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CH 11 - Emerging Adulthood, Adult Development, and Aging
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  • Hello Class, Professor:My name is AferditaBodanovic and together with Linda Fang Natalie Cohen and Millaray Sandovalwe are presenting Chapter 11 Emerging Adulthood, Adult Development, and Aging.
  • In Chapter 11, we are concerned with the stages of Adulthood .We’ll explore a new concept of Development, introduced by Jeffrey Arnett, that he terms “Emerging Adult”.We’ll look at an overview of Erik Erickson’s 8 stages of development and focus on the latter 3 developmental stages:early adulthood, middle adulthood and late adulthood We’ll also identify the developmental processes in adulthood which includes thephysical, cognitive, and socioemotionalaspects of adults in these stages. And finally, we’ll end our presentation with a brief discussion on death and grieving.
  • Here, we’ll begin with the Nature of Development and merge into Arnett’s new theory, Emerging Adulthood.
  • What is the Nature of Development? It’s a pattern of change in our human capabilities that begins at conception, and continues throughout our life spans. When one pattern peaks and passes, a new pattern emerges and so, development involves patterns of growth and decline.
  • How old was the oldest living human?Life Span is the Maximum number of years an individual can live – currently recorded at 120 to 125 years old, and has not increased since the beginning of recorded history.
  • While the Life Span of the oldest living individualshas not increased, our Life Expectancy, has increased. The average Life Expectancy in the U.S. since 1900, has increased by 30 years to the age of 77. This evidences that Life Expectancy is dependenton what point in time in history we were born. Not only are we living longer, we are healthier. In fact, 15 percent of more than 400 centenarians, have never been diagnosed with the typical age-associated diseases like heart disease, cancer or stroke.Increase in Life Expectancy is due to advances in healthcare, and improvement in nutrition and lifestyle. If you think a life of easeand freedom from stress is necessary to live into your 100’s, think again. The New England Centenarian study found that the majority of people who were a 100 years old and older have had difficult lives --from extreme poverty to surviving the Holocaust. It is the ability to cope successfully with stress that has contributed to our survival as individuals.
  • Our Developmental Processes as adults is based on the physical, cognitive and socioemotional changes that occur during the stages of early, middle and late adulthood.Physical Processes are the changes that are biological in nature.While, cognitive Processes are changes in an individual’s thinking,and SocioemotionalProcesses are the changes in our relationships with other people, changes in our emotions, and changes in our personality.
  • These physical, cognitive, and socioemotional processes interplay with each other resulting in Developmental Changes.
  • Each stage of Erikson 8 Life Span Stages of Development consists of unique development tasks that confronts individuals with a crisis to be solved.
  • Erikson’s 8 Stages begins with infancy and ends with late adulthood. We are going to cover the crises that occur in Early, Middle and Late Adulthood.But first... We’ll talk about Emerging Adulthood.I now turn it over to Linda.
  • Thank you, Aferdita.Emerging Adulthood is a new theory that explains the transitional stage from adolescence to adulthood, which occurs during the ages of18 to 25, and is characterized by experimentation and exploration.Adolescence is said to begin in biology and ends in culture. In other words, biologically adolescence begins with pubertal maturation however, the transition to adulthood is largely determined by our cultural standards and experiences. Adulthood is the period in which we are adults. But what makes us adults?
  • In this video clip, Professor Arnett briefly describes what it means to be an adult and the stage of transition he calls “Emerging Adulthood.”[Video @ 14 – 1:50 then 4:15 – 5:04 total 2:25]
  • Early Adulthood begins in the late teens or early twenties and lasts through the thirties.
  • In Early Adulthood, individuals are at their peak health, with strong immune systems, and peak physical development for almost all sports. Anexception is marathon runners, who peak in their late thirties.An individual’s gender also plays a role as females tend to mature earlier than males.Female gymnasts and swimmers, often peak in their adolescent years.Because young adults are at their peak in terms of health and skills, they rarely recognize that bad eating habits, heavy drinking, and smoking in their early adulthood can impair their health as they age. As young adults we often only see the things we can do now and rarely understand the future consequences for our present actions.Once an individual has reached a peak, skills begin to decline. We’ll explore those later in this presentation when at about the age of thirty, these declines begin to become noticeable.
  • According to Jean Piaget, we reach the final stage of cognitive development between the age of 11 – 15. In the Formal Operational Stage we begin to think in abstract and logical terms, and begin to think aboutthings in ideal ways. For instance, we may begin to think about what the “ideal parent” is like, then we’ll test our parents to see how they measure up, and then form a hypothesis about our parents.
  • A newer cognitive development theory is that we move from Formal Operation, into Post-Formal Thought in earlyadulthood.Post-Formal Thought is reflective, relativistic and contextual thought in which we distinguish that the correct answer to a problem is relative to various aspects and context of situations -- in other words, solutions vary by situation. For instance, problems or ideas regarding work become distinct from those of home. Provisional thinking also comes into play and we become more skeptical to the truth and unwilling to accept an answer as final. Thus, we the find the search for truth can be an ongoingnever-ending process.As young adults we accept that emotions and subjective factors can influence our thinking. For example, understanding that a person thinks more clearly in a calm rather than an angry state.While the quality of our thoughts may or may not change there is some evidence that our cognitive skills do change. In early adulthood our accurate discrimination among visual stimulations decreases, while verbal memory and simple mathematical computation improves. For the most part, intellectual skills are strong in early adulthood.
  • In Early Adulthood, Erickson's sixth stage of development we face the choice, Intimacy versus Isolation.Intimacy, according to Erikson, requires commitment -- commitment to another person that is only possible when a person lets go of their own ego. At its core, intimacy involves finding one’s self, as we lose oneself to another, and form a joint identity. The commitment can be to a friend, lover, spouse, or some other form of solidarity. Seeking, and then failing to form some form of solidarity, leads to a sense of isolation.In 1930, a stable marriage was accepted as a standard goal of adult development in the United States. Currently the average duration of a marriage in the United States is nine yearsand we find that, both inside and outside of marriage, personal fulfillment has become a goal of many individuals in the United States. As a result of the cultural changes, more adults remain single longer than in the last few decades.I now turn the floor over to Millaray.
  • Thank you, Linda.Middle Adulthood is the developmental period from approximately 40 years of age to about 60.
  • In a woman’s late forties to early fifties, her estrogen level dramatically declines and her menstrual periods cease completely on average by the age 52, with 10 percent of women experience menopause before age 40.The loss of fertility is an important marker for women, and its approach means they must make final decisions about having children.There is an overall general decline in physical fitness throughout middle age and some deterioration in health. The most common health concerns at this age are heart disease, weight gain and cancer due to smoking.Estrogen decline in women, can produce sudden sensations of elevated body temperature called, hot flashes. Some women will have symptoms of nausea, fatigue, rapid heart beat, depression, or irritability. Most women however do not experience physical or psychological symptoms.Men in their fifties and sixties also experience a decline in sex-related hormones, called androgens, however, the decline is less rapid than the decline in women’s hormone levels.
  • Fluid Intelligence involves being able to think, reason and solve problems. It is considered independent of learning, experience, and education.
  • Crystalized Intelligence involves knowledge that comes from prior learning and past experiences. An individual’s accumulated information and verbal skills increase in middle adulthood.As we age and accumulate new knowledge and understanding, this intelligence becomes stronger and is based upon facts and rooted in experiences.
  • In a study that began in 1956 and has been repeated with new waves of participants... six areas of intellect were tested.Only 2 areas begin to decline in Middle Adulthood: Numerical Ability and Perceptual Speed.The other 4 areas increase in Middle Adulthood: Vocabulary, Verbal Memory, Spatial Orientation, and Inductive Reasoning.
  • Generativity is an adults’ desire to leave a legacy to the next generation, and achieve a kind of immortality. Adults promote and guide the next generation by parenting, teaching, leading and doing things that will benefit the community.These adults commit themselves to the continuation and improvement of society as a whole. They develop a positive legacy of the self for the next generation.Through parental generativity, adults provide nurturance and guidance to children.Through work generativity, adults develop skills that are passed down to others.Through cultural generativity, adults create, renovate or conserve some aspect of culture that ultimately survives.Whereas Stagnation, known as self-absorption, develops when individuals sense that they have done little or nothing for the next generation.
  • Late Adulthood begins in our sixties and lasts until death.
  • With aging, our resilience to stress declines and the likelihood of disease, increases. In 1999, Finch and Seeman proposed a theory about Hormonal Stress that states, as the body's hormonal system ages, there is lower resilience to stress, and an increase in the likelihood of diseases.According to this theory, as we age, the hormones that flows through the neuroendocrine-immuno pathway, our bodies main regulating system for responding to stress, remains elevated longer. Prolonged elevated stress hormone is associated with increased risk of diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, and hypertension.
  • Dementia is a global term for any neurological disorder in which the primary symptoms involve a deterioration of mental functioning.People with dementia often lose the ability to care for themselves and the ability to recognize familiar people and surroundings. An estimated 20% of individuals over the age of 80 have dementia.
  • The most common form of dementia is Alzheimer Disease. Alzheimer Disease is a devastatingly progressive, irreversible disorder that is characterized by gradual deterioration of memory, reasoning, language, and eventually physical functioning.
  • Approximately 4 million adults in the U.S.have Alzheimer disease.Early onset of this disease begins at about 30-64 years of age, and accounts for 10% of all cases.Late onset Alzheimer disease occurs more frequently beginning at age65 and older.As the disease progresses, the brain deteriorates and shrinks. Amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles cause the deterioration of the brain.While plaques and tangles are a normal part of aging, in Alzheimer disease, it is far more pervasive.I now turn the floor over to Natalie.
  • Thank you Millaray.Some aspects of cognition in Late Adulthood might actually improve with age.One candidate is Wisdom.Wisdom “may” increase with age because of the life experiences we have.However, not every elderly person has Wisdom, because individual variations characterize all aspects of our cognition. (thought, experiences, and our senses)
  • Inlate adulthood,Erikson's eighth stage, individuals engage in a life review that is either positive (integrity) or negative (despair).Life Review is a prominent feature in this final stage. It involves looking back on one’s own experiences -- evaluating, interpreting and reinterpreting them. If an older adult sees themself as having a negative past, that individual will produce doubt and gloom, which is where despair comes along.When a older adult believes they have successfully negotiated all or most of the previous stages of development, to reveal a life well spent, the person will feel a sense of satisfaction. Integrity has been obtained. In one study, older adults who obsessed about the past were less adjusted than those who integrated their past and present.At first the life review may consist of stray or seemingly insignificant thoughts. The older adult may reveal undisclosed characteristics or experiences to their spouse, children, or other close people with whom they associate.Hidden themes of great meaning can emerge thereby, changing the nature of the older adults sense of self.
  • Depression occurs in older adults and as much as 80% of adults receive no treatments at all. Major depression can result in suicidal tendencies. Nearly 25 percent of individuals who commit suicide in the U.S. are 65 years or older, predominantly male, lost a spouse or experienced failing health, and lived alone. 4 out of 5 who do get treatment produce significant improvement. Those are substantial numbers in marked improvement...
  • Interestingly, older adults reported more positive emotion and less negative emotion than younger adults, and positive emotion, increased with age in adults at an accelerating rate.Compared with younger adults, the feelings of older adults mellow. Emotional life is more even keel with fewer highs and lows. So while older adults have less extreme joy, they have more contentment, especially when they are connected in positive ways with friends and family.
  • Forming small social networks reflect the changing goals of older adults and their own choices. Linda Carstensen’sSocioemotional Selectivity Theory states, that older adults emphasize goals related to emotion, and become more selective about their social network. Older adults see themselves as having less time left to live and therefore are motivated to spend more time seeking emotion related goals. Older adults place a high value on emotional satisfaction and tend to spend more time with familiar people in which their relationships are healthy. The selective narrowing of social interaction maximizes positive emotional experiences and minimizes emotional risks as they become older.
  • As individuals age, they face cognitive losses and adjust to these losses through self-regulation. Bates refers to this as Selective Optimization with Compensation.There are three factors involved in successful self- regulation:Selectivity, Optimization and Compensation...
  • ... and individuals adjust best when they...Reduce Performance in areas they are not competent, selectivity.Perform in areas in which they effectively function, optimization.and Compensate in circumstances of high mental or physical demand, compensation.
  • We’ve come to the final topics of this presentation, Death and Grieving.Death is received differently according to the culture of the social group. A social group can be friends, family, tribes, a nation, political organizations, or religious communities, to name just a few. Some believe death is final, others believe in life after death, some believe the spirit of the dead stay with us in life, others believe they will join their deceased loved ones when they too, die, some believe we are eternally linked to our loved ones. And the practices and traditions vary widely. In Facing one’s death, we Accept that one day we will die. This allows us to establish and structure our time as we age. Andchange our priorities according to the future time left.
  • The following video illustratesKübler-Ross’ theory of the 5 Stages of Dying.This video clip is from Grey’s Anatomy, please be warned that it contains graphic surgical images. It may help if you keep in mind they use things like plastics, balloons, air, soap bubbles and ketchup to replicate these images.
  • In coping with the death of someone else we can experience Grief. Grief is a complex state in which an individual experiences: emotional numbness, disbelief, separation anxiety, despair, sadness, and loneliness that accompany the loss of someone we love.We have a short clip from the film Charlie St. Cloud. In this clip, the main character, Charlie, has lost his little brother, due to a car accident, in which he was driving the car.
  • Linda:When individuals were asked how happy and satisfied with their lives they are, no particular age group claimed to be happier than any other group. In fact, an analysis of a survey conducted on 170,000 people, in sixteen countries, from age 15 to 65+, shows that there is no relationship between age and happiness. Aferdita:Adolescents must cope with developing an identity, insecurity, mood swings and peer pressure. Yet the majority of adolescents develop positive perceptions of themselves: feelings of competence, relationships with others and an optimistic view of the future.Millaray:Older adults face reduced income, less energy, declining physical skills and concerns about death. Late adults also experience less pressured to achieve, have more time for leisurely pursuits, and hopefully, the experiences we gain makes us wiser.Natalie:Every stage of life span has its own challenges yet, we can derive an considerable amount of pleasure with the knowledge that we are likely to be just as happy in late adulthood as when we were in earlier stages.

CH 11 - Emerging Adulthood, Adult Development, and Aging CH 11 - Emerging Adulthood, Adult Development, and Aging Presentation Transcript

  • Chapter 11 Human Adjustment John W. Santrock
  • Becoming an Adult  The Nature of Development  Emerging Adulthood Developmental Processes  Early Adulthood  Middle Adulthood  Late Adulthood Death and Grieving EMERGING ADULTHOOD, ADULT DEVELOPMENT, AND AGING
  •  The Nature of Development  Emerging Adulthood BECOMING AN ADULT
  • THE NATURE OF DEVELOPMENT Pattern of Change in Human Capabilities that Begins at Conception and Continues Through the Life Span DEVELOPMENT
  • LIFE SPAN Maximum Number of Years any Member of a Species has been Documented to Live DEVELOPMENT
  • LIFE EXPECTANCY Probable Number of Years That Will be Lived by the Average Person born in a Particular Year DEVELOPMENT
  • DEVELOPMENT PROCESSES Physical Biological in Nature Cognitive  Individual's Thinking Socioemotional  • Relationships with People • Emotions • Personality CHANGES
  • ERIKSON 8 LIFE SPAN STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT Each Stage Consists of Unique Development Processes that Confronts Individuals with a Crises to Be Solved DEVELOPMENT
  • JEFFREY ARNETT EMERGING ADULTHOOD  Transition from Adolescence to Adulthood  18 to 25 Years of Age  Experimentation / Exploration TRANSITION INTO ADULTHOOD
  • When Do You Become a Grown-Up? YouTube Link as of 4/7/13 NBC Today Jeffrey Arnett, Research Professor Coined the term ‘Emerging Adulthood' Clark University in Worcester, Massachusetts Psychology Department EMERGING ADULTHOOD
  • EARLY ADULTHOOD Begins in Late Teens or Early 20’s Lasts Through 30’s Physical • Peak Cognitive • Post-Formal Thought Socioemotional • Intimacy vs Isolation ADULT DEVELOPMENT and AGING
  • Early Adulthood - PHYSICAL 20’s Health Athletic Performance Peak Exceptions: • Marathon Runners 30’s • Female Gymnasts/Swimmers Adolescence
  • JEAN PIAGET FORMAL OPERATIONAL STAGE  Age 11 -15  Combined Abstract and Logical Thought Adolescence - COGNITIVE
  • Early Adulthood - COGNITIVE POST - FORMAL THOUGHT Reflective, Relativistic & Contextual Provisional Realistic Open to Emotions & Subjective
  • ERICKSON’S 6TH STAGE INTIMACY - vs – ISOLATION Form Intimate Relationships or Become Socially Isolated Early Adulthood - SOCIOEMOTIONAL
  • MIDDLE ADULTHOOD  40 years of age to 60  Physical • Estrogen • Androgen Cognitive • Fluid Intelligence • Crystalized Intelligence  Socioemotional • Generativity vs Stagnation ADULT DEVELOPMENT and AGING
  • PHYSICAL CHANGES  Women: Estrogen Decline  Men: Androgens Decline  Heart Disease, Cancer and Weight Gain Middle Adulthood - PHYSICAL
  • JOHN HORN FLUID INTELLIGENCE Ability to Reason Abstractly begins to Decline Middle Adulthood - COGNITIVE
  • JOHN HORN CRYSTALLIZED INTELLIGENCE  Accumulated Information  Verbal Skills INCREASES Middle Adulthood - COGNITIVE
  •  Numerical Ability simple mathematical computation  Perceptual Speed quick and accurate discrimination in visual stimuli  Vocabulary encode/understand ideas expressed in words  Verbal Memory encode/recall language units (i.e. word lists)  Spatial Orientation visualize/mentally rotate 2 & 3 dimension space  Inductive Reasoning specific observations to broader generalizations and theories Middle Adulthood - COGNITIVEFluid / Crystalized Intelligence (cont.)
  • Middle Adulthood - SOCIOEMOTIONAL ERICKSON’S 7TH STAGE GENERATIVITY - vs – STAGNATION Leave a Legacy to Next Generation or Do Little or Nothing for Next Generation
  • LATE ADULTHOOD  60’s until Death  Physical • Hormonal Stress Theory • Dementia • Alzheimer Disease  Cognitive • Wisdom  Socioemotional • Integrity vs Despair • Socioemotional Selectivity Theory • Selective Optimization with Compensation Theory ADULT DEVELOPMENT and AGING
  • FINCH and SEEMAN HORMONAL STRESS THEORY Aging Body’s Hormonal System: Decreases Resilience to Stress Increases Likelihood of Disease • Hormones Remain Elevated Longer Late Adulthood - PHYSICAL
  • DEMENTIA Global Term for any Neurological Disorder In which the Primary Symptoms Involve a Deterioration of Mental Functioning Late Adulthood - PHYSICAL
  • ALZHEIMER DISEASE A Progressive, Irreversible Disorder Characterized by Gradual Deterioration of Memory, Reasoning, Language and eventual Physical Functioning Late Adulthood - PHYSICAL
  • Brain with AlzheimerTypical Aging Brain Late Adulthood - PHYSICAL Approximately 4 Million Adults in the U.S. have Alzheimer Disease
  • Late Adulthood – COGNITIVE WISDOM Expert Knowledge of the Practical Aspects of Life Buildup of Life Experiences May Increase with Age
  • Late Adulthood – SOCIOEMOTIONAL ERICKSON’S 8TH STAGE INTEGRITY - vs – DESPAIR  Life Review  Positive or Negative
  • MAJOR DEPRESSION Mood Disorder which individuals: Widespread – referred to as "common cold" of mental disorders Late Adulthood – SOCIOEMOTIONAL Feel Deeply Unhappy Feel Demoralized are Self-Derogatory are Bored Lose Stamina Easily Have Poor Appetite are Listless and Unmotivated
  • Late Adulthood – SOCIOEMOTIONAL
  • Linda Carstensen SOCIOEMOTIONAL SELECTIVITY THEORY Emphasize Goals Relative to Emotion More Selective Social Network •Spend More Time with Familiar People •High Value on Emotional Satisfaction Narrowing of Social Interaction •Maximizes Positive Emotional Experiences •Minimizes Emotional Risks Late Adulthood – SOCIOEMOTIONAL
  • PAUL BALTES SELECTIVE OPTIMIZATION WITH COMPENSATION THEORY Three Factors of Successful Self-Regulation  Selectivity  Optimization  Compensation Selective Optimization with Compensation Theory (cont) Late Adulthood – SOCIOEMOTIONAL
  • Individuals adjust best when they:  Reduce Performance in areas they are not competent (selectivity)  Perform in areas that effectively function (optimization)  Compensate in circumstances of high mental or physical demand (compensation) Selective Optimization with Compensation Theory Late Adulthood – SOCIOEMOTIONAL
  • DEATH AND GRIEVING  Death in Different Cultures  Facing One's Own Death Allows us to: • Establish and Structure Time • Change our Priorities  Coping with Someone Else’s Death
  • GRIEF (specifically over the loss of a loved one) • Emotional Numbness • Disbelief • Separation Anxiety • Despair • Sadness • Loneliness Video Link: Charlie St. Cloud DEATH AND GRIEVING: Coping with the Death of Someone Else
  • City University of New York Baruch College Spring 2013 PSY 3061 - Psychology of Life Experience Professor Jill Douek Presenters Aferdita Bogdanovic & Linda Fang Natalie Cohen Millaray Sandoval Textbook: Human Adjustment - John Santrock