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Three different structural regions have been identified in the Ni-C system:
‘ Low’, 5% Ni – large Ni-C nn with some Ni-Ni nn; no longer range order
‘ Medium’, 11-24% Ni – large Ni-Ni nn, some Ni-C nn, some Ni-Ni and Ni-C nnn, no longer range order
‘ High’, 35-44% Ni – crystalline Ni 3 C observed, EXAFS can be fitted with this plus Ni-Ni and Ni-C nn
‘ High’ Ni conc. samples show significant changes with treatment, Ni 3 C is dissolved (XRD) and significant loss of Ni (XANES)
‘ Low’ and ‘medium’ Ni conc. samples show very little change (EXAFS) after electrochemical passivation treatment -> suitable materials for electrocatalysts. Previous literature: 25% Ni optimal.
Acknowledgements Cambridge University, UK Kieran Fahy, Xiao Yao Chin, Eric Rees, Gareth Haslam, Zoe Barber, Tim Burstein Imperial College London, UK Mary Ryan Industrial Research Ltd, NZ Nicola Gaston, Christian Dotzler NSLS and BNL Hugh Isaacs, Kenneth Sutter, Larry Fareria, Mike Sansone Funding NZ FRST (NERF) C08X0409 EPSRC Portions of this research were undertaken on the Powder Diffraction beam line at the Australian Synchrotron, Victoria, Australia and beam line X10C at the National Synchrotron Light Source. Use of the National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory, was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences.