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R Anand, Social relationships of adolescents
 

R Anand, Social relationships of adolescents

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  • During adolescence there is opportunity to come into contact with a broader range of adults who might be community members, teachers and extended family members. Due to the differential nature of living arrangements youth tend to develop close relations with one or more of their non parent adults. The social relationships formed are relevant to the situations within which the young immigrants live (Chen and Farruggia, 2002). Healthy adolescent development is promoted by the optimal utilization of social support provided by family and acceptance and openness concerning ways to cope with difficulties (Chung, 2001 Adolescence is a crucial phase during which young people may experience both positive (through sports and art groups) and negative (breakdown of family, difficulty with peer-groups) encounters. These experiences might prompt them to form supportive relationships with non-parent adults living within their community. (Beam, Chen and Greenberger, 2002 ).
  • New Zealand is a multi cultural society with different lifestyles and ethnic groups. This study explores and compares the social relationships of immigrant children living in nuclear and communal settings and highlights the associations that promote positive adolescent behaviour; this has important implications for parents, educators and allied practitioners  . The process of acculturation is the extent to which a group or individual endorses cultural maintenance and the degree to which they engage in contact and participation with the host culture (Berry, 1997). Adolescents living in communal settings have longer term relationships with kin rather than non-kin non-parent adults.
  • What is the nature of the support or social relationship? Who and where do adolescents seek support? How and why do adolescents seek support? How different is the social relationship for young people living in a nuclear setting from those in a communal setting? What is the difference between social relationships that are formed within kin and non-kin groups?
  • Presentation and discussion with the Management or Principal of the participating school. Information sheets and informed consent Two stages. Firstly a discussion with the students will be held to offer information on the purpose of the study Stage 2 –students are chosen from communal settings and 2 from nuclear settings.
  • Participating students will check for accuracy of recording and make changes if needed before signing the questionnaire to add to the validity aspect of the study
  • Thematic analysis helps data to be carefully sorted and re-sorted to produce a system of categories or themes .These categories or themes that start to emerge help to justify the fitting of a category or theme within the respective groups (Charmaz, 1995).
  • of adolescents and their parents was obtained prior to the questionnaire survey commencing through the school chosen for this project. Students who wished to participate in the study were given letters informing them on the aim of study, timeframe involved and possible outcomes.
  • The research findings can be divided into two main domains: Each of the domains had relevance to process of acculturation: cultural adjustment; cultural maintenance and family relationships. For ease of understanding and categorising I have coded or themed the participants based on as A and F according to their closeness of relationship with their respective social group (A refers to aunt and F to friend). participants from nuclear settings were NZ born immigrants participants from the communal settings were very recent immigrants who had been resident in New Zealand for the last three years. Most significantly the study demonstrates that Sikh adolescents who were born in New Zealand and came from the nuclear settings had more social relationships with both kin and non- kin in comparison to the recent immigrant Sikh teenagers who lived in communal settings and who were still adapting to the immediate environment
  • All participants identified with their ethnicity had some kinship with their immediate ethnic community and most felt generally happy with their family life One recurring comment from the participants in the nuclear setting was that they were confiedne in forming strong relationships outside of the home environent. had ample opportunity to grow and adapt to the environment while the recent immigrants in the communal settings were still in the process adapting the new language, culture and social changes. as long as immigrant adolescents` interactive needs are met in a culture-sensitive manner, they are likely to weather the difficulties of the stormy adolescent phase and adapt themselves to both their immediate cultural environment and the wider socio-cultural environment .
  • The present adolescent sample was very small. A larger number of informants would be advantageous to validate any results
  • to understand how to identify at risk teenagers who might benefit from development programmes that facilitate social relationships of immigrant adolescents. Using a culture-sensitive approach ensure that the assistance given is appropriate and effective. The study could be a means of developing specific programmes that focus on improved outcomes for adolescents from ethnic minority groups by facilitating greater integration into the NZ environment. Larger samples might well indicate a difference in the way adolescents interact and prompt new ways of understanding teenager behaviour and the development of support programmes. While access to the Western culture and Western Worldview came through support from friends the adolescents had access to culture and language from within the family. (McLeod, 1992; Kapil, 1980). It can be argued that as long as immigrant adolescents` interactive needs are met in a culture-sensitive manner, they are likely to weather the difficulties of the stormy adolescent phase and adapt themselves to both their immediate cultural environment and the wider socio-cultural environment

R Anand, Social relationships of adolescents R Anand, Social relationships of adolescents Presentation Transcript

  • Feedback on Educational Research Project At an Auckland High School 5/8/10
  • Literature on Social Relationships of Adolescents
    • Adolescence is a period where social relationships are likely to be formed due to the interactions and opportunities that present in the lives of growing individuals.
    • The study of adolescents has important implications for parents, educators and practitioners as means of promoting adolescents` positive behaviours ( Walker,et al; 2007).
    • Structure of Family Settings
    • Societal systems may influence the kind of social relationships adolescents engage within or outside of the family (Greenberger & Chen, 1998).
    • Provides Strategies of integration that develops within these structures ( Ceci, Stephen, Papierno, Paul, 2005).
    • Support networks help children to form a belief system encouraging them to become more resilient( Padilla-Walker, Laura, Carlo, Gustavo,2007).
    • An avenue for betterment of youth to occur through formalised social relationships( Flynn, Heather, & Kohler, 2007; MacFarlane, Glynn, Grace, & Peneitito, 2006 ).
  • Communities and Belief Systems Significance to NZ Society
  • The Method
    • Aim: To explore 4 immigrant adolescents’ view of non-kin relationships in ‘nuclear’ and ‘communal’ settings.
    • Design - The study was undertaken using a multiple case-study method
    • The Research Questions
    • Small number of students - indepth understanding of social relationship patterns
    • Acknowledgement of issue of sensitivity –relationships, culture and gender
  • 2 immigrant adolescents in New Zealand living in nuclear settings with their parents, siblings 2 immigrant adolescents in New Zealand living in communal setting with extensive extended family support Participants & Procedure
    • Nature and frequency
    • Who do you seek support from outside your immediate family?
    • Where do you meet with them?
    • How often do you meet with them?
    Specifics through Visual Mapping
  • . The Questionnaire
    • From whom and where do you seek support?
    • How and why do you seek support?
    • What is the nature of the support ?
    • What are the issues you are comfortable to discuss with them?
    • What were the reasons for choosing someone within your family to confide in issues personal to you?
    • What were the reasons for choosing some one outside of your family to confide in issues personal to you?
  • Grouping and Coding Coding : For each of the two groups responses were coded according to the relationships with respective groups or people who were mentioned by the participants. Analysis
  • Ethics
    • Active consent –Parents and adolescents
    • Information to Participants
    • Informed consent, confidentiality of the data, minimising harm to participants through deception and the social sensitivity of their age, gender, culture , religion and social class
    • Recognise,acknowledge and preserve – family relationships
    • Care in reporting
    • T he findings suggested that communal family living was not necessarily associated with large numbers of relationships for support
    • Nuclear and communal
    • Categorising through theming
    • Insight into acculturation of participant
    • Insight into NZ born females in nuclear settings vs. their recently immigrated peers in communal settings
    • Insight into immigrant adolescents` kin and non-kin relationships in nuclear and communal settings.
    • Participants from nuclear settings were NZ born immigrants
    • Participants from the communal settings were very recent immigrants who had been resident in New Zealand for the last three years
    • (Small sample inconclusive around specific patterns ; however research generates questions around the area )
    Results Main findings
  • Discussion- Emerging themes Visual Mapping Details-Nuclear & Communal 3 family friends Mum Grandparents on dad`s side 5 friends 5 cousins Brother Dad 3 or 4 family friends Grandparents on mum`s side Communal Setting Code A -Close to Aunt Nuclear Setting Code F – Close to Friends Parents Friend Aunt Grandparents . Pattern of Relationships indicative of the Sikh community. While access to the Western culture and Western Worldview came through support from friends the adolescents had access to culture and language from within the family. (McLeod, 1992; Kapil, 1980 ).
  • Limitations
    • Sample size.
    • Nature of Study
    • Focus on a singe ethnic group
    • Gender
    • * Pilot for further study
    • The sample was not representative of the ethnic makeup of New Zealand and this could be improved by including a multicultural focused study, or, alternatively concentrating on one specific ethnic or national group.
  • Future Possibilities
    • Comprehensive research
    • Using a culture-sensitive approach ensure that the assistance given is appropriate and effective
    • Exploration of specific programmes
    • Facilitation –of improved integration into the NZ environment.
    • Worldwide research on immigrants suggests that integration that is related to psychological adaptation that is individual focused is the preferred mode of acculturation (Liebkind, 1992).
    • As long as immigrant adolescents` interactive needs are met in a culture-sensitive manner, they are likely to weather the difficulties of the stormy adolescent phase and adapt themselves to both their immediate cultural environment and the wider socio-cultural environment
    • (Ward,2001).
  • Acknowledgement Dr. Jean Annan – Supervisor Dalys Beetham,RTLB ;Kevin Deed,D.P – Project facilitation Parents of Participating students Participating Students of the High School