Research Tools Box - The Effective Use of Research Tools Box

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•Find literature associated with the topic.
•Search and analyze the literature.
•Evaluate the paper before reading.
•Cite literature properly.
•Make a summary table of reviewed papers.
•Avoid plagiarism.
•Write a journal article based on literature review.

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Research Tools Box - The Effective Use of Research Tools Box

  1. 1. Research Tools Box
  2. 2. The Effective Use of Research Tools BoxNader Ale EbrahimDepartment of Engineering Design and Manufacture,Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur,MalaysiaEmail: aleebrahim@perdana.um.edu.my
  3. 3. Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  4. 4. IntroductionThe search can be time consuming and sometimes tedious task. How can make it easier? How do deal with situations such as:• “I just join as new postgraduate students and I am not sure how to do a literature search”• “I have been into research for sometimes now but I spend a lot of time to get the articles I want”• “I am sure I have downloaded the article but I am not able to find it”• “I wanted to write a new paper, how can I manage the references in the shortest possible time?”• “I have many references, some for my old papers, and some for my current research. Sometimes, they are so many that I can’t recall where I have kept them in my folders!”• ……..• “I have written an article and I am not able to find a proper Journal”• "I want to increase the citation of my papers, how do I do?" Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  5. 5. Objectives– To reduce the search time by expanding the knowledge of researchers to more effectively use the "tools" that are available through the Net.– To evaluate the types of literature that researchers will encounter.– To convert the information on the search for a written document.– Help researchers learn how to search and analyze the right journal to submit.– To promote their publication for further citation. Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  6. 6. Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  7. 7. Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  8. 8. Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  9. 9. How to Conduct an Effective Literature Review
  10. 10. Outline• Find literature associated with the topic.• Search and analyze the literature.• Evaluate the paper before reading.• Cite literature properly.• Make a summary table of reviewed papers.• Avoid plagiarism.• Write a journal article based on literature review. Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  11. 11. The literature review In your literature review, you should: – clarify your understanding of the field – explain the rationale for your research – place your research within a broader context – evaluate the results of previous research – define key concepts and ideas – identify research in related areas that are generalisable or transferable to your topic – identify relevant methodological issues.UNE. 2009. The literature review [Online]. University of New England. Available:http://www.une.edu.au/library/eskillsplus/literature/litreview.php [Accessed 25 January 2010]. Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  12. 12. The literature review A literature review ensures that you are at least familiar with the body of research in your field before starting your own investigations. Writing a literature review also provides practice in critical thinking. Once you have applied critical thinking skills to the findings of past researchers, you are in a better position to apply these same skills to your own work.UNE. 2009. The literature review [Online]. University of New England. Available:http://www.une.edu.au/library/eskillsplus/literature/litreview.php [Accessed 25 January 2010]. Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  13. 13. Systematic Review 1/2• A systematic literature review is a means of identifying, evaluating and interpreting all available research relevant to a particular research question, or topic area, or phenomenon of interest. Individual studies contributing to a systematic review are called primary studies; a systematic review is a form a secondary study. Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  14. 14. Systematic Review 2/2• A systematic review is a literature review focused on a research question that tries to identify, appraise, select and synthesize all high quality research evidence relevant to that question.Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Systematic_review• A Guide to Writing the Dissertation Literature Review Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  15. 15. Reasons for Performing Systematic Reviews• To summarise the existing evidence concerning a treatment or technology e.g. to summarise the empirical evidence of the benefits and limitations of a specific agile method.• To identify any gaps in current research in order to suggest areas for further investigation.• To provide a framework/background in order to appropriately position new research activities.However, systematic reviews can also be undertaken to examine the extent to which empirical evidence supports/contradicts theoretical hypotheses, or even to assist the generation of new hypotheses Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  16. 16. The Systematic Review Process Planning the review Systematic review Conducting Reporting the review the reviewSource: Adapted from Systematic Review Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  17. 17. Planning the review1. Identification of the need for a review2. Development of a review protocol. (The most important activity during protocol is to formulate the research question.) Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  18. 18. Conducting the review1. Identification of research2. Selection of primary studies3. Study quality assessment4. Data extraction & monitoring5. Data synthesis. Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  19. 19. Reporting the reviewReporting the review is a single stage phase. Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  20. 20. Checklist for reading a review paper• What are the review’s objectives?• What sources were searched to identify primary studies? Were there any restrictions?• What were the inclusion/exclusion criteria and how were they applied?• What criteria were used to assess the quality of primary studies and how were they applied?• How were the data extracted from the primary studies?• How were the data synthesised? How were differences between studies investigated? How were the data combined? Was it reasonable to combine the studies? Do the conclusions flow from the evidence? Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  21. 21. Checklist for reading a review paper-From a more general viewpoint• Can you find an important question, which the review addressed?• Was a thorough search done of the appropriate databases and were other potentially important sources explored?• Was methodological quality assessed and the trials weighted accordingly?• How sensitive are the results to the way that the review has been done?• Have numerical results been interpreted with common sense and due regard to the broader aspects of the problem? Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  22. 22. Working with literature Working with Literature Find it! Manage it! Use it! Review it! Knowing the Reading Choosing your research Understanding the literature types efficiently topic lit review’s purpose Keeping track Ensuring adequate Using available resources Developing your question of references coverage Honing your Writing relevant Arguing your Writing search skills annotations rationale purposefully Informing your work with Working on theory style and tone Designing methodResearch Tools Box©2012 By: Nader Ale Source: OLeary, Z. (2004) The Essential Guide to Doing Research. London: Sage - Chapter SixEbrahim
  23. 23. Narrow the area of research R&D and Distributed Teams Focus of the literature Review SMEs, Virtual R&D teams and NPD NPD and Virtuality Virtual Teams Virtual R&D teams and SMEs R&D NPD SMEs and Virtual Teams SMEsR&D and NPDSMEs and R&D NPD and SMEs Ale Ebrahim, N., Ahmed, S., & Taha, Z. (2009). Virtual R & D teams in small and medium enterprises: A literature review. [Review]. Scientific Research and Essay, 4(13), 1575–1590. Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  24. 24. Review biases• Read outdated version of a paper/book• Read without writing• Read unlinked papers (detect as much of the relevant literature as possible)• Read before planning (defining a review protocol that specifies the research question being addressed)• Start reading with few resources• Language bias• Publication bias Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  25. 25. Search for proper article
  26. 26. Effective Search Strategy-1An effective search strategy can save hours of wasted research time and provide a clear direction for your research. The benefits of attending this workshop are numerous and include learning how to change the direction of research to discovery and how to use more efficient the tools that are available through the Internet Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  27. 27. Effective Search Strategy-2• an understanding of the types of information available• the skills to use the various research tools• an appreciation of how to access this information• the strategies to evaluate the literature Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  28. 28. Effective searching» Developing a search strategy » Searching the library catalogue » Finding journal articles and papers » Searching the Internet » Other sourcesSource: http://learnline.cdu.edu.au/myresearch/plan/searchstrategy.html Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  29. 29. Developing a search strategy• » Defining the topic » Considering the scope of your topic » Identifying the main or important aspects » Compiling a list of keywords » Developing your search strategy• It is important to develop a search strategy to, not only, find the information you need but to also clarify your topic. Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  30. 30. How to Find and Develop a Viable Research Topic?Step One: Identify a Topic.Step Two: Test Your Topic.Test the main concepts or keywords in your topic by looking them up in the appropriate background sources or by using them as search terms.If you are finding too much information and too many sources, narrow your topic by using the and operatorFinding too little information may indicate that you need to broaden your topic. Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  31. 31. KeywordsSelecting keywords lead to get more citation. Web of Science Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  32. 32. Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  33. 33. Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  34. 34. KeyWords PlusHi there! This issue, we are going to explain how KeyWords Plus broadens your search. KeyWords Plus is the result of our Thomson Reuters editorial expertise in Science. What our editors do is to review the titles of all references and highlight additional relevant but overlooked keywords that were not listed by the author or publisher. With KeyWords Plus, you can now uncover more papers that may not have appeared in your search due to changes in scientific keywords over time.Thanks and keep your feedback and questions coming!Smiles, Lim Khee Hiang Ph.D., Principal Consultant Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  35. 35. KeyWords Plus- Example• New Product Development in Virtual Environment (ISI Indexed)• Author Keywords: New product Development; Virtual teams; Concurrent Collaboration; Review paper• KeyWords Plus: DEVELOPMENT TEAMS; PERFORMANCE; TECHNOLOGY; KNOWLEDGE; COMMUNICATION; PERSPECTIVE; INTEGRATION; INNOVATION; NETWORK; WORKING Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  36. 36. Finding review articles• To demonstrate finding review articles in a Google Scholar search, enter the search:• "health insurance""review article" and click on the Search button. Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  37. 37. Critically Analyzing Information Sources1- Initial Appraisal: Author Date of Publication Edition or Revision Publisher Title of Journal (Distinguishing Scholarly Journals from other Periodicals)2- Content Analysis: Intended Audience Objective Reasoning Coverage Writing Style Evaluative Reviews Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  38. 38. Keywords used in the researchSource: PÓS, P., DE PRODUÇÃO, G. P. D. E. E., SISTEMAS, E. & FERREIRA, P. G. S. 2011. THECOMPREHENSION OF PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT INDICATORS BY VIRTUAL TEAMS. Master ofScience in Industrial and Systems Engineering. Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  39. 39. h-index (Jorge E. Hirsch)• A scientist has index h if h of [his/her] Np papers have at least h citations each, and the other (Np − h) papers have at most h citations each. H-index from a plot of decreasing citations for numbered papers Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
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  42. 42. Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
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  45. 45. Where to Find Research Literature• ISI Web of Knowledge• Research tools Mind Map (Refer to “search for proper article” section) Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  46. 46. Web of Science Coverage Expansionby ThomsonReuters on 04-27-2010 01:42 PM In recent years we have witnessed an explosion in the production and availability of scholarly research results. This growth is reflected in the gradual expansion of journal coverage in the Web of Science. Journal coverage in Web of Science consists of three major indexes, namely the (Science Citation Index Expanded, the Social Sciences Citation Index, and the Arts & Humanities Citation Index. In addition, the Conference Proceedings Citation Index (formerly ISIProceedings) became an edition of Web of Science in October) 2008. In 2000 journal coverage in Web of Science totaled 8,684 titles. In 2005, Web of Science covered 9,467 journals, an increase of 9%. As of April 1, 2010 11,519 journals are covered in Web of Science, and increase of 22%. Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  47. 47. Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
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  50. 50. Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
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  59. 59. Published Items in Each Year (Retrieved on 2 December 2011) from WOS Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  60. 60. Citations in Each Year (Retrieved on 2 December 2011) from WOS Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  61. 61. Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  62. 62. Citation tracking• Citation indexes allows you to search the academic literature in ways that illuminate the progress of academic debate in your field. With a citation index, you can easily identify the most influential articles, and the leading academic authorities. You can track backwards (using lists of cited articles) and forwards (using lists of articles which cite a particular article). As a result, you can determine the position of academic debate at any time in the past Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  63. 63. Cited Reference Searching Traditional search Cited reference search 2004 2003 paper paper 1987 1993 paper paper 1996 19961982 paper 1982 paperpaper 1957 paper 1957 paper paper Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  64. 64. Literature Citation Information – Driving Discovery of“CLOSE Art” 2002 2004 2007 Times Cited 2003 2001 Cited References 2005 2000 Related 1998 Records 1993 2004 2000  Citing  …navigating 1998• Backward in time via Cited References 1994• Forward in time via Times Cited• and through Related Records Time 27 Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  65. 65. Paper/journal quality• Another guide to paper/journal quality is the general reputation of the association, society, or organization publishing the journal.• Leading professional associations such as American Psychological Association (APA) or the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) publish a range of journals that are highly regarded. Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  66. 66. For More Info. How to do an Effective Literature Search? Application Training Module Series I by Customer Education Team ts.training.asia@thomson.comStop Searching, Start Discovering
  67. 67. Review Paper Examples• Example 1• Example 2• Example 3• Example 4 Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  68. 68. Search Performance Subjects Research Methodologies Source information Result Effects Time Compression Technologies References simplification of structure identifying critical chain involvement of partners concurrent engineering development capacity Project management training & rewarding Case study(small n) Supplier integration product complexity concurrent product virtual production Empirical(large n) creative software pattern matching Theory -Building CAD technology project strategy E-collaboration Math. Modeling Process Model team structure manufacturing setting buffers quality control procurement organization www-based Experiment Framework techniques Simulation innovation pilot study statistical prototype lead user planning process product Review Quality design variety speed other Time cost tool √ √ √ √ √ (Clift, T.B et al 1996) √ √ √ √ √ (Griffin, A 1997) √ √ √ √ (Carter, 1997) √ √ √ √ (Hartley, J.et al 1997) √ √ √ (Athakorn et al 2001)√ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ (Xie, S. Q. et al 2002) √ √ √ √ √ (Kusar, J. et al. 2004) √ √ √ √ √ √ (Petersen. et al 2005) √ √ √ √ √ (Tan, C.L. 2006)√ √ √ √ √ (Roberts. et al 2006)√ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ (Zhou, Z. et al 2008) √ √ √ √ √ √ (Bashir, H, et al 2008) √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ (Ahlemann, F. 2009) √ √ √ √ (Selvaraj,P.et al 2009) √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ (Xia-Bao. et al 2009) √ √ √ √ √ (Lifang W. et al 2009)√ √ √ √ √ √ (Vinodh, et al 2009) √ √ √ √ √ (Hebert et al 2010) √ √ √ √ √ √ (Roemer, T. et al 2010) MOHAMMADJAFARI, M., AHMED, S., DAWAL, S. Z. M. & ZAYANDEHROODI, H. 2011(Article in press). The Importance of Project Management in SMEs for the Development of New Products through E-Collaboration. African Journal of Business Management. Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  69. 69. FIXSON, S. 2007. Modularity and commonality research: past developments and future opportunities. Concurrent Engineering, 15, 85. Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  70. 70. Keeping up-to-date
  71. 71. Keeping up-to-dateWhat is an alert service?• Many journal databases and book publishers offer free alert services. These are an effective means of keeping track of the latest research.• Alert services come in different forms. The most common include: – a search alert. This is a saved search which alerts you when a book or article that matches your search terms is published. – a TOC (Table of Contents) alert. Such an alert notifies you when a new issue of a journal is published, and provides you with the issues table of contents. – a citation alert. This advises you when a new article cites a particular work. – Most alert services are email-based. An increasing number are now offered as an RSS feed. If you are just beginning, you might like to try email alerts first. These are generally easier to create. Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  72. 72. Keeping up-to-dateAlert services are an effectivemeans of keeping track of the latest research. Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  73. 73. Keeping up-to-dateCreate a Google Alert• Enter the topic you wish to monitor.• Search terms:• Type:• How often:• Email length:• Your email: Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  74. 74. Example - 1• From: Google Scholar Alerts [mailto:scholaralerts- noreply@google.com] • Doctoral dissertation for the degree Sent: 2011/02/01 06:21 ‫ق.ظ‬ Subject: Scholar Alert - [ Virtual Teams: A "Literature of Doctor of Science in Technology to Review" + ebrahim ] be presented with due permission of•• Scholar Alert: [ Virtual Teams: A "Literature Review" the School of Science for public + ebrahim ] examination and debate in• [PDF] How to Conduct a Literature Auditorium T2 at the Aalto University• NA Ebrahim ... Page 10. Narrow the area of research ©2011 Nader School of Science (Espoo, Finland) on Ale Ebrahim SMEs NPD Virtual Teams R&D R&D and NPD SMEs and Virtual Teams R&D and the 4th of February 2011 at 12 noon. Distributed Teams SMEs and R&D Focus of the literature Review SMEs, Virtual R&D teams and NPD NPD and Virtuality ...• [PDF] Web Application User Interface Technologies • Aalto University• M Pohja ... are 7 Page 28. Introduction discussed in the next • School of Science section of this thesis. Finally, web servers may sup- port virtual hosting, content • Department of Media Technology compression and other things that may help manage client-server communication. Application ...• This Google Scholar Alert is brought to you by Google. Cancel alert Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim List alerts
  75. 75. Example - 2Document Citation Alert: 2 new resultsDocument Citation Alert for:Ebrahim, N.A., Ahmed, S., Taha, Z. Innovation and R&D activities in virtual team (2009) European Journal of Scientific Research, 34 (3) pp. 297-307. Cited 2 times.Access all new results in Scopus for this Document Citation Alert.In the table below, you can see the 2 new results for this Document Citation Alert.Results: 21. A collaborative model of engineering education for complex global environmentsQiu, R.G., 2010, Proceedings - Frontiers in Education Conference, FIE, art. no. 5673356, pp. S3J1-S3J5.2. University role in the development of future high-tech engineersIlas, M., 2010, 2010 IEEE 16th International Symposium for Design and Technology of Electronics Packages, SIITME 2010, art. no. 5650869, pp. 327-330. Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  76. 76. Keeping up-to-date Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  77. 77. Search Alert: 2 new resultsAccess all new results in Scopus for: AU-ID("Ebrahim, Nader Ale" 22974706300) AND (LIMIT-TO(AU-ID, "Ahmed,Shamsuddin" 35241743000)).In the table below, you can see the 2 new results for this Search Alert. Results: 2 Document Author(s) Date Source title Citations African Journal of Critical factors for new product developments Ebrahim, N.A., Business1. 2010 0 in SMEs virtual team Ahmed, S., Taha, Z. Management, 4 (11) pp. 2247-2257. Virtual R&D teams and SMEs growth: A African Journal of Ebrahim, N.A., Business2.comparative study between Iranian and 2010 0 Ahmed, S., Taha, Z. Management, Malaysian SMEs 4 (11) pp. 2368-2379.Access all new results in Scopus for: AU-ID("Ebrahim, Nader Ale" 22974706300) AND (LIMIT-TO(AU-ID, "Ahmed,Shamsuddin" 35241743000)).If you would like to Maintain your Scopus Alerts, click on the link below:http://www.scopus.com/alert/form/MyAlerts.url.We hope that this information is useful to you.If you have questions about this or other features of Scopus, Please visit our Info site.Your previous alert for AU-ID("Ebrahim, Nader Ale" 22974706300) AND (LIMIT-TO(AU-ID, "Ahmed, Shamsuddin"35241743000)) was sent on 4 Nov 2010Note: Results from CSA Illumina are not included in this e-mail alert. Your results list on Scopus for this e-mail alert can contain not onlynewly published documents, but also newly added archive material with an earlier publication date.This email has been sent to you by Scopus ®, a product of Elsevier B.V., Radarweg 29, 1043NX Amsterdam, TheNetherlands, Tel.+31 20 485 3911. You are receiving this e -mail because you are a subscriber to a Search Alert fromScopus.Elsevier respects your privacy and does not disclose, rent or sell your personal information to any non -affiliated third partieswithout your consent, except as may be stated in the Scopus Online Privacy Policy .By using the Search Alert, you are agreeing to abide by the Scopus Terms and Conditions .If you would like to unsubscribe from future mailings regarding the Search Alert mentioned above, please login to Scopusand go to My Alerts to delete this alert from your profile.© 2010 Scopus. All rights reserved. Any unauthorized use, reproduction, or transfer of this message or its contents, in anymedium, is strictly prohibited. SciVerse® is a registered trademark of Elsevier Properties S.A., used under license. Scopus® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale EbrahimDelivery Job ID: 11259:009013825:11252:009588722
  78. 78. Web 1 new result for "Virtual R&D teams"Virtual R&D Teams for NPD in SMEsALE EBRAHIM, N., AHMED, S. & TAHA, Z. (2008). Virtual R&D Teams for NPD in SMEs: Past, Present andFuture Trend. In: APCMOTTE2008 (Asia pacific Conference ...www.wepapers.com/.../Virtual_R&D_Teams_for_NPD_in_SM...This once a week Google Alert is brought to you by Google.Remove this alert.Create another alert.Manage your alerts. Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  79. 79. Paraphrasing
  80. 80. Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  81. 81. Desktop search
  82. 82. dtSearchGoogle DesktopWindows Search Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
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  84. 84. Reference Management
  85. 85. EndNote• EndNote is an almost indispensible tool for the serious researcher. And best of all, its free to all UM postgraduates! Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  86. 86. Why use EndNote?• EndNote allows you to create your own reference library. This library can be used to store the bibliographical details relating to the articles and books that you use. When it comes time to write your thesis, you can employ the library to insert references into your text and produce your bibliography. EndNote will save you hundreds of hours over the course of your research. Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
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  89. 89. Export to EndNote
  90. 90. ScienceDirect (Elsevier) allows you to check your desired citations, then click on the“Export Citations” link… Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  91. 91. … then you select which pieces of information you really want in your EndNote database,using the radio buttons, then click on the “Export” button to bring up the dialog box wehave seen before to transfer the temporary file into EndNote Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  92. 92. Humanities International Index is a bit more convoluted; I conduct a search, then click onthe first result from the search for more information Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  93. 93. Scanning through the icons at top, I spot the one that exports to Bibliographic Manager…naturally, I click on it to move to the next step (watch for icons like this within indexes) Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  94. 94. Click on the correct radio button to select EndNote, and we next see the comforting andfamiliar dialog box that allows EndNote to ingest our citation Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  95. 95. Target Suitable Journal
  96. 96. Where should I submit my publication? Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  97. 97. Impact Factor• The most commonly used measure of journal quality is Impact Factor. This is a number which attempts to measure the impact of a journal in terms of its influence on the academic community. Impact Factors are published by Thomson-ISI Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  98. 98. Impact Factor-Journal Ranking• Relative impact factors are often a better guide to the importance of a journal than raw numbers. JCR allows you to compare the impact factors of different journals in the same subject area• The Economic History Review has an impact factor of 1.051. At first glance, it would appear that this journal is relatively unimportant. In fact, it is arguably the premier English- language journal in its field (its major competitor, the Journal of Economic History Review, has an even lower impact factor: a mere 0.529!). Far more illuminating is the journals relatively high impact factor compared to other journals in the history of the social sciences. Economic History Review ranks first out of 15 journals in the Thomson-ISIs list of journals in this sub- discipline. Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
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  100. 100. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PRODUCTION RESEARCH Impact Factor in 2008Cites in 2008 to Number of items 2007 = 144 2007 = 278items published in: published in: 2006 = 280 2006 = 270 Sum: 424 Sum: 548Calculation: Cites to recent items 424 = 0.774 Number of recent items 548
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  105. 105. ImpactFactor Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  106. 106. Total Cites Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
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  108. 108. Getting published
  109. 109. Objectives• To improve the quality of articles.• To manage the submission procedure.• To evaluate Journal measuring factors (like: Journal Impact Factor, Immediacy Index, Cited Half Life, five Year Journal Impact Factor) before article submission.• To search and analyze the right journal to submit.• To identify journals to publish in or which journals are the best in a particular discipline.• To write and submit journal articles using time-saving bibliographic management tools.• To deal with the editor response• To deal with the Publishing Process (How to Deal with Proofs) Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  110. 110. Getting publishedWhy publish?Apart from the final thesis, you should also consider publishing your work as you go along. There are various reasons for this: – publications assist in final preparation of your thesis disseminating your knowledge and experience, – it gives you an academic profile and raises the profile of your institution, – research publications generate income for the University, – publications enhance your CV and may help in gaining employment, and – you may even become rich and famous - but dont count on it! Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  111. 111. Paper Structure• Title• Affiliation• Abstract• Keywords• Nomenclatures• Introduction• Materials and methods• Results and Discussions• Conclusions• References Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  112. 112. AbstractAbstract should not exceed 300 words (without reference).Abstract must include following sections:Problem Statement: This section should include answers of the questions: • Why was research needed?. • What was the context of the work?. • Introduce the problem or provide background for what you will address.Approach: • What did you do and how did you go about solving or making progress on the problem. • Describe the method of research, study, or analysis applied to the problem.Results: • What results did you get? • State what you found and relate it to the problem. • Summarize the major results in numbers, avoid vague, hand waving results such as “very small” or “significant”.Conclusions/Recommendations: • What are the implications of your answer? • State the relevance, implications, or significance of the results or conclusions, to the business. • Significance of work is often implied by the recommendations or implications for future work. Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  113. 113. Type of journal paper• Full-Length Paper• Communication (results of complete small investigations or giving details of new models or hypotheses, innovative methods, techniques or apparatus)• Technical note/Note (discussion related to a paper previously published)• Data bank• Viewpoint (concise, to the point, and bring novel new insights on a specific problem)• Review• Letter Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  114. 114. Choose a category for the paper• Research paper. This category covers papers which report on any type of research undertaken by the author(s). The research may involve the construction or testing of a model or framework, action research, testing of data, market research or surveys, empirical, scientific or clinical research.• Viewpoint. Any paper, where content is dependent on the authors opinion and interpretation, should be included in this category; this also includes journalistic pieces.• Technical paper. Describes and evaluates technical products, processes or services. Conceptual paper. These papers will not be based on research but will develop hypotheses. The papers are likely to be discursive and will cover philosophical discussions and comparative studies of others work and thinking.• Case study. Case studies describe actual interventions or experiences within organizations. They may well be subjective and will not generally report on research. A description of a legal case or a hypothetical case study used as a teaching exercise would also fit into this category.• Literature review. It is expected that all types of paper cite any relevant literature so this category should only be used if the main purpose of the paper is to annotate and/or critique the literature in a particular subject area. It may be a selective bibliography providing advice on information sources or it may be comprehensive in that the papers aim is to cover the main contributors to the development of a topic and explore their different views.• General review. This category covers those papers which provide an overview or historical examination of some concept, technique or phenomenon. The papers are likely to be more descriptive or instructional ("how to" papers) than discursive• Source: http://www.emeraldinsight.com/authors/guides/write/abstracts.htm?part=1#2 Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  115. 115. HOW TO WRITE/EDIT SCIENTIFIC PAPERS(I) MINDSET, (II) CONCEPTS, AND (III) LOGIC
  116. 116. I. Right mindset for writing“State your facts as simply aspossible, even boldly. No onewants flowers of eloquence orliterary ornaments in a researcharticle.” -R.B. McKerrow (Well-known British editor & educator 1882-1940) Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  117. 117. Example 1• Ok: It is clear that factor A up- regulates the pathway.• Better: Factor A clearly up-regulates the pathway. Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  118. 118. II. Modern writing concepts 1. Styles 2. Use “We” 3. Use active voice 4. Avoid vague IT, THERE, THIS/THAT 5. Avoid long sentence 6. Write a strong sentence core 7. One message per paragraph Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  119. 119. 1. Styles• BOG—Business or Government style, the more traditional style• CLEAR—Clear Easy Reading, the more modern style Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  120. 120. Example• BOG: It is anticipated that an annual training rate of 100 employees will be achieved by the time the program is fully operational.• CLEAR: When the program is operating at full capacity, we expect to train 100 people per year. Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  121. 121. 2. Use ‘We”We-sentence is a more-modern style, readsmore interesting, and communicates with thereader more directly.– We report …– We speculate …– We generated …– We measured … Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  122. 122. We-sentences appear in many leading journals• In this report, we define a mechanism for … and discover distinct roles for … We use … assays to … We demonstrate that … We provide evidence that … (Science) Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  123. 123. 3. Use active voice• Active voice is more informative, clearer, and more reader-friendly than passive voice. – The results indicate … – Table 1 shows … – Recent studies have reported … – Zhang and coworkers have suggested … Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  124. 124. Example 1• Bad: Twelve soil samples of 4 agricultural areas were investigated for…, and the co- relationships between … were analyzed.• Good: We investigated 12 soil samples of 4 agricultural areas for …, and analyzed the co-relationships between … Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  125. 125. Iyn dupré writes: (The author of Bugs in writing: A guide to debugging your prose)“If you want to learn only one technique to improve your writing substantially, you should learn to avoid using passive voice.” Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  126. 126. 4. Avoid vague IT, THERE, and THIS/THAT• IT is unknown.• THERE is no where.• THIS/THAT could be anything. Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  127. 127. IT is old style1. Old style: It is likely that it will rain soon.• Modern style: It will rain soon.2. Old style: It should be borne in mind that the current research has imitations.• Modern style: The current research has limitations. Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  128. 128. III. Logic issues1. Logic flow2. Connection3. Parallelism4. Redundancy Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  129. 129. 1. Use transitional words to promote logic flow• Also, and, again, further, furthermore• First, then, second, next, lastly• Soon, after, previously, meanwhile• But, yet, still, instead,• In short, in other words,• Similarly, consequently, accordingly Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  130. 130. 2. Connection of clauses1. Compound (and, but)2. Cause/effect (as, because, for, so, )3. In between (semicolon)4. Condition (if, whether, when)5. Concession (Although, even if, whatever)6. Result (so that) Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  131. 131. Example 1 She has a fever, and sheIncorrect:probably has an infection. She has a fever; sheCorrect:probably has an infection. Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  132. 132. 3. Parallelism1. Verb2. Subject3. Similar parts in a sentence4. Meaning Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  133. 133. Verb• Incorrect: She swims, plays basketball, and was running bicycles.• Correct: She swims, plays basketball, and runs bicycles. Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  134. 134. SubjectIncorrect: The ignition was tested, an examination of the belts was carried out, and the levels of the lubricants were checked.Correct: The ignition was tested, the belts were examined, and the lubricant levels were checked. Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  135. 135. Other parts• Not only, but also Bad: The plant is not only capable of growing on high-salt soils, but also accumulating concentrations of salts. – Good: The plant is not only capable of growing on high-salt soils, but also capable of accumulating concentrations of salts. – Better: The plant is capable of not only growing on high-salt soils, but also accumulating concentrations of salts. Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  136. 136. 4. Redundancy• Most-commonly seen problems in non- English speaking writers – Wording repetition – Sentencing repetition – Meaning repetition – Wordy Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  137. 137. Wording1. Bad: These differences grew smaller, and they finally faded out after a stimulation of 3 min.• Good: These differences grew smaller and finally faded out after a stimulation of 3 min. Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  138. 138. (Cont.)2. Bad: The result indicates that this assumption can be considered reasonable in some sense.• Good: The result indicates that this assumption may be reasonable. Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  139. 139. Meaning1. Bad: A method to evaluate this effect, rather than to assume subjectively, was proposed.• Good: A method to evaluate this effect was proposed.2. Bad: As a rule, the temperature was generally adjusted to the room temperature.• Good: As a rule, the temperature was adjusted to the room temperature Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  140. 140. Selecting keywords Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  141. 141. Improving Readership of Your ArticlesAppearing at the top of the list of search results, and having a useful description of your work, greatly improve the likelihood that a reader will find and download your document.• Abstracts should include keywords that potential readers are likely to use in searches. It is especially valuable to modify and reuse words that appear in the documents title and full text to improve the articles rank when readers search for those words.• The first sentence of the abstract is all that is likely to be displayed in the search page results, so make your first sentence one that will encourage readers to click the link. Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  142. 142. Using keywords• Using keywords is a vital part of abstract writing, because of the practice of retrieving information electronically: keywords act as the search term. Use keywords that are specific, and that reflect what is essential about the paper. Put yourself in the position of someone researching in your field: what would you look for? Consider also whether you can use any of the current "buzzwords".Source: http://www.emeraldinsight.com/authors/guides/write/abstracts.htm?part=1#2 Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  143. 143. Paper submission
  144. 144. Author Self CheckIs the title of the paper well described clearly and shortly?Is the abstract addressed the summary of the manuscript?Are the keywords selected wisely?Is the content of the paper treated original and innovating?Is the methodology well discussed (clear and accurate)?Are the paper structure and all figures well designed?Are all tables and figures in the paper useful and commented in the text? Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  145. 145. Author Self Check- Con.Are the parameters, legends and units well described in the figures and its axis?Is the nomenclature in the paper well described in the equations and the text?Is the introduction of the paper dealt the relevant topics?Are the experimental apparatus and procedure clearly described?Are the conclusions supported by derived results of this work?Are the references used latest and appropriate?Is the standard language Tools Box ©2012 Research used? By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  146. 146. Cover letter• Research background,• Innovation and significance of the research,• Latest publications• Relationship to prior publication Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  147. 147. Cover letterDear Professor Katsuhiko Ariga,Good Day!Enclosed is a paper, entitled " Small and Medium Enterprises; Virtual R&D (Research and Development) Teams andNew Product Development: A Literature Review." Please accept it as a candidate for publication in the AdvancedScience Letters Journal.Below are our responses to your submission requirements.1. Title and the central theme of the article.Paper title: " Small and Medium Enterprises; Virtual R&D Teams and New Product Development: A Literature Review." This study reviews the concepts of new product development and distributed teams in small and medium enterprises. It proposes the state-of-the-art literature review in order to provide an overview on the structure and dynamics of R&D collaboration in SMEs.2. Why the material is important in its field and why the material should be published in the Advanced Science LettersJournal?The necessity of having an effective virtual team network is rapidly growing alongside the implementation of information technology. Finding an appropriate virtual teams management has become increasingly important todays distributed environment. However, the conventional centralized architecture, which routinely requests the information by face to face meeting, is not sufficient to manage the growing requests for new product, especially in small and medium enterprises.Recently, a new phenomenon that uses virtual teams to assist the distributed R&D teams has emerged. The virtual teams reduce time- to-market, distribute SMEs risk in new product development, and improve SMEs operational performance. Given todays virtual teams demand over the SMEs, it is important for the “Advanced Science Letters Journal” readers to understand this new phenomenon and its benefits. This study gives a comprehensive literature review on different aspects of virtual R&D teams collected from the reputed publications. It is the first in the literature that reports the analysis of proceeding about the topic. We strongly believe the contribution of this study warrant its publication in the “Advanced Science Letters Journal”. Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  148. 148. Cover letter Con.3. List of FIVE (5) potential referees1-2-3-4-5-Finally, this paper is our (I, Prof. Zahari Taha and Associate Professor Dr. Shamsuddin Ahmed) original unpublished work and it has not been submitted to any other journal for reviews.Best Regards,N. Ale EbrahimPhD CandidateDepartment of Engineering Design & ManufactureFaculty of Engineering, University of Malaya (UM)Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysiahttp://www.researcherid.com/rid/C-2414-2009 Research Tools Box ©2012 By: Nader Ale Ebrahim
  149. 149. Acceptance Procedure

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