficits
  • Cognitive Psychology, Fourth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 2 Animal Study: Single Neuron Monitoring •Disterhoft & Matthew (2003) – Young versus old rabbits compared in learning of eyeblink conditioning – Hippocampal pyramidal neurons were monitored – Typically aging animals cannot learn the task – Metrifonate, galanthamine, and CI-1017 injected into the aging rabbits – This led aged rabbits to learn as quickly as young controls
  • Cognitive Psychology, Fourth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 2 EEG-Human Studies Dehaene-Lambertz, Pena, M., Christophe, & Landrieu (2004) Examined the language abilities of infants using EEG Electroencephalograph Research Example EEG’s are recordings of the electrical frecuencies and intensities of the living brain, typically recorded over relatively long periods.
  • Cognitive Psychology, Fourth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 2 Positron Emission Tomography (PET) •Radioactive material is injected or inhaled •Participant is then scanned to produce an image of the brain’s activity
  • Cognitive Psychology, Fourth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 2 Magnetic Resonance Imaging •Strong magnetic field passed through the skull •Uses the detection of radio frequency signals produced by displaced radio waves in a magnetic field •Creates a detailed anatomical image of the brain
  • Cognitive Psychology, Fourth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 2 Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) •fMRI imaging takes a series of images of the brain in quick succession and then statistically analyzes the images for differences among them •Brain areas with more blood flow have been shown to have better visibility on MRI images •Better visibility is thought to be correlated with brain activation
  • Cognitive Psychology, Fourth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 2 fMRI in Research •Gauthier, Skudlarski, Gore & Anderson (2000) – fMRIs demonstrate that expertise for cars and birds uses areas involved in face recognition
  • Cognitive Psychology, Fourth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 2 Anatomy of the Brain •Forebrain – Cerebral cortex – Basal ganglia •Motor movement – Limbic system – Thalamus – Hypothalamus
  • Cognitive Psychology, Fourth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 2 Anatomy of the Brain
  • Cognitive Psychology, Fourth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 2 Function of Limbic System •Emotion, motivation, memory, and learning – Controls mood and attitude – Stores highly charged emotional memories – Controls appetite and sleep cycles – Make us better to adapt our behaviors flexibly in response to our changing environment
  • Cognitive Psychology, Fourth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 2 Function of Limbic System
  • Cognitive Psychology, Fourth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 2 Anatomy of Limbic System •Amygdala – Involved in anger and aggression •Septum – Involved in anger and fear •Hippocampus – Is important in the formation of memories – Disruption results in deficits in declarative memory but not in procedural memory – Korsakoff’s syndrome •Loss of memory function
  • Cognitive Psychology, Fourth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 2 Anatomy of Limbic System
  • Cognitive Psychology, Fourth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 2 Anatomy of Limbic System •Thalamus – Relay sensory information to the cerebral cortex – Control of sleep and walking •Hypothalamus – Important to metabolic behaviors, eating, drinking, sexual behaviors, and regulating emotions
  • Cognitive Psychology, Fourth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 2 Anatomy of Limbic System
  • Cognitive Psychology, Fourth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 2 Midbrain •Location – The midbrain extends from the pons to the lower portion of thalamus •Reticular activating system – Controls respiration, cardiovascular function, digestion, alertness, and sleep Controls eye movement and coordination
  • Cognitive Psychology, Fourth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 2 Midbrain •Brain Stem – Vital in basic attention, arousal, and consciousness – Physicians make determination of brain death based on the functions of the brain stem – Physicians must determine that the brain stem has been damaged so severely that various reflexes of the head are absent for more than 12 hours – The brain must show no electrical activity or cerebral circulation of blood.
  • Cognitive Psychology, Fourth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 2 Hindbrain •Medulla Oblongata – Breathing, swallowing and digestion •Pons – Relay station •Cerebellum – Motor co-ordination, posture, and maintaining balance.
  • Cognitive Psychology, Fourth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 2Hindbrain
  • Cognitive Psychology, Fourth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 2 Cerebral Cortex Principles •Contralaterality – Right side of brain controls left side of body – Left side of brain controls right side of body •Corpus Callosum – Neural fibers connecting left and right lobes – Allows communication between right and left sides of the brain
  • Cognitive Psychology, Fourth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 2 Cerebral Cortex Principles •Localization of function – Specific mental processes are correlated with discrete regions of the brain •Hemispheric Specialization – Each lobe of the brain has specialized functions
  • Cognitive Psychology, Fourth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 2 Evidence for Specialization of Left lobe •Wernicke’s area – Speaks fluently but nonsensically – Not coherent, contains lexical and grammatical errors •Broca’s area – Can understand everything said – Patient can only respond in monosyllabic words
  • Cognitive Psychology, Fourth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 2 Split Brain Studies •Sperry (1960 - 1998) – First to study patients with a split corpus callosum – Two lobes function independently •Gazzaniga (1980’s- current) – Two lobes function complimentarily
  • Cognitive Psychology, Fourth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 2 Split Brain Methodology •Corpus callosum severed •Techniques used test each half-brain
  • Cognitive Psychology, Fourth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 2 Split Brain Studies Demonstrate Hemispheric Specialization •Left Lobe – Language functions (speech, song) – Logical thought (writing, logic) •Right Lobe – Spatial-relation functions – Perception of rhythm, abstract or intuitive thought
  • Cognitive Psychology, Fourth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 2 Split Brain Demonstration What would a split brain patient say they saw? What would a split brain patient point to with their left hand?
  • Cognitive Psychology, Fourth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 2 Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex •Frontal – Reasoning & Planning •Parietal – Touch, Temperature, Pain, & Pressure •Temporal – Auditory & Perceptual processing •Occipital – Visual processing
  • Cognitive Psychology, Fourth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 2 Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex