S Reid, Application of the MTC:R3 Typology Presentation Transcript
Application of the MTC:R3 Typology to New Zealand High-Risk Rapists: A Pilot Study. Sarah Reid Dr Doug Boer Dr Nick Wilson
Background Rapist heterogeneity Across interpersonal, psychological, cognitive and behavioral domains is a common research finding (Langton & Marshall, 2001). Classification systems Offer an organizing structure. enable greater understanding of differentiating core characteristics and offence motivations.
The Massachusetts Treatment Centre Rapist Typology Figure 1: MTC:R3 Typology (Knight & Prentky, 1990).
Sexually Motivated Opportunistic Impulsive, little planning. Motivated by immediate sexual gratification. Sexual Sadistic Presence of sexual fantasies. Fusion of sexual and aggressive drives. Sexual Non-Sadistic Enduring sexual preoccupation.
Pervasively Angry Undifferentiated anger, in all areas of life. Poor behavioural control and impulsivity. Vindictive Anger focussed solely on women. Goal is to humiliate, degrade, harm their victim. Usually socially isolated, displays little impulsivity. Anger Motivated
Based on needs of CSO’s (Gannon et al, 2008). Meta-analytic data Not enough evidence to determine whether rapist treatment approaches had been effective (Polaschek et al, 1997; Losel & Schmuker, 2005). Current treatment approaches Differentially effective for subgroups of rape offenders (Beech et al, 2004). Rapist Classification and Treatment
Study Questions Can the MTC: R3 be used to classify a sample of high-risk New Zealand rapists? Are there mean differences in these high-risk rapists on risk assessment scores based on MTC: R3 classifications?
10 offenders selected for the Adult Treatment Sex Offender Treatment Pilot Programme (ASOTP). Index offence for serious sexual assault (sentenced to five years plus) of an adult victim (over 16 years old). 6 NZ European , 4 Maori. 31 - 49 years. Participants
The Risk of re-Conviction X Risk of Re-Imprisonment model (RoC*RoI) (Bakker, O’Malley, & Riley, 1998). The Automated Sexual Recidivism Scale (ASRS) (Skelton, Wales & Vess, 2006). The Static-99 (Hanson & Thornton, 1999). The Violence Risk Scale-Sexual Offender Version (VRS-SO) (Wong, Olver, Nicholaichuk, & Gordon, 2003). Measures
Can the MTC: R3 be used to classify a sample of high-risk New Zealand rapists?
MTC: R3 Classification Figure 2: MTC:R3 Classification of the Study Sample
Are there mean group differences on risk assessment scores?
MTC: R3 Classification & Risk Prediction Table 1. Means for Risk Measures by MTC:R3 Classification
Conclusions Results supported the application of the MTC: R3 typology to this sample of New Zealand high-risk rapists. Mean differences on risk assessment items suggest that rapists may present differing patterns of risk on the basis of MTC: R3 classification. The MTC: R3 typology may have potential applications in rapist treatment programmes.
Further Information Reid, S., Wilson, N., & Boer, D. (2010). Risk, needs, and responsivity principles in action: tailoring rapist treatment to rapist typologies. In D.P. Boer, R. Eher., L. A. Craig., M. H. Miner., & F.Pfafflin(Eds.), International Perspectives on the Assessment and Treatment of Sexual Offenders: Theory, Practice, and Research (pp. 287-297). West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell. Reid, S.L., Wilson, N.J., & Boer, D. P. (2010). Application of the Massachusetts treatment centre revised rapist typology to New Zealand high-risk rapists: A pilot study. Sexual Abuse in Australia and New Zealand, 2(2): 77-84.
References Bakker, L., O'Malley, J., & Riley, D. (1998). Storm Warning: Statistical Models for Predicting Violence. Christchurch, New Zealand: Department of Corrections, Psychological Service. Beech, A., Olver, C., Fisher, D., and Beckett, R. C. (2004). STEP 4: An evaluation of the relevance of the core sex offender treatment programme for rapists and sexual murderers. A report to the British Home Office by the STEP team. Gannon, T. A., Collie, R. M., Ward, T., & Thakker, J. (2008). Rape: Psychopathology, theory and treatment. Clinical Psychology Review, 28, 982-1008. Hanson, R. K., & Thornton, D. (2000). Static 99: Improving Actuarial Risk Assessments for Sex Offenders. Ottawa: Department of the Solicitor General of Canada. Knight, R. A., & Prentky, R. A. (1990). Classifying sexual offenders: The development of corroboration of taxonomic models. In W. L. Marshall, D. R. Laws, & H. E. Barbaree (Eds.), Handbook of Sexual Assault (pp. 23-52). New York: Plenum. Langton, C. M., & Marshall, W. L. (2001). Cognition in rapists: Theoretical patterns by typological breakdown. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 6, 499-518. Lösel, F., & and Schmucker, M. (2005). The effectiveness of treatment for sexual offenders: A comprehensive meta-analysis, Journal of Experimental Criminology, 1, 117–146. Polaschek, D. L. L., Ward, T., & Hudson, S. M. (1997). Rape and rapists: Theory and treatment. Clinical Psychology Review, 17 (2), 118-144. Skelton, A., Riley, D., Wales, D., & Vess, J. (2006). Assessing risk for sexual offenders in New Zealand: Development and validation of a computer-scored risk measure. Journal of Sexual Aggression, 12, 277-286. Wong, S., Olver, M., Nicholaichuk, T., & Gordon, A. (2000).Manual for theViolence Risk Scale: Sex Offender Version (VRS:SO). Saskatoon Regional Forensic Centre, Saskatoon, Canada.