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  • 1. TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE PRACTICE: LAND USER ADAPTATION TO ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY IN THE LAKE TAUPO CATCHMENT
    • HEIN ROTH, MARGARET BROWN & NEELS BOTHA
    Paper presented at the 2010 NZPsS Annual Conference
  • 2. OVERVIEW
    • Introduction
    • Research aim
    • Model applied
    • Methodology
    • Results
    • Discussion (incorporating key learnings)
    2
  • 3. INTRODUCTION
    • ‘’ As man thinks in his heart, so is he”
    • Adresses the heart , the mind , and the behaviour
    • Environmental sustainability involves the totality
    • of the human being
    • Minimum research on the social impacts of policy
    • Focused on pastoral farming in Lake Taupo catchment
    • Long-term strategy to restore quality to 2001 levels by
    • 2080
    • Impact in costs in excess of $160M
    3
  • 4. RESEARCH AIM
    • To investigate farmers’ adaptation over time to
    • environmental policy changes in terms of their
    • emotional and perceptual responses and their
    • on-farm practice changes (behaviour)
    • To understand people’s emotional adaptation to
    • threat and how to best support them
    • Research started in 2005 and was completed 2009
    4
  • 5. KÜBLER-ROSS MODEL OF GRIEF Impact 5 Positive Negative Stage 1 2 3 4 5 6 State Status quo Disruption Exploration Rebuilding Reaction Shock & Denial Fear & Anger Bargaining Depression Acceptance Commitment
  • 6. METHODOLOGY
    • Semi-structured interviews (2005 & 2009)
    • 19 Participants (6 Farm Managers; 13 sole-owners)
    • Audio-taped, transcribed, check for accuracy,
    • data analysed & compared, reported
    6
  • 7. RESULTS: UNDERSTANDING OF RULES 7 2005 2009
    • Unfamiliar with detail
    • Familiar with rules & purpose
    • Questioned research findings
    • Unchanged
    • Unfair targeting of farmers
    • Unchanged
    • Residential developments
    • Unchanged
    • EW: (1) Financial impact
    • RC: (1) Unchanged
    • (2) National averages
  • 8. RESULTS: PERCEPTIONS OF THE IMPACT 8 2005 2009
    • Limited development potential
    • Unchanged
    • Personal impact unknown
    • Sole-owners (84.6%)
    • No impact on Managers (66.7%)
    • Community impact unknown
    • Sole-owners community split
    • Regional impact unknown
    • Lake Taupo Protection Trust
    • Social, infrastructural &
    • employment impacts
    • Tourism (Western Bays)
  • 9. RESULTS: ON-FARM PRACTICES 9 2005 2009
    • Fear of further change
    • Main responses: Wait and see
    • Production
    • Wait and see: NDA benchmark
    • Software issues
    • Lack of incentives
    • Manager motivation (83.3%)
    • Sole-owner motivation (31.8%)
    • Current economic climate:
    • “ Hope for the best”
  • 10. RESULTS: ON-FARM PRACTICES (MANAGERS) 10 2005 2009
    • Destocking
    • Wintering off
    • Land retiring
    • Effluent disposal
    • Other plantings (blue berries)
    • Considered:
    • - Detention dams
    • - Trialling Eco-N
    • - Downsizing herds
    • - Replace heavy cattle
    • Continued (83.3%)
    • Changing to deer
    • Better grass species
  • 11. RESULTS: ON-FARM PRACTICES (SOLE-OWNERS) 11 2005 2009
    • No change (61.5%)
    • No change (84.6%)
    • Changes by the 38.5%:
    • - High sugar grasses
    • - Decrease N fertilisers
    • - Trialled Eco-N fertilisers
    • Changes by 15.4%:
    • - Trialling Eco-N fertilisers
    • - Sold breeding cows
    • - Introduced lighter stock
  • 12. PROGRESSIVE ADAPTATION (2005-2009) Impact 12 Positive Negative Stage 1 2 3 4 5 6 State Status quo Disruption Exploration Rebuilding Reaction Shock & Denial Fear & Anger Bargaining Depression Acceptance Commitment 2005 Farm Managers 2005 Sole-owners 2009 Farm Managers 2009 Sole-owners
  • 13. KEY LEARNINGS
    • Emotional adaptation is occurring; differences exist
    • between landholding types in terms of emotional valence
    • and tempo of adaptation
    • Perceptual adaptation has not occurred with most
    • participants
    • Behavioural adaptation (on-farm practice change) is
    • occurring, with differences between landholding types
    • in terms of adaptation tempo.
    13
  • 14. WHAT CAN BE DONE?
    • Fear alone has limited impact to encourage and sustain
    • change
    • Sustained behaviour change involves the totality of the
    • human being.
    • Policy makers need to be prepared for the backlash and
    • consider and employ ways of helping people to cope.
    • Requires a collaborative approach involving policy makers,
    • rural and health professionals, researchers, agricultural
    • extension staff, and farmers themselves.
    14