Use of radiation to sterilise foods: How effective is it?
Electronic air cleaners: How do they work?
Nuclear reactors: How do they produce energy?
How do mag lev trains work ?
The role of force and momentum as used in sports equipment;
Riding a Segway: the physics of balance.
UV radiation: benefits and drawbacks.
How do combinations of muscles, bones, and ligaments in the human body produce mechanical advantage?
Explore the optical features of the eye and the potential sight problems.
Salters Horners Advanced Physics (SHAP) Context-led physics for students aged 16-19 A two-year programme (4-5 hours/week) leading to university entrance qualification Supported by published materials
Developed by teachers, academics and industrialists
Materials for teachers, students and technicians
Extension and revision materials
On-going support for users
Developing the complete SHAP programme took two years and involved: teachers university academics physicists and engineers working in industry publishers examination organisations sponsors
We researched a large number of contexts. We selected 11 for further development. Criteria for selecting contexts interest variety physics content at right level focus on 1-2 main areas of physics activities for students authentic data available
Principles for developing complete programme Progression in physics Progression in maths Variety and choice Activities for students Reliability Wider context
Progression in physics 1-3 main physics areas in each chapter Smooth progression Links between chapters Be selective. Do not try to cover all the physics relating to the context.
Progression in maths Include notes on basic maths Develop more advanced maths where needed Variety and choice Offer a range of activities Encourage teachers and students to select
Activities for students Use contexts are starting points Test activities to make sure they work Use authentic data Include simple activities
How do archaeologists decide where to dig? How can specimens be examined and analysed? Digging up the Past An example of a context-led chapter using archaeology
We researched several areas before deciding what to include Dating Thermoluminescence Carbon-14 Tree rings Artefact analysis X-rays Mass spectrometry Microscopy Spectroscopy Site surveying Geomagnetic survey Resistive survey Ground-based radar
This is what we chose to include Context Physics Comments Resistive survey of an archaeological site DC electric circuits Resistivity Modelling electrical properties Potential divider Builds on the Space Technology chapter X-rays in archaeology Electromagnetic spectrum X-ray absorption and penetration X-ray diffraction Builds on the Space Technology and Music chapters Microscopes in archaeology Resolving power and wavelength Electron waves
Site surveying dc circuits resistivity X-ray analysis of artefacts electromagnetic spectrum diffraction and superposition
Microscopic analysis resolution electron diffraction Archaeologists at work detecting fakes and hoaxes digging sensitive sites
Exploring the site A survey reveals areas of high and low resistivity that may indicate buried structures
SHAP students review earlier work on dc circuits measure resistance and resistivity compare resistivity of various materials display data on a log scale use a simple theoretical model to explain resistivity make and use potential divider circuits discuss ethical issues about digging sensitive sites
Analysing an artefact X-radiographs can reveal hidden features
X-ray diffraction help can identify chemical composition
SHAP students review earlier work on electromagnetic radiation learn about properties of X-rays review earlier work on waves use ripple tanks and lasers to explore diffraction and interference learn about X-ray power photography use X-ray data to deduce information about an artefact
Taking a closer look Microscopes can provide useful information about very small artefacts such as clothing fibres For some objects, such as pollen grains, electron microscopes are needed
SHAP students measure the resolving power of their own eyes learn how diffraction limits resolving power review earlier work on wave-particle duality (photons, waves) explore electron diffraction
SHAP publications AS (1 st year) AS Student Book ISBN 978 1 4058 9602 3 AS Teacher and Technician Resource Pack ISBN 978 1 4058 9603 0 A2 (2 nd year) A2 Student Book ISBN 978 1 4082 0586 0 A2 Teacher and Technician Resource Pack ISBN 978 1 4082 0587 7 Go to www.amazon.com and search by ISBN or call +44 800 579579
A possible scenario of how science education could look different in the future: “ At all levels Students are challenged to develop deep understanding through strategies that emphasise student questioning, exploration, and engaging with significant ideas and practices. There would be much greater interaction between schools and the science community and more emphasis placed on students’ active engagement in their own learning .”
“ To be effective, science-science education connections linking schools with scientists and science organisations need to be designed to play an integral part in the school learning programme and add value that could not be achieved without such a partnership.”
“ Development of effective collaboration … between science and science education … that will enable contemporary contexts to be used in teaching, and ensure that teachers …keep abreast with relevant developments in science.”