P1 presentation - Nazanin

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P1 presentation - Nazanin

  1. 1. From Regional Disparity to Regional Synergy A research on feasibility of polycentric development in Tehran Metropolitan Region P1 Presentation Nazanin Babaee Hemmati 4119959 Graduation project, MSC 3 Urbanism Faculty of Architecture, TU Delft Date: 3.11.2011
  2. 2. Outline of the presentation Introduction Presenting the Context Problem Statement Government’s Vision Aim and Research Questions Methodology and Timeline
  3. 3. Introduction The world is undergoing the largest wave of urban growth in history. In 2008, half of the people lived in urban area. It is expected that 70 percent of the world population will be urban by 2050, and that most urban growth will occur in less developed countries (UN, 2008). What are the problems in big cities? •Congested transport systems, particularly roads; • Rising land costs; •Longer travel times to work • Decreased access to open space and the countryside; •Increased need for costly investments in new infrastructure; • Increasing pollution of air and water. Urbanized population percentage by countryIntroduction Presenting the Context Problem Statement Government’s Vision Aim & Research Question Methodology & Timeline
  4. 4. LocationIranTehran Metropolitan Region (TMR) The most populated city in Iran and the center of cultural, economical, political and social activities. Area: 730 km-sq Population: 9.10.347 One of the largest cities in Western Asia, and is the world’s 19th largest city.City of TehranIntroduction Presenting the Context Problem Statement Government’s Vision Aim & Research Question Methodology & Timeline
  5. 5. Tehran Metropolitan Region (TMR) With roughly 13.4 million people, TMR is Western Asia’s largest Metropolitan Region. The TMR is divided into 9 urban areas and 17 districts, encompassing Greater Tehran city and Karaj and their surrounding suburbs. Hosting one seventh of Iran’s population, the region extends over a surface of 1247 square kilo-meters (491.9 square miles).Introduction Presenting the Context Problem Statement Government’s Vision Aim & Research Question Methodology & Timeline
  6. 6. Geographical Situation The city, however, cannot expand along the plain in the south, due to the high levels of Ground water and the arid zone , nor can the city expand along the northern and eastern heights. So the city can only expand in the western direction due to its suitable geographical condition. Alborz mountains in the North of the metropolis Photo by Younes KolahduzTehran in 1985 and 2009 Topography of Tehran province (2006)Source: NASA Earth Observatory Source: Atlas of Tehran MetropolisIntroduction Presenting the Context Problem Statement Government’s Vision Aim & Research Question Methodology & Timeline
  7. 7. Transformation during the history Source: Master Thesis (Azadeh Mashayekhi)Introduction Presenting the Context Problem Statement Government’s Vision Aim & Research Question Methodology & Timeline
  8. 8. Regional Growth Source: Zebardast, 2010Introduction Presenting the Context Problem Statement Government’s Vision Aim & Research Question Methodology & Timeline
  9. 9. TMR (Current Situation) What we have now? Scattered urban structure in the metropolitan fringe with especial concentration near the infrastructureIntroduction Presenting the Context Problem Statement Government’s Vision Aim & Research Question Methodology & Timeline
  10. 10. Where People Live? Greater Tehran is home to more than 68 percent of the regional population, while Karaj accommodated 10 percent and other urban areas cover other 10 percent of the TMR population. The remaining 22 percent live in the metropolitan periphery. TMR population distribution 10% 12% Tehran Karaj 10% TMR fringe 68% TMR other cities TMR Density Source: Master Thesis (Azadeh Mashayekhi)Introduction Presenting the Context Problem Statement Government’s Vision Aim & Research Question Methodology & Timeline
  11. 11. Where People Live? The demographic processes in the Tehran Metropolitan Region (TMR) during the past three decades of 1966-1996 reveal that the population of the TMR has grown from 3.13 million in 1966 to about 10.34 million in 1996. During this period, the share of the Tehran City population has decreased from 87% in 1966 to about 65.5% in 1996 while the population of the rest of the TMR has grown from 14.2 % in 1966 to about 34.67% in 1996 . Tehran City TMF 100 Share of Population (Percent) 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1966 1976 1986 1991 1996 Year Source: Zebardast, 2010Introduction Presenting the Context Problem Statement Government’s Vision Aim & Research Question Methodology & Timeline
  12. 12. Where People Live? Limiting the City Boundary: The government policy in order to limit the population growth was restricting development between the 5 and 25yr boundaries. This policy resulted to the increase of land and property price in Tehran, accelerate spread of development into the Tehran urban fringe. Land became so scarce within that boundary and land prices got so high that private developers started to build, some illegally, on land in the restricted zone between the S- and 25-yr boundaries.Population density around the city of Tehran (2006)Source: Atlas of Tehran MetropolisIntroduction Presenting the Context Problem Statement Government’s Vision Aim & Research Question Methodology & Timeline
  13. 13. Where People Live? Growth of the Settlements in the metropolitan fringe1600000140000012000001000000 800000 600000 400000 200000 0 1956 1966 1976 1986 1996 2006 Introduction Presenting the Context Problem Statement Government’s Vision Aim & Research Question Methodology & Timeline
  14. 14. Where People Work? Tehran is the commercial heart of Iran. Tehran province has over 17,000 industrial units employing 390,000 people, 26% of all units in Iran. The province contains 30% of Iran’s economy, and comprises 40% of Iran’s consumer market.Areas with the greatest concentration of the low income people in the village around the city of Tehran (2006)Source: Atlas of Tehran MetropolisIntroduction Presenting the Context Problem Statement Government’s Vision Aim & Research Question Methodology & Timeline
  15. 15. Where People Work? Tehran is the commercial heart of Iran. Tehran province has over 17,000 industrial units employing 390,000 people, 26% of all units in Iran. The province contains 30% of Iran’s economy, and comprises 40% of Iran’s consumer market. TMR has an unequal distribution of workplaces, heavily skewed in favor of Tehran, and its business and financial centre in the City of Tehran. • Around 62 percent (about 2.6 million) of all regional workers, work in Tehran. • Karaj the other big city in TMR has 12 percent of the workers. • The remaining of 26 percent is working in the surrounding urban areas. TMR labors distribution 26% Tehran Karaj 12% 62% TMR peripheryAreas with the greatest concentration of the low income people in the village around the city of Tehran (2006)Source: Atlas of Tehran MetropolisIntroduction Presenting the Context Problem Statement Government’s Vision Aim & Research Question Methodology & Timeline
  16. 16. Economy 61 percent: banking, finance, insurance and business services sectors. 37 percent: industrial activities, manufacturing and construction. 2 percent: agriculture sector. 2% Agriculture 37% Industry 61% ServiceIntroduction Presenting the Context Problem Statement Government’s Vision Aim & Research Question Methodology & Timeline
  17. 17. Industries Iran’s Industrial Decentralization Policies (1973) A number of major urban centers were identified by the policy as growth centers within which to concentrate major national investments. They were to attract large-scale and private enterprises away from Tehran; • to constitute a system of secondary cities; • to absorb the surplus population of Tehran; • to narrow the gap between rural and urban areas in terms of their access to social and commercial services. (Zebardast, 1990) 61 percent: banking, finance, insurance and business services sectors. 37 percent: industrial activities, manufacturing and construction. 2 percent: agriculture sector. 2% Agriculture 37% Industry 61% ServiceIntroduction Presenting the Context Problem Statement Government’s Vision Aim & Research Question Methodology & Timeline
  18. 18. Infrastructure Commuting is characteristics of urban life in Tehran, which makes Tehran’s downtown overcrowded during the day time and nearly empty at night. Number of inner city daily travel: 15 million Travel by public transportation: 48% Travel by private car: 52%Source: Master Thesis (Azadeh Mashayekhi)Introduction Presenting the Context Problem Statement Government’s Vision Aim & Research Question Methodology & Timeline
  19. 19. Infrastructure Commuting is characteristics of urban life in Tehran, which makes Tehran’s downtown overcrowded during the day time and nearly empty at night. Number of inner city daily travel: 15 million Travel by public transportation: 48% Travel by private car: 52% Transportation in TMR 5% 5% Private car and motorcycle 16% Public taxi 52% Bus Minibus 22% MetroSource: Master Thesis (Azadeh Mashayekhi)Introduction Presenting the Context Problem Statement Government’s Vision Aim & Research Question Methodology & Timeline
  20. 20. Road Network (Current Situation) In TMR due to the concentration of over 13 million residents without a large effective public transportation network, automobile has easily found its place at the first stage in the Traffic and Transportation Network. (Tehran municipality official website)Introduction Presenting the Context Problem Statement Government’s Vision Aim & Research Question Methodology & Timeline
  21. 21. Public Transport Network (Current Situation) Metro Line: • In 2001 a metro system that had been in planning since the 1970s opened the first two of seven envisaged lines. Access to the metro Source: Atlas of Tehran MetropolisIntroduction Presenting the Context Problem Statement Government’s Vision Aim & Research Question Methodology & Timeline
  22. 22. Public Transport Network (Current Situation) Railway: • In 1881 one of the first railway lines in the Middle East was built between Tehran and Rey in Iran. This railway was first horse-hauled, later steam traction was introduced. The line was closed down in 1952. • In 1939, Bandar-E-Torkaman on the Caspian Sea was connected to Bandar-E-Emam Khomeyni on the Persian Gulf. Access to the metro Source: Atlas of Tehran Metropolis 1881- 1952: one of the first railway lines in the Middle EastIntroduction Presenting the Context Problem Statement Government’s Vision Aim & Research Question Methodology & Timeline
  23. 23. Airports and Station Tehran has: 2 Airports 1 Train Station 4 Bus TerminalsIntroduction Presenting the Context Problem Statement Government’s Vision Aim & Research Question Methodology & Timeline
  24. 24. Airports and Station Tehran has: 2 Airports 1 Train Station 4 Bus Terminals Imam Khomeini International Airport Mehrabad National Airport Central Station of TehranIntroduction Presenting the Context Problem Statement Government’s Vision Aim & Research Question Methodology & Timeline
  25. 25. Problem Statement 1. City of Tehran was formed around CBD 2. Boom of growth due to the: High birth rate; Migration from all over the country to the capital as an economic core of the country; 3. Limited the city boundary Surplus population forced to live in the satellite town in the metropolitan fringe due to their economic condition 4. Metropolitan fringe start to grow… 5. Marginalized area in the metropolitan fringe connected to parent city by road network for they daily needs.Introduction Presenting the Context Problem Statement Government’s Vision Aim & Research Question Methodology & Timeline
  26. 26. Traffic and Air PollutionIntroduction Presenting the Context Problem Statement Government’s Vision Aim & Research Question Methodology & Timeline
  27. 27. Traffic and Air PollutionIntroduction Presenting the Context Problem Statement Government’s Vision Aim & Research Question Methodology & Timeline
  28. 28. Unfair Life conditionIntroduction Presenting the Context Problem Statement Government’s Vision Aim & Research Question Methodology & Timeline
  29. 29. Unfair Life conditionIntroduction Presenting the Context Problem Statement Government’s Vision Aim & Research Question Methodology & Timeline
  30. 30. Monotonous LandscapeIntroduction Presenting the Context Problem Statement Government’s Vision Aim & Research Question Methodology & Timeline
  31. 31. Monotonous Landscape Source: Master Thesis (Azadeh Mashayekhi)Introduction Presenting the Context Problem Statement Government’s Vision Aim & Research Question Methodology & Timeline
  32. 32. Monotonous Landscape Rapid urbanization growth + Lack of regional planning and managementIntroduction Presenting the Context Problem Statement Government’s Vision Aim & Research Question Methodology & Timeline
  33. 33. First Master Plan of Tehran 1966 The first Comprehensive Plan of Tehran, drawn up by the Californian architect Victor Gruen in 1963–67, with an agenda to expand the metropolis was propounded. Gruen in Tehran’s comprehensive-plan used a linear version of Howard’s concept. He envisioned a city divided into ten large and fairly self-contained districts of 500,000 inhabitants linked to one another through a network of freeways and a rapid transportation system and surrounded by open spaces with a very low population density. The commercial facilities would be concentrated around the public transportation system. The master plan emphasized the idea of decentralization. Source: Master Thesis (Azadeh Mashayekhi)Introduction Presenting the Context Problem Statement Government’s Vision Aim & Research Question Methodology & Timeline
  34. 34. New Centrality The plan for the new centrality is the extension of the historical core of the Tehran in the both direction of the North and South.Source: Municipality of TehranIntroduction Presenting the Context Problem Statement Government’s Vision Aim & Research Question Methodology & Timeline
  35. 35. Vision for the TMR Preparation of Tehran Metropolitan (Region) Plan: Started in about January 1996 and the plan was finished in 1999. The process of plan examination and approval took more than 3 years. The plan was approved by the Cabinet in 2003.Introduction Presenting the Context Problem Statement Government’s Vision Aim & Research Question Methodology & Timeline
  36. 36. Vision for the TMR Preparation of Tehran Metropolitan (Region) Plan: Started in about January 1996 and the plan was finished in 1999. The process of plan examination and approval took more than 3 years. The plan was approved by the Cabinet in 2003. The proposed population of the TMR in the year 2020 would be about 17.8 million people. The proposed physical development pattern is polycentric, and the proposed strategies include the following: • Decentralization and De-concentration from the city of Tehran and devolution of responsibilities to lower level authorities. • Optimum utilization of existing infrastructure and utilities. • Strengthening the role and expansion of existing New Towns. (Zebardast, 2010)Introduction Presenting the Context Problem Statement Government’s Vision Aim & Research Question Methodology & Timeline
  37. 37. Vision of the Physical Structure of TMR Source: Zebardast, 2010Introduction Presenting the Context Problem Statement Government’s Vision Aim & Research Question Methodology & Timeline
  38. 38. Vision of the Road Networks of TMRIntroduction Presenting the Context Problem Statement Government’s Vision Aim & Research Question Methodology & Timeline
  39. 39. Vision of the Metro Line of TMRIntroduction Presenting the Context Problem Statement Government’s Vision Aim & Research Question Methodology & Timeline
  40. 40. Aim of the Project Problem AimIntroduction Presenting the Context Problem Statement Government’s Vision Aim & Research Question Methodology & Timeline
  41. 41. Research QuestionsTo what extent the concept of polycentrism which is proposed by thegovernment is feasible for Tehran Metropolitan region (TMR)????Introduction Presenting the Context Problem Statement Government’s Vision Aim & Research Question Methodology & Timeline
  42. 42. Sub-Research Questions • What is a suitable definition of polycentrism for the context of Iranian Metropolitan Region? • Why polycentrism is a suitable model for the TMR? • What are the trends in TMR? • How does Tehran Metropolitan Region responding to Change from mono-centric region to polycentric one? • How has government sought to encourage or discourage the polycentrism in the TMR, through urban plan and policies? • What are the urban planning recommendations for the TMR to deal with polycentric development?Introduction Presenting the Context Problem Statement Government’s Vision Aim & Research Question Methodology & Timeline
  43. 43. MethodologyIntroduction Presenting the Context Problem Statement Government’s Vision Aim & Research Question Methodology & Timeline
  44. 44. Timeline and PhasingIntroduction Presenting the Context Problem Statement Government’s Vision Aim & Research Question Methodology & Timeline
  45. 45. Thank youQuestions and Recommendations?

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