13.30 o7 b trompetter


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Research 5: B Trompetter

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  • Acknowledge coauthors
  • Compare Streaker with other samplers used for source apportionment
  • Amorphous carbon mass (=> Wood burner emissions) coats glass fibres of filter
  • Compare Streaker with other samplers used for source apportionment
  • Al, Si coarse fraction and Na, Cl coarse fraction sho linear relationships
  • PCA identifies factors that can be related to particular sources but provides no information about relative mass contributions to ambient particle concentrations
  • The relative contributions to individual samples can be examined to ensure they make physical sense – here wood burning contributions are shown to peak in the winter. Also by using
  • PMF can apportion mass contributions directly
  • 13.30 o7 b trompetter

    1. 1. An application of physics: sampling and analysing air particulate matter GNS Science, PO Box 31312, Lower Hutt, New Zealand Bill Trompetter, Perry Davy, Bernard Barry and Andreas Markwitz
    2. 2. <ul><li>New Zealand has good air quality in general </li></ul>
    3. 3. Masterton Dunedin Auckland PM 10 2004-2007 at Masterton <ul><li>However, air pollution does occur in NZ </li></ul><ul><li>Some smaller towns have the highest levels of air pollution </li></ul><ul><li>PM 10 has strong peaks in winter due to domestic biomass burning </li></ul>
    4. 4. Particle size comparison
    5. 5. Atmospheric particles: size and number distribution <ul><li>Two distinct size modes, coarse (PM 10-2.5 ) & fine (PM 2.5 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Size range depend on method of source generation </li></ul><ul><li>Coarse particles dominate mass profile </li></ul><ul><li>Fine particles dominates number profile </li></ul>
    6. 6. Atmospheric particles: health effects <ul><li>PM 10 in NZ caused ~900 premature deaths and cost a total of NZ$1.3 billion in health costs and lost productivity in 2001 [Fisher 2007] . </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms range from subtle sub-clinical effects to respiratory and cardio-pulmonary disease </li></ul><ul><li>NZ National Environment Standard was introduced in 2005 (50  g/m 3 for PM 10 ) </li></ul>
    7. 7. Samplers – size selective inlets <ul><li>Size-selective inlets define the particle size fraction sampled (Chow, 1995). </li></ul><ul><li>Direct impaction: </li></ul><ul><li>the impactor with specific dimensions. </li></ul><ul><li>small particles bend at the impaction plate </li></ul><ul><li>larger particles impact against the plate </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual impactor: </li></ul><ul><li>uses an opening </li></ul><ul><li>larger particles to one sampling substrate, </li></ul><ul><li>smaller particles follow the streamlines to another </li></ul><ul><li>~10% of the total flow, drawn through the virtual impactor are collected with the coarse particles (corrections needed). </li></ul>
    8. 8. GENT Sampler – stacked filter unit http://www.nilu.no/products/ Air flow direction
    9. 9. GENT Sampler – APM filters Coarse (PM 10-2.5 ) polycarbonate Nucleopore filter loaded with air particulate matter from the Wellington region. Fine (PM 2.5-0 ) polycarbonate Nucleopore filter loaded with air particulate matter from the Wellington region.
    10. 10. Elemental analysis and source apportionment: Why? <ul><li>Gravimetric mass ≠ source information </li></ul>Masterton Dunedin Auckland
    11. 11. Source apportionment
    12. 12. Black Carbon (BC) For atmospheric particles, black carbon (soot) absorbs light very strongly (Horvath 1993, 1997). Hence, to first order it can be assumed that all the absorption on pollution filters is due to BC.
    13. 13. Elemental relationships and source determination Plots show that elements are related to each other Seaview Baring Head
    14. 14. Initial source identification by principle components analysis: PM 2.5 at Masterton Element Factor 1 Factor 2 Factor 3 Factor 4 Vehicles Soil Combustion Seasalt BC 0.16 0.03 0.97 -0.08 Mg 0.02 0.97 0.09 0.03 Al 0.33 0.92 0.10 -0.05 Si 0.76 0.56 0.06 0.15 S 0.71 0.30 0.12 0.37 Cl 0.14 -0.06 -0.06 0.95 K 0.23 0.18 0.93 0.08 Ca 0.69 0.26 0.21 0.52 Fe 0.84 -0.08 0.35 -0.07
    15. 15. Temporal variation in source contributions at Masterton
    16. 16. Masterton PM 10 : Average mass contribution to ambient particle concentrations by sources using positive matrix factorisation PM 10-2.5 PM 2.5
    17. 17. Source mass contributions to Masterton PM 10 Masterton 12 July 2004, high pollution day exceeded national environmental standard (PM 10 = 51  g/m 3 24 hour average) PM 10 = 51  g/m 3
    18. 18. Auckland (Kingsland) sulphate sources Directional studies (CPF) and mapping (PSCF) of the source apportionment results can add much more value for the end users.
    19. 19. Hauraki Gulf shipping lanes and port area Industry Directional (CPF) analysis of sulphate sources
    20. 20. Kingsland PM 2.5 secondary sulphate source PSCF back trajectory analysis <ul><li>secondary sulphate source areas are oceanic due to phytoplankton. </li></ul>
    21. 21. Regional sulphate ‘event’ – 28 September 2006 Receptor modelling results for sulphate Air mass back-trajectory
    22. 22. Kingsland PM 2.5 marine aerosol source PSCF back trajectory analysis <ul><li>PSCF analysis results indicate that the PM 2.5 marine aerosol source areas are southwest of NZ – southwesterly sweep over Southern Ocean </li></ul><ul><li>Consistent with CPF (inset) analysis </li></ul>
    23. 23. Summary <ul><li>Pollution has </li></ul><ul><ul><li>different size distributions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mix of natural and anthropogenic sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>collection methods </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Elemental analysis allows identification of APM sources and their contributions determined. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>individual filter samples (1 day or 1 hour). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>analysis by day, year, season, weekday, weekend … </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>information assists with air quality management. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Directional analysis can provide addition information for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>local sources (CPF). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>long range sources (PSCF). </li></ul></ul>An application of physics: sampling and analysing air particulate matter